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Open AccessArticle

Out-of-Home Food Consumers in Brazil: What do They Eat?

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Núcleo de Pesquisas Epidemiológicas em Nutrição e Saúde (NUPENS), São Paulo 01246‐907, Brazil
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Departamento de Medicina Preventiva da, Faculdade de Medicina da, Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo 01246‐903, Brazil
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Departamento de Políticas Públicas e Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo 11015‐020, Brazil
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Curso de Nutrição da, Faculdade de Medicina da, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), Uberlândia 38400‐902, Brazil
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Instituto de Defesa do Consumidor (IDEC), São Paulo 05002‐000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020218
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Considering the increased contribution of foods consumed outside home and their potential impact on diet, this study aims to identify eating out patterns and their association with nutritional dietary quality in Brazil. We used the Individual Food Intake Survey 2008–2009, conducted with 34,003 individuals aged 10 and up. We used factor analysis by principal component to identify out-of-home eating patterns and linear regression to explore the association between patterns scores and dietary quality. We identified three food patterns. The “Traditional meal” pattern carried more rice, beans, meat, roots and tubers, pasta, vegetables and eggs. The “typical Brazilian breakfast/tea” pattern carried more fresh bread, margarine, milk, cheese and butter. The “Ultra-processed food” pattern carried more ready-to-eat meals and soft drinks. The “traditional meal” pattern was positively associated with calories from proteins, fiber, iron, potassium and sodium densities, whereas “typical Brazilian breakfast/tea” and “ultra-processed food” patterns were positively associated with energy density, the percentage of calories from lipids or carbohydrates, trans fat and free sugar. Out-of-home eating may have a negative impact on nutritional dietary quality when based on ultra-processed food. However, it is possible to maintain a healthy out-of-home diet with adherence to traditional Brazilian cuisine. View Full-Text
Keywords: out-of-home eating; ultra-processed food; food patterns out-of-home eating; ultra-processed food; food patterns
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Andrade, G.C.; Da Costa Louzada, M.L.; Azeredo, C.M.; Ricardo, C.Z.; Martins, A.P.B.; Levy, R.B. Out-of-Home Food Consumers in Brazil: What do They Eat? Nutrients 2018, 10, 218.

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