Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article
A Fine-Grain Batching-Based Task Allocation Algorithm for Spatial Crowdsourcing
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(3), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11030203 - 17 Mar 2022
Abstract
Task allocation is a critical issue of spatial crowdsourcing. Although the batching strategy performs better than the real-time matching mode, it still has the following two drawbacks: (1) Because the granularity of the batch size set obtained by batching is too coarse, it [...] Read more.
Task allocation is a critical issue of spatial crowdsourcing. Although the batching strategy performs better than the real-time matching mode, it still has the following two drawbacks: (1) Because the granularity of the batch size set obtained by batching is too coarse, it will result in poor matching accuracy. However, roughly designing the batch size for all possible delays will result in a large computational overhead. (2) Ignoring non-stationary factors will lead to a change in optimal batch size that cannot be found as soon as possible. Therefore, this paper proposes a fine-grained, batching-based task allocation algorithm (FGBTA), considering non-stationary setting. In the batch method, the algorithm first uses variable step size to allow for fine-grained exploration within the predicted value given by the multi-armed bandit (MAB) algorithm and uses the results of pseudo-matching to calculate the batch utility. Then, the batch size with higher utility is selected, and the exact maximum weight matching algorithm is used to obtain the allocation result within the batch. In order to cope with the non-stationary changes, we use the sliding window (SW) method to retain the latest batch utility and discard the historical information that is too far away, so as to finally achieve refined batching and adapt to temporal changes. In addition, we also take into account the benefits of requesters, workers, and the platform. Experiments on real data and synthetic data show that this method can accomplish the task assignment of spatial crowdsourcing effectively and can adapt to the non-stationary setting as soon as possible. This paper mainly focuses on the spatial crowdsourcing task of ride-hailing. Full article
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Article
The Governance of INSPIRE: Evaluating and Exploring Governance Scenarios for the European Spatial Data Infrastructure
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(2), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11020141 - 15 Feb 2022
Abstract
The development of a European Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) officially started with the entry into force of the INSPIRE Directive in 2007. INSPIRE’s implementation phase should be completed by the European Union (EU) and its member states at the end of 2021: a [...] Read more.
The development of a European Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) officially started with the entry into force of the INSPIRE Directive in 2007. INSPIRE’s implementation phase should be completed by the European Union (EU) and its member states at the end of 2021: a pivotal point to evaluate INSPIRE’s current governance and explore future scenarios. First, INSPIRE’s governing system is evaluated through an online survey by its involved stakeholders. Second, these results are applied in an agent-based model to explore potential governance scenarios and strategies. The results show that strong aspects of INSPIRE’s governing system are the supported vision and its formal structures, such as standards, technology and roles and responsibilities. Weak aspects are the access to resources, especially budget and time resources, and data use. The agent-based simulations show that INSPIRE is probably more constrained by its budget resources than its current dominant hierarchical interaction mix, although a combination of adaptive governance and continuous budget proved the most sustainable governance scenario. Full article
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Article
Where Maps Lie: Visualization of Perceptual Fallacy in Choropleth Maps at Different Levels of Aggregation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11010064 - 14 Jan 2022
Abstract
This paper proposes a method for quantitative evaluation of perception deviations due to generalization in choropleth maps. The method proposed is based on comparison of class values assigned to different aggregation units chosen for representing the same dataset. It is illustrated by the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a method for quantitative evaluation of perception deviations due to generalization in choropleth maps. The method proposed is based on comparison of class values assigned to different aggregation units chosen for representing the same dataset. It is illustrated by the results of application of the method to population density maps of Lithuania. Three spatial aggregation levels were chosen for comparison: the 1 × 1 km statistical grid, elderships (NUTS3), and municipalities (NUTS2). Differences in density class values between the reference grid map and the other two maps were calculated. It is demonstrated that a perceptual fallacy on the municipality level population map of Lithuania leads to a misinterpretation of data that makes such maps frankly useless. The eldership level map is, moreover, also largely misleading, especially in sparsely populated areas. The method proposed is easy to use and transferable to any other field where spatially aggregated data are mapped. It can be used for visual analysis of the degree to which a generalized choropleth map is liable to mislead the user in particular areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartographic Communication of Big Data)
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Article
A Hierarchical Spatial Network Index for Arbitrarily Distributed Spatial Objects
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(12), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10120814 - 01 Dec 2021
Abstract
The range query is one of the most important query types in spatial data processing. Geographic information systems use it to find spatial objects within a user-specified range, and it supports data mining tasks, such as density-based clustering. In many applications, ranges are [...] Read more.
The range query is one of the most important query types in spatial data processing. Geographic information systems use it to find spatial objects within a user-specified range, and it supports data mining tasks, such as density-based clustering. In many applications, ranges are not computed in unrestricted Euclidean space, but on a network. While the majority of access methods cannot trivially be extended to network space, existing network index structures partition the network space without considering the data distribution. This potentially results in inefficiency due to a very skewed node distribution. To improve range query processing on networks, this paper proposes a balanced Hierarchical Network index (HN-tree) to query spatial objects on networks. The main idea is to recursively partition the data on the network such that each partition has a similar number of spatial objects. Leveraging the HN-tree, we present an efficient range query algorithm, which is empirically evaluated using three different road networks and several baselines and state-of-the-art network indices. The experimental evaluation shows that the HN-tree substantially outperforms existing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Enriched Data Modeling & Mining)
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Article
Interactive Maps for the Production of Knowledge and the Promotion of Participation from the Perspective of Communication, Journalism, and Digital Humanities
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(11), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10110722 - 26 Oct 2021
Abstract
New technologies have allowed traditional map production criteria to be modified or even subverted. Starting from the communication sciences—journalism in particular—and digital humanities via the history of communication, we show how to use interactive digital maps for the production and publication of knowledge [...] Read more.
New technologies have allowed traditional map production criteria to be modified or even subverted. Starting from the communication sciences—journalism in particular—and digital humanities via the history of communication, we show how to use interactive digital maps for the production and publication of knowledge through and/or for participation. Firstly, we establish the theoretical-conceptual framework necessary to base the practices, dividing the elements into three areas: interactive maps and knowledge production (decentralization, pluralization, reticularization, and humanization), maps as instruments to promote political and social participation (egalitarianism, horizontality, and criticism), and maps as instruments for the visualization of data that favors the user experience (interactivity, multimediality, reticularity of reading, and participation). Next, we present two cases that we developed to put into practice the theoretical concepts that we established: the Mapa Infoparticipa (Infoparticipa Map), which shows the results of the evaluation of the transparency of public administrations, and the Ciutadania Plural (Plural Citizenship) web platform for the production of social knowledge about the past and the present. This theoretical and practical model shows the possibilities of interactive maps as tools to promote political participation and as instruments for the construction of social knowledge in a collaborative, participatory, networked way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Participation in 2021: New Forms, New Modes, New Questions?)
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Article
Towards Managing Visual Pollution: A 3D Isovist and Voxel Approach to Advertisement Billboard Visual Impact Assessment
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(10), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10100656 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Visual pollution (VP) is a visual landscape quality issue, and its most consistently recognized symptom is an excess of out of home advertising billboards (OOHb). However, the VP related research concerns landscape aesthetic and advertisement cultural context, leaving the impact of outdoor billboard [...] Read more.
Visual pollution (VP) is a visual landscape quality issue, and its most consistently recognized symptom is an excess of out of home advertising billboards (OOHb). However, the VP related research concerns landscape aesthetic and advertisement cultural context, leaving the impact of outdoor billboard infrastructure on landscape openness unanswered to date. This research aims to assess the visual impact of outdoor billboard infrastructure on landscape openness, precisely the visual volume—a key geometrical quality of a landscape. The method uses 3D isovists and voxels to calculate the visible and obstructed subsets of visible volume. Using two case studies (Lublin City, Poland) and 26 measurement points, it was found that OOHb decreased landscape openness by at least 4% of visible volume; however, the severe impact may concern up to 35% of visual volume. GIS scientists develop the proposed method for policy-makers, and urban planners end users. It is also the very first example of compiling 3D isovists and voxels in ArcGIS Pro software in an easy-to-replicate framework. The research results, accompanied by statistically significant proofs, explain the visual landscape’s fragility and contribute to understanding the VP phenomenon. Full article
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Article
Geospatial Data Utilisation in National Disaster Management Frameworks and the Priorities of Multilateral Disaster Management Frameworks: Case Studies of India and Bulgaria
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(9), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10090610 - 15 Sep 2021
Abstract
Facing the increased frequency of disasters and resulting in massive damages, many countries have developed their frameworks for Disaster Risk Management (DRM). However, these frameworks may differ concerning legal, policy, planning and organisational arrangements. We argue that geospatial data is a crucial binding [...] Read more.
Facing the increased frequency of disasters and resulting in massive damages, many countries have developed their frameworks for Disaster Risk Management (DRM). However, these frameworks may differ concerning legal, policy, planning and organisational arrangements. We argue that geospatial data is a crucial binding element in each national framework for different stages of the disaster management cycle. The multilateral DRM frameworks, like the Sendai Framework 2015–2030 and the United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UNGGIM) Strategic Framework on Geospatial Information and Services for Disasters, provide the strategic direction, but they are too generic to compare geospatial data in national DRM frameworks. This study investigates the two frameworks and suggests criteria for evaluating the utilisation of geospatial data for DRM. The derived criteria are validated for the comparative analysis of India and Bulgaria’s National Disaster Management Frameworks. The validation proves that the criteria can be used for a general comparison across national DRM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disaster Management and Geospatial Information)
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Article
Integration and Analysis of Multi-Modal Geospatial Secondary Data to Inform Management of at-Risk Archaeological Sites
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(9), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10090575 - 24 Aug 2021
Abstract
Climate change poses an imminent physical risk to cultural heritage sites and their surrounding landscape through intensifying environmental processes such as damaging wetting and drying cycles that disrupt archaeological preservation conditions, and soil erosion which threatens to expose deposits and alter the archaeological [...] Read more.
Climate change poses an imminent physical risk to cultural heritage sites and their surrounding landscape through intensifying environmental processes such as damaging wetting and drying cycles that disrupt archaeological preservation conditions, and soil erosion which threatens to expose deposits and alter the archaeological context of sites. In the face of such threats, geospatial techniques such as GIS, remote sensing, and spatial modelling have proved invaluable tools for archaeological research and cultural heritage monitoring. This paper presents the application of secondary multi-source and multi-temporal geospatial data within a processing framework to provide a comprehensive assessment of geophysical risk to the Roman fort of Magna, Carvoran, UK. An investigation into the ancient hydraulic system at Magna was carried out with analysis of vegetation change over time, and spatio-temporal analysis of soil erosion risk at the site. Due to COVID-19 restrictions in place at the time of this study, these analyses were conducted using only secondary data with the aim to guide further archaeological research, and management and monitoring strategies for the stakeholders involved. Results guided inferences about the ancient hydraulic system, providing insights regarding how to better manage the site at Magna in the future. Analysis of soil erosion allowed the identification of hot spot areas, indicating a future increase in rates of erosion at Magna and suggesting a seasonal period of higher risk of degradation to the site. Results have proven that freely available multi-purpose national-scale datasets are sufficient to create meaningful insights into archaeological sites where physical access to the site is inhibited. This infers the potential to carry out preliminary risk assessment to inform future site management practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling and GIS for Historical Sites Reconstruction)
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Article
Heat Maps: Perfect Maps for Quick Reading? Comparing Usability of Heat Maps with Different Levels of Generalization
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10080562 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Recently, due to Web 2.0 and neocartography, heat maps have become a popular map type for quick reading. Heat maps are graphical representations of geographic data density in the form of raster maps, elaborated by applying kernel density estimation with a given radius [...] Read more.
Recently, due to Web 2.0 and neocartography, heat maps have become a popular map type for quick reading. Heat maps are graphical representations of geographic data density in the form of raster maps, elaborated by applying kernel density estimation with a given radius on point- or linear-input data. The aim of this study was to compare the usability of heat maps with different levels of generalization (defined by radii of 10, 20, 30, and 40 pixels) for basic map user tasks. A user study with 412 participants (16–20 years old, high school students) was carried out in order to compare heat maps that showed the same input data. The study was conducted in schools during geography or IT lessons. Objective (the correctness of the answer, response times) and subjective (response time self-assessment, task difficulty, preferences) metrics were measured. The results show that the smaller radius resulted in the higher correctness of the answers. A larger radius did not result in faster response times. The participants perceived the more generalized maps as easier to use, although this result did not match the performance metrics. Overall, we believe that heat maps, in given circumstances and appropriate design settings, can be considered an efficient method for spatial data presentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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Article
The Role of Participatory Village Maps in Strengthening Public Participation Practice
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10080512 - 29 Jul 2021
Abstract
This study investigated the role of participatory village maps in strengthening the Musrenbang, an annual multi-stakeholder public consultation forum to discuss development issues and plans in Indonesia. We evaluated the Musrenbang in five villages in Deli Serdang District after conducting participatory mapping workshops [...] Read more.
This study investigated the role of participatory village maps in strengthening the Musrenbang, an annual multi-stakeholder public consultation forum to discuss development issues and plans in Indonesia. We evaluated the Musrenbang in five villages in Deli Serdang District after conducting participatory mapping workshops to produce village maps to inform the Musrenbang process. Our results show that communication between Musrenbang participants improved because the maps provided a clear definition of the village administrative area, geospatial data as resources for participation, transparency, and a dynamic deliberative process. Collaboration was also evident as the maps enabled participants to exchange knowledge, experience social learning, and have greater influence on the decision-making process. Despite the benefits, some issues impeded the optimal use of the village maps to support the participatory process in the Musrenbang. The maps could not completely overcome the power disparities between Musrenbang participants. Certain actors still dominated the implementation of the Musrenbang, making the deliberative process inaccessible to and less inclusive of some local stakeholders. Several improvements are urgently needed to optimise the use of participatory village maps and enhance Musrenbang implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Participation in 2021: New Forms, New Modes, New Questions?)
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Article
Efficient Interactive Tactile Maps: A Semi-Automated Workflow Using the TouchIt3D Technology and OpenStreetMap Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10080505 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Despite the growing efficiency of the map-design process in general, tactile mapping has remained peripheral to mainstream cartography. For a specific group of people with visual impairment, however, tactile maps are the only effective way to obtain a complex idea about the geospatial [...] Read more.
Despite the growing efficiency of the map-design process in general, tactile mapping has remained peripheral to mainstream cartography. For a specific group of people with visual impairment, however, tactile maps are the only effective way to obtain a complex idea about the geospatial distribution of the surrounding world. As there are numerous specifics in creating these 3D maps and only a limited group of users, tactile products have usually been either very simple creations or, on the other hand, difficult and expensive to produce. Modern trends and progress in the availability of new technologies (e.g., 3D printing) bring new possibilities for keeping tactile map production both effective and up to date. Therefore, this paper aims to present a methodology to apply the TouchIt3D technology to link 3D-printed multi-material tactile maps with a mobile device. Utilizing this solution resulted in a set of interactive tactile maps following current trends of inclusive education. Using OpenStreetMap data together with a semi-automated workflow significantly lowered expenses compared to antecedent maps with similar functionality. A semi-automated workflow was designed, focusing on three use cases of independent movement: walking, using public transport, and tourism. Full article
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Article
Subjectively Measured Streetscape Perceptions to Inform Urban Design Strategies for Shanghai
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10080493 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Recently, many new studies applying computer vision (CV) to street view imagery (SVI) datasets to objectively extract the view indices of various streetscape features such as trees to proxy urban scene qualities have emerged. However, human perception (e.g., imageability) have a subtle relationship [...] Read more.
Recently, many new studies applying computer vision (CV) to street view imagery (SVI) datasets to objectively extract the view indices of various streetscape features such as trees to proxy urban scene qualities have emerged. However, human perception (e.g., imageability) have a subtle relationship to visual elements that cannot be fully captured using view indices. Conversely, subjective measures using survey and interview data explain human behaviors more. However, the effectiveness of integrating subjective measures with SVI datasets has been less discussed. To address this, we integrated crowdsourcing, CV, and machine learning (ML) to subjectively measure four important perceptions suggested by classical urban design theory. We first collected ratings from experts on sample SVIs regarding these four qualities, which became the training labels. CV segmentation was applied to SVI samples extracting streetscape view indices as the explanatory variables. We then trained ML models and achieved high accuracy in predicting scores. We found a strong correlation between the predicted complexity score and the density of urban amenities and services points of interest (POI), which validates the effectiveness of subjective measures. In addition, to test the generalizability of the proposed framework as well as to inform urban renewal strategies, we compared the measured qualities in Pudong to other five urban cores that are renowned worldwide. Rather than predicting perceptual scores directly from generic image features using a convolution neural network, our approach follows what urban design theory has suggested and confirmed as various streetscape features affecting multi-dimensional human perceptions. Therefore, the results provide more interpretable and actionable implications for policymakers and city planners. Full article
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Article
Automatic Road Extraction from Historical Maps Using Deep Learning Techniques: A Regional Case Study of Turkey in a German World War II Map
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10080492 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
Scanned historical maps are available from different sources in various scales and contents. Automatic geographical feature extraction from these historical maps is an essential task to derive valuable spatial information on the characteristics and distribution of transportation infrastructures and settlements and to conduct [...] Read more.
Scanned historical maps are available from different sources in various scales and contents. Automatic geographical feature extraction from these historical maps is an essential task to derive valuable spatial information on the characteristics and distribution of transportation infrastructures and settlements and to conduct quantitative and geometrical analysis. In this research, we used the Deutsche Heereskarte 1:200,000 Türkei (DHK 200 Turkey) maps as the base geoinformation source to construct the past transportation networks using the deep learning approach. Five different road types were digitized and labeled to be used as inputs for the proposed deep learning-based segmentation approach. We adapted U-Net++ and ResneXt50_32×4d architectures to produce multi-class segmentation masks and perform feature extraction to determine various road types accurately. We achieved remarkable results, with 98.73% overall accuracy, 41.99% intersection of union, and 46.61% F1 score values. The proposed method can be implemented in DHK maps of different countries to automatically extract different road types and used for transfer learning of different historical maps. Full article
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Article
User-Centred Design of Multidisciplinary Spatial Data Platforms for Human-History Research
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(7), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10070467 - 08 Jul 2021
Abstract
The role of open spatial data is growing in human-history research. Spatiality can be utilized to bring together and seamlessly examine data describing multiple aspects of human beings and their environment. Web-based spatial data platforms can create equal opportunities to view and access [...] Read more.
The role of open spatial data is growing in human-history research. Spatiality can be utilized to bring together and seamlessly examine data describing multiple aspects of human beings and their environment. Web-based spatial data platforms can create equal opportunities to view and access these data. In this paper, we aim at advancing the development of user-friendly spatial data platforms for multidisciplinary research. We conceptualize the building process of such a platform by systematically reviewing a diverse sample of historical spatial data platforms and by piloting a user-centered design process of a multidisciplinary spatial data platform. We outline (1) the expertise needed in organizing multidisciplinary spatial data sharing, (2) data types that platforms should be able to handle, (3) the most useful platform functionalities, and (4) the design process itself. We recommend that the initiative and subject expertise should come from the end-users, i.e., scholars of human history, and all key end-user types should be involved in the design process. We also highlight the importance of geographic expertise in the process, an important link between subject, spatial and technical viewpoints, for reaching a common understanding and common terminology. Based on the analyses, we identify key development goals for spatial data platforms, including full layer management functionalities. Moreover, we identify the main roles in the user-centered design process, main user types and suggest good practices including a multimodal design workshop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Open Systems)
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Article
An “Animated Spatial Time Machine” in Co-Creation: Reconstructing History Using Gamification Integrated into 3D City Modelling, 4D Web and Transmedia Storytelling
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(7), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10070460 - 06 Jul 2021
Abstract
More and more digital 3D city models might evolve into spatiotemporal instruments with time as the 4th dimension. For digitizing the current situation, 3D scanning and photography are suitable tools. The spatial future could be integrated using 3D drawings by public space designers [...] Read more.
More and more digital 3D city models might evolve into spatiotemporal instruments with time as the 4th dimension. For digitizing the current situation, 3D scanning and photography are suitable tools. The spatial future could be integrated using 3D drawings by public space designers and architects. The digital spatial reconstruction of lost historical environments is more complex, expensive and rarely done. Three-dimensional co-creative digital drawing with citizens’ collaboration could be a solution. In 2016, the City of Ghent (Belgium) launched the “3D city game Ghent” project with time as one of the topics, focusing on the reconstruction of disappeared environments. Ghent inhabitants modelled in open-source 3D software and added animated 3D gamification and Transmedia Storytelling, resulting in a 4D web environment and VR/AR/XR applications. This study analyses this low-cost interdisciplinary 3D co-creative process and offers a framework to enable other cities and municipalities to realise a parallel virtual universe (an animated digital twin bringing the past to life). The result of this co-creation is the start of an “Animated Spatial Time Machine” (AniSTMa), a term that was, to the best of our knowledge, never used before. This research ultimately introduces a conceptual 4D space–time diagram with a relation between the current physical situation and a growing number of 3D animated models over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crowdsourced Geographic Information in Citizen Science)
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Article
Hydrological Modeling of Green Infrastructure to Quantify Its Effect on Flood Mitigation and Water Availability in the High School Watershed in Tucson, AZ
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(7), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10070443 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Green Infrastructure (GI) practices are being implemented in numerous cities to tackle stormwater management issues and achieve co-benefits such as mitigating heat island effects and air pollution, as well as water augmentation, health, and economic benefits. Tucson, Arizona is a fast-growing city in [...] Read more.
Green Infrastructure (GI) practices are being implemented in numerous cities to tackle stormwater management issues and achieve co-benefits such as mitigating heat island effects and air pollution, as well as water augmentation, health, and economic benefits. Tucson, Arizona is a fast-growing city in the semiarid region of the southwest United States and provides a unique landscape in terms of urban hydrology and stormwater management, where stormwater is routed along the streets to the nearest ephemeral washes. Local organizations have implemented various GI practices, such as curb cuts, traffic chicanes, roof runoff harvesting, and retention basins, to capture the excess runoff and utilize it on-site. This study models the 3.31 km2 High School watershed in central Tucson using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool and the Kinematic Runoff and Erosion (KINEROS2) model. Each parcel in the watershed was individually represented using the KINEROS2 Urban element to simulate small-scale flow-on/flow-off processes. Seven different configurations of GI implementation were simulated using design storms, and we stochastically generated 20 years of precipitation data to understand the effects of GI implementation on flood mitigation and long-term water availability, respectively. The design storm analysis indicates that the configuration designed to mimic the current level of GI implementation, which includes 175 on-street basins and 37 roof runoff harvesting cisterns, has minimum (<2%) influence on runoff volume. Furthermore, the analysis showed that the current level of GI implementation caused an increase (<1%) in peak flows at the watershed outlet but predicted reduced on-street accumulated volumes (>25%) and increased water availability via GI capture and infiltration. When the GI implementation was increased by a factor of two and five, a larger reduction of peak flow (<8% and <22%, respectively) and volume (<3% and <8%, respectively) was simulated at the watershed outlet. The 20-year analysis showed that parcels with roof runoff harvesting cisterns were able to meet their landscape irrigation demands throughout the year, except for the dry months of May and June. Additionally, stormwater captured and infiltrated by the on-street basins could support xeric vegetation for most of the year, except June, where the water demand exceeded volume of water infiltrated in the basins. The current level of GI implementation in the High School watershed may not have significant large-scale impacts, but it provides numerous benefits at the parcel, street, and small neighborhood scales. Full article
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Article
Exploring Allometric Scaling Relations between Fractal Dimensions of Metro Networks and Economic, Environmental and Social Indicators: A Case Study of 26 Cities in China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(7), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10070429 - 23 Jun 2021
Abstract
Allometric scaling originates in biology, where it refers to scaling relations between the size of a body part and the size of the whole body when an organism grows. In cities, various allometric relations have also been discovered, such as those between the [...] Read more.
Allometric scaling originates in biology, where it refers to scaling relations between the size of a body part and the size of the whole body when an organism grows. In cities, various allometric relations have also been discovered, such as those between the complexity of traffic networks and urban quantities. Metro networks are typical traffic networks in cities. However, whether allometric relations with metro networks exist is still uncertain. In this study, “fractal dimension” was employed as the complexity measure of metro networks, and potential allometric relations between fractal dimensions and urban indicators in 26 main cities in China were explored. It was found that fractal dimensions of metro networks had positive allometric relations with gross domestic product (GDP), population, particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), the road congestion index and the average price of second-hand housing (with Spearman’s R of 0.789, 0.806, 0.273, 0.625 and 0.335, respectively) but inverse allometric relations with sulfur dioxide (SO2) and residential satisfaction (with Spearman’s R of −0.270 and −0.419, respectively). Such discoveries imply that allometric relations do exist with metro networks, which is helpful in deepening our understanding of how metro systems interact with urban quantities in the self-organized evolution of cities. Full article
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Article
A Spatially Highly Resolved Ground Mounted and Rooftop Potential Analysis for Photovoltaics in Austria
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(6), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10060418 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
Austria aims to meet 100% of its electricity demand from domestic renewable sources by 2030 which means, that an additional 27 TWh/a of renewable electricity generation are required, thereof 11 TWh/a from photovoltaic. While some [...] Read more.
Austria aims to meet 100% of its electricity demand from domestic renewable sources by 2030 which means, that an additional 27 TWh/a of renewable electricity generation are required, thereof 11 TWh/a from photovoltaic. While some federal states and municipalities released a solar rooftop cadastre, there is lacking knowledge on the estimation of the potential of both, ground mounted installations and rooftop modules, on a national level with a high spatial resolution. As a first, in this work data on agricultural land-use is combined with highly resolved data on buildings on a national level. Our results show significant differences between urban and rural areas, as well as between the Alpine regions and the Prealpine- and Easter Plain areas. Rooftop potential concentrates in the big urban areas, but also in densely populated areas in Lower- and Upper Austria, Styria and the Rhine valley of Vorarlberg. The ground mounted photovoltaic potential is highest in Eastern Austria. This potential is geographically consistent with the demand and allows for a production close to the consumer. In theory, the goal of meeting 11 TWh/a in 2030 can be achieved solely with the rooftop PV potential. However, considering the necessary installation efforts, the associated costs of small and dispersed production units and finally the inherent uncertainty with respect to the willingness of tens of thousands of individual households to install PV systems, installing the necessary solar PV on buildings alone is constrained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Spatial and Temporal Modelling of Renewable Energy Systems)
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Article
Emojis as Contextual Indicants in Location-Based Social Media Posts
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(6), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10060407 - 12 Jun 2021
Abstract
The presented study aims to investigate the relationship between the use of emojis in location-based social media and the location of the corresponding post in terms of perceived objects and conducted activities connected to this place. The basis for this is not a [...] Read more.
The presented study aims to investigate the relationship between the use of emojis in location-based social media and the location of the corresponding post in terms of perceived objects and conducted activities connected to this place. The basis for this is not a purely frequency-based assessment, but a specifically introduced measure called typicality. To evaluate the typicality measure and examine the assumption that emojis are contextual indicants, a dataset of worldwide geotagged posts from Instagram relating to sunset and sunrise events is used, converted to a privacy-aware version based on a Hyperloglog approach. Results suggest that emojis can often provide more nuanced information about user activities and the surrounding environment than is possible with hashtags. Thus, emojis may be suitable for identifying less obvious characteristics and the sense of a place. Emojis are already explored in research, but mainly for sentiment analysis, for semantic studies or as part of emoji prediction. In contrast, this work provides novel insights into the user’s spatial or activity context by applying the typicality measure and therefore considers emojis contextual indicants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Computing for Geographic Information Science)
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Article
Automatic Delineation of Urban Growth Boundaries Based on Topographic Data Using Germany as a Case Study
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050353 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) is a growth management policy that designates specific areas where growth should be concentrated in order to avoid urban sprawl. The objective of such a boundary is to protect agricultural land, open spaces and the natural environment, as well [...] Read more.
Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) is a growth management policy that designates specific areas where growth should be concentrated in order to avoid urban sprawl. The objective of such a boundary is to protect agricultural land, open spaces and the natural environment, as well as to use existing infrastructure and public services more efficiently. Due to the inherent heterogeneity and complexity of settlements, UGBs in Germany are currently created manually by experts. Therefore, every dataset is linked to a specific area, investigation period and dedicated use. Clearly, up-to-date, homogeneous, meaningful and cost-efficient delineations created automatically are needed to avoid this reliance on manually or semi-automatically generated delineations. Here, we present an aggregative method to produce UGBs using building footprints and generally available topographic data as inputs. It was applied to study areas in Frankfurt/Main, the Hanover region and rural Brandenburg while taking full account of Germany’s planning and legal framework for spatial development. Our method is able to compensate for most of the weaknesses of available UGB data and to significantly raise the accuracy of UGBs in Germany. Therefore, it represents a valuable tool for generating basic data for future studies. Application elsewhere is also conceivable by regionalising the employed parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Science in Planning and Development of Smart Cities)
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Article
Coupling Historical Maps and LiDAR Data to Identify Man-Made Landforms in Urban Areas
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050349 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 7
Abstract
In recent years, there has been growing interest in urban geomorphology both for its applications in terms of landscape planning, and its historical, cultural, and scientific interest. Due to recent urban growth, the identification of landforms in cities is difficult, particularly in Mediterranean [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been growing interest in urban geomorphology both for its applications in terms of landscape planning, and its historical, cultural, and scientific interest. Due to recent urban growth, the identification of landforms in cities is difficult, particularly in Mediterranean and central European cities, characterized by more than 1000 years of urban stratification. By comparing and overlapping 19th-century cartography and modern topography from remote sensing data, this research aims to assess the morphological evolution of the city of Genoa (Liguria, NW Italy). The analysis focuses on a highly detailed 1:2’000 scale map produced by Eng. Ignazio Porro in the mid-19th century. The methodology, developed in QGIS, was applied on five case studies of both hillside and valley floor areas of the city of Genoa. Through map overlay and digitalization of elevation data and contour lines, it was possible to identify with great accuracy the most significant morphological transformations that have occurred in the city since the mid-19th century. In addition, the results were validated by direct observation and by drills data of the regional database. The results allowed the identification and quantification of the main anthropic landforms. The paper suggests that the same methodology can be applied to other historical urban contexts characterized by urban and architectural stratification. Full article
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Article
What Is the Shape of Geographical Time-Space? A Three-Dimensional Model Made of Curves and Cones
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050340 - 17 May 2021
Abstract
Geographical time-spaces exhibit a series of properties, including space inversion, that turns any representation effort into a complex task. In order to improve the legibility of the representation and leveraging the advances of three-dimensional computer graphics, the aim of the study is to [...] Read more.
Geographical time-spaces exhibit a series of properties, including space inversion, that turns any representation effort into a complex task. In order to improve the legibility of the representation and leveraging the advances of three-dimensional computer graphics, the aim of the study is to propose a new method extending time-space relief cartography introduced by Mathis and L’Hostis. The novelty of the model resides in the use of cones to describing the terrestrial surface instead of graph faces, and in the use of curves instead of broken segments for edges. We implement the model on the Chinese space. The Chinese geographical time-space of reference year 2006 is produced by the combination and the confrontation of the fast air transport system and of the 7.5-times slower road transport system. Slower, short range flights are represented as curved lines above the earth surface with longer length than the geodesic, in order to account for a slower speed. The very steep slope of cones expresses the relative difficulty of crossing terrestrial time-space, as well as the comparably extreme efficiency of long-range flights for moving between cities. Finally, the whole image proposes a coherent representation of the geographical time-space where fast city-to-city transport is combined with slow terrestrial systems that allow one to reach any location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-Temporal Models and Geo-Technologies)
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Article
Vector Map Encryption Algorithm Based on Double Random Position Permutation Strategy
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050311 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Encryption of vector maps, used for copyright protection, is of importance in the community of geographic information sciences. However, some studies adopt one-to-one mapping to scramble vertices and permutate the coordinates one by one according to the coordinate position in a plain map. [...] Read more.
Encryption of vector maps, used for copyright protection, is of importance in the community of geographic information sciences. However, some studies adopt one-to-one mapping to scramble vertices and permutate the coordinates one by one according to the coordinate position in a plain map. An attacker can easily obtain the key values by analyzing the relationship between the cipher vector map and the plain vector map, which will lead to the ineffectiveness of the scrambling operation. To solve the problem, a vector map encryption algorithm based on a double random position permutation strategy is proposed in this paper. First, the secret key sequence is generated using a four-dimensional quadratic autonomous hyperchaotic system. Then, all coordinates of the vector map are encrypted using the strategy of double random position permutation. Lastly, the encrypted coordinates are reorganized according to the vector map structure to obtain the cipher map. Experimental results show that: (1) one-to-one mapping between the plain vector map and cipher vector map is prevented from happening; (2) scrambling encryption between different map objects is achieved; (3) hackers cannot obtain the permutation key value by analyzing the pairs of the plain map and cipher map. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartographic Communication of Big Data)
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Article
Context-Specific Point-of-Interest Recommendation Based on Popularity-Weighted Random Sampling and Factorization Machine
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(4), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10040258 - 11 Apr 2021
Abstract
Point-Of-Interest (POI) recommendation not only assists users to find their preferred places, but also helps businesses to attract potential customers. Recent studies have proposed many approaches to the POI recommendation. However, the lack of negative samples and the complexities of check-in contexts limit [...] Read more.
Point-Of-Interest (POI) recommendation not only assists users to find their preferred places, but also helps businesses to attract potential customers. Recent studies have proposed many approaches to the POI recommendation. However, the lack of negative samples and the complexities of check-in contexts limit their effectiveness significantly. This paper focuses on the problem of context-specific POI recommendation based on the check-in behaviors recorded by Location-Based Social Network (LBSN) services, which aims at recommending a list of POIs for a user to visit at a given context (such as time and weather). Specifically, a bidirectional influence correlativity metric is proposed to measure the semantic feature of user check-in behavior, and a contextual smoothing method to effectively alleviate the problem of data sparsity. In addition, the check-in probability is computed based on the geographical distance between the user’s home and the POI. Furthermore, to handle the problem of no negative feedback in LBSN, a weighted random sampling method is proposed based on contextual popularity. Finally, the recommendation results is obtained by utilizing Factorization Machine with Bayesian Personalized Ranking (BPR) loss. Experiments on a real dataset collected from Foursquare show that the proposed approach has better performance than others. Full article
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Article
On the Use of ‘Glyphmaps’ for Analysing the Scale and Temporal Spread of COVID-19 Reported Cases
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(4), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10040213 - 01 Apr 2021
Abstract
Recent analysis of area-level COVID-19 cases data attempts to grapple with a challenge familiar to geovisualization: how to capture the development of the virus, whilst supporting analysis across geographic areas? We present several glyphmap designs for addressing this challenge applied to local authority [...] Read more.
Recent analysis of area-level COVID-19 cases data attempts to grapple with a challenge familiar to geovisualization: how to capture the development of the virus, whilst supporting analysis across geographic areas? We present several glyphmap designs for addressing this challenge applied to local authority data in England whereby charts displaying multiple aspects related to the pandemic are given a geographic arrangement. These graphics are visually complex, with clutter, occlusion and salience bias an inevitable consequence. We develop a framework for describing and validating the graphics against data and design requirements. Together with an observational data analysis, this framework is used to evaluate our designs, relating them to particular data analysis needs based on the usefulness of the structure they expose. Our designs, documented in an accompanying code repository, attend to common difficulties in geovisualization design and could transfer to contexts outside of the UK and to phenomena beyond the pandemic. Full article
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Article
Comparing World City Networks by Language: A Complex-Network Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(4), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10040219 - 01 Apr 2021
Abstract
City networks are multiplex and diverse rather than being regarded as part of a single universal model that is valid worldwide. This study contributes to the debate on multiple globalizations by distinguishing multiscale structures of world city networks (WCNs) reflected in the Internet [...] Read more.
City networks are multiplex and diverse rather than being regarded as part of a single universal model that is valid worldwide. This study contributes to the debate on multiple globalizations by distinguishing multiscale structures of world city networks (WCNs) reflected in the Internet webpage content in English, German, and French. Using big data sets from web crawling, we adopted a complex-network approach with both macroscale and mesoscale analyses to compare global and grouping properties in varying WCNs, by using novel methods such as the weighted stochastic block model (WSBM). The results suggest that at the macro scale, the rankings of city centralities vary across languages due to the uneven geographic distribution of languages and the variant levels of globalization of cities perceived in different languages. At the meso scale, the WSBMs infer different grouping patterns in the WCNs by language, and the specific roles of many world cities vary with language. The probability-based comparative analyses reveal that the English WCN looks more globalized, while the French and German worlds appear more territorial. Using the mesoscale structure detected in the English WCN to comprehend the city networks in other languages may be biased. These findings demonstrate the importance of scrutinizing multiplex WCNs in different cultures and languages as well as discussing mesoscale structures in comparative WCN studies. Full article
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Article
Empirical Insights from a Study on Outlier Preserving Value Generalization in Animated Choropleth Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10040208 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Time series animation of choropleth maps easily exceeds our perceptual limits. In this empirical research, we investigate the effect of local outlier preserving value generalization of animated choropleth maps on the ability to detect general trends and local deviations thereof. Comparing generalization in [...] Read more.
Time series animation of choropleth maps easily exceeds our perceptual limits. In this empirical research, we investigate the effect of local outlier preserving value generalization of animated choropleth maps on the ability to detect general trends and local deviations thereof. Comparing generalization in space, in time, and in a combination of both dimensions, value smoothing based on a first order spatial neighborhood facilitated the detection of local outliers best, followed by the spatiotemporal and temporal generalization variants. We did not find any evidence that value generalization helps in detecting global trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Consideration of Uncertainty Information in Accessibility Analyses for an Effective Use of Urban Infrastructures
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10030171 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Accessibility analyses are an essential step in the evaluation and planning of urban infrastructures such as transport or pipeline networks. However, these studies generally produce sharply defined lines (called isovarones) or areas (called isovarone areas) that represent the same or similar accessibility. Uncertainties [...] Read more.
Accessibility analyses are an essential step in the evaluation and planning of urban infrastructures such as transport or pipeline networks. However, these studies generally produce sharply defined lines (called isovarones) or areas (called isovarone areas) that represent the same or similar accessibility. Uncertainties in the input data are usually not taken into account. The aim of this contribution is, therefore, to set up a structured framework that describes the integration of uncertainty information for accessibility analyses. This framework takes uncertainties in the input data, in the processing step, in the target variables, and in the final visualization into account. Particular attention is paid, on the one hand, to the impact of the uncertainties in the target values, as these are key factors for reasoning and decision making. On the other hand, the visualization component is emphasized by applying a dichotomous classification of uncertainty visualization methods. This framework leads to a large set of possible combinations of uncertainty categories. Five selected examples that have been generated with a new software tool and that cover important combinations are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information for Developing Urban Infrastructures)
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Article
The Role of Spatio-Temporal Information to Govern the COVID-19 Pandemic: A European Perspective
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10030166 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
The Covid-19 pandemic put a heavy burden on member states in the European Union. To govern the pandemic, having access to reliable geo-information is key for monitoring the spatial distribution of the outbreak over time. This study aims to analyze the role of [...] Read more.
The Covid-19 pandemic put a heavy burden on member states in the European Union. To govern the pandemic, having access to reliable geo-information is key for monitoring the spatial distribution of the outbreak over time. This study aims to analyze the role of spatio-temporal information in governing the pandemic in the European Union and its member states. The European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) system and selected national dashboards from member states were assessed to analyze which spatio-temporal information was used, how the information was visualized and whether this changed over the course of the pandemic. Initially, member states focused on their own jurisdiction by creating national dashboards to monitor the pandemic. Information between member states was not aligned. Producing reliable data and timeliness reporting was problematic, just like selecting indictors to monitor the spatial distribution and intensity of the outbreak. Over the course of the pandemic, with more knowledge about the virus and its characteristics, interventions of member states to govern the outbreak were better aligned at the European level. However, further integration and alignment of public health data, statistical data and spatio-temporal data could provide even better information for governments and actors involved in managing the outbreak, both at national and supra-national level. The Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE) initiative and the NUTS system provide a framework to guide future integration and extension of existing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-Temporal Models and Geo-Technologies)
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Article
Effectiveness of Memorizing an Animated Route—Comparing Satellite and Road Map Differences in the Eye-Tracking Study
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10030159 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
There is no consensus on the importance of satellite images in the process of memorizing a route from a map image, especially if the route is displayed on the Internet using dynamic (animated) cartographic visualization. In modern dynamic maps built with JavaScript APIs, [...] Read more.
There is no consensus on the importance of satellite images in the process of memorizing a route from a map image, especially if the route is displayed on the Internet using dynamic (animated) cartographic visualization. In modern dynamic maps built with JavaScript APIs, background layers can be easily altered by map users. The animation attracts people’s attention better than static images, but it causes some perceptual problems. This study examined the influence of the number of turns on the effectiveness (correctness) and efficiency of memorizing the animated route on different cartographic backgrounds. The routes of three difficulty levels, based on satellite and road background, were compared. The results show that the satellite background was not a significant factor influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of route memorizing. Recordings of the eye movement confirmed this. The study reveals that there were intergroup differences in participants’ visual behavior. Participants who described their spatial abilities as “very good” performed better (in terms of effectiveness and efficiency) in route memorizing tasks. For future research, there is a need to study route variability and its impact on participants’ performance. Moreover, future studies should involve differences in route visualization (e.g., without and with ephemeral or permanent trail). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Effects of Virtual Reality Locomotion Techniques on Distance Estimations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10030150 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 21
Abstract
Mental representations of geographic space are based on knowledge of spatial elements and the spatial relation between these elements. Acquiring such mental representations of space requires assessing distances between pairs of spatial elements. In virtual reality (VR) applications, locomotion techniques based on real-world [...] Read more.
Mental representations of geographic space are based on knowledge of spatial elements and the spatial relation between these elements. Acquiring such mental representations of space requires assessing distances between pairs of spatial elements. In virtual reality (VR) applications, locomotion techniques based on real-world movement are constrained by the size of the available room and the used room scale tracking system. Therefore, many VR applications use additional locomotion techniques such as artificial locomotion (continuous forward movement) or teleporting (“jumping” from one location to another). These locomotion techniques move the user through virtual space based on controller input. However, it has not yet been investigated how different established controller-based locomotion techniques affect distance estimations in VR. In an experiment, we compared distance estimations between artificial locomotion and teleportation before and after a training phase. The results showed that distance estimations in both locomotion conditions improved after the training. Additionally, distance estimations were found to be more accurate when teleportation locomotion was used. Full article
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Article
The Extended Concept of the Map in View of Modern Geoinformation Products
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10030142 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the face of strikingly intense technological development, there have been significant discrepancies in the understanding of the concept of the map; an understanding that is fundamental to cartography and, more broadly, GIScience. The development of electronic products based on geoinformation has caused [...] Read more.
In the face of strikingly intense technological development, there have been significant discrepancies in the understanding of the concept of the map; an understanding that is fundamental to cartography and, more broadly, GIScience. The development of electronic products based on geoinformation has caused a growing need for the systematization of basic concepts, including defining what a map is. In particular, the modification of the idea of the map may profoundly influence the future development of cartography. The comprehensive and innovative use of maps, for example, in location-based service (LBS) applications, may contribute to more in-depth analyses in this area. This article examines how the concept of how the map is used in technological or scientific literature about the latest geoinformation applications, as well as analyzing the survey results that confirm the change in social perception of the concept of the map in cartography. The article also refers to the role of the map in the process of indirect cognition and understanding of geographical space—cognition realized through maps. A social understanding of mapping concepts is evolving and covers the entire spectrum of geoinformation products. It seems that the latest geoinformation solutions, such as navigation applications and, in particular, applications supporting the movement of autonomous vehicles (e.g., self-driving cars), have had a particular impact on the concept of the map. This is confirmed by the results of a survey conducted by the authors on a group of nearly 900 respondents from a variety of countries. The vast majority of users are convinced that the contemporary understanding of the concept of the map is a long way from the classic definition of this concept. Therefore, in the opinion of the authors of this article, it is worth undertaking research that will become a starting point for a discussion about the broader definition of the map in GIScience. Full article
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Article
Near Real-Time Semantic View Analysis of 3D City Models in Web Browser
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10030138 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
3D city models and their browser-based applications have become an increasingly applied tool in the cities. One of their applications is the analysis views and visibility, applicable to property valuation and evaluation of urban green infrastructure. We present a near real-time semantic view [...] Read more.
3D city models and their browser-based applications have become an increasingly applied tool in the cities. One of their applications is the analysis views and visibility, applicable to property valuation and evaluation of urban green infrastructure. We present a near real-time semantic view analysis relying on a 3D city model, implemented in a web browser. The analysis is tested in two alternative use cases: property valuation and evaluation of the urban green infrastructure. The results describe the elements visible from a given location, and can also be applied to object type specific analysis, such as green view index estimation, with the main benefit being the freedom of choosing the point-of-view obtained with the 3D model. Several promising development directions can be identified based on the current implementation and experiment results, including the integration of the semantic view analysis with virtual reality immersive visualization or 3D city model application development platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual 3D City Models)
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Article
A Unified Methodology for the Generalisation of the Geometry of Features
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10030107 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The development of generalisation (simplification) methods for the geometry of features in digital cartography in most cases involves the improvement of existing algorithms without their validation with respect to the similarity of feature geometry before and after the process. It also consists of [...] Read more.
The development of generalisation (simplification) methods for the geometry of features in digital cartography in most cases involves the improvement of existing algorithms without their validation with respect to the similarity of feature geometry before and after the process. It also consists of the assessment of results from the algorithms, i.e., characteristics that are indispensable for automatic generalisation. The preparation of a fully automatic generalisation for spatial data requires certain standards, as well as unique and verifiable algorithms for particular groups of features. This enables cartographers to draw features from these databases to be used directly on the maps. As a result, collected data and their generalised unique counterparts at various scales should constitute standardised sets, as well as their updating procedures. This paper proposes a solution which consists in contractive self-mapping (contractor for scale s = 1) that fulfils the assumptions of the Banach fixed-point theorem. The method of generalisation of feature geometry that uses the contractive self-mapping approach is well justified due to the fact that a single update of source data can be applied to all scales simultaneously. Feature data at every scale s < 1 are generalised through contractive mapping, which leads to a unique solution. Further generalisation of the feature is carried out on larger scale spatial data (not necessarily source data), which reduces the time and cost of the new elaboration. The main part of this article is the theoretical presentation of objectifying the complex process of the generalisation of the geometry of a feature. The use of the inherent characteristics of metric spaces, narrowing mappings, Lipschitz and Cauchy conditions, Salishchev measures, and Banach theorems ensure the uniqueness of the generalisation process. Their application to generalisation makes this process objective, as it ensures that there is a single solution for portraying the generalised features at each scale. The present study is dedicated to researchers concerned with the theory of cartography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Optimization and GIS)
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Article
Digital Graphic Documentation and Architectural Heritage: Deformations in a 16th-Century Ceiling of the Pinelo Palace in Seville (Spain)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10020085 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Suitable graphic documentation is essential to ascertain and conserve architectural heritage. For the first time, accurate digital images are provided of a 16th-century wooden ceiling, composed of geometric interlacing patterns, in the Pinelo Palace in Seville. Today, this ceiling suffers from significant deformation. [...] Read more.
Suitable graphic documentation is essential to ascertain and conserve architectural heritage. For the first time, accurate digital images are provided of a 16th-century wooden ceiling, composed of geometric interlacing patterns, in the Pinelo Palace in Seville. Today, this ceiling suffers from significant deformation. Although there are many publications on the digital documentation of architectural heritage, no graphic studies on this type of deformed ceilings have been presented. This study starts by providing data on the palace history concerning the design of geometric interlacing patterns in carpentry according to the 1633 book by López de Arenas, and on the ceiling consolidation in the 20th century. Images were then obtained using two complementary procedures: from a 3D laser scanner, which offers metric data on deformations; and from photogrammetry, which facilitates the visualisation of details. In this way, this type of heritage is documented in an innovative graphic approach, which is essential for its conservation and/or restoration with scientific foundations and also to disseminate a reliable digital image of the most beautiful ceiling of this Renaissance palace in southern Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling and GIS for Historical Sites Reconstruction)
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Article
A National Examination of the Spatial Extent and Similarity of Offenders’ Activity Spaces Using Police Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10020047 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
It is well established that offenders’ routine activity locations (nodes) shape their crime locations, but research examining the geography of offenders’ routine activity spaces has to date largely been limited to a few core nodes such as homes and prior offense locations, and [...] Read more.
It is well established that offenders’ routine activity locations (nodes) shape their crime locations, but research examining the geography of offenders’ routine activity spaces has to date largely been limited to a few core nodes such as homes and prior offense locations, and to small study areas. This paper explores the utility of police data to provide novel insights into the spatial extent of, and overlap between, individual offenders’ activity spaces. It includes a wider set of activity nodes (including relatives’ homes, schools, and non-crime incidents) and broadens the geographical scale to a national level, by comparison to previous studies. Using a police dataset including n = 60,229 burglary, robbery, and extra-familial sex offenders in New Zealand, a wide range of activity nodes were present for most burglary and robbery offenders, but fewer for sex offenders, reflecting sparser histories of police contact. In a novel test of the criminal profiling assumptions of homology and differentiation in a spatial context, we find that those who offend in nearby locations tend to share more activity space than those who offend further apart. However, in finding many offenders’ activity spaces span wide geographic distances, we highlight challenges for crime location choice research and geographic profiling practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographic Crime Analysis)
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Article
Crowdsourcing without Data Bias: Building a Quality Assurance System for Air Pollution Symptom Mapping
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10020046 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Crowdsourcing is one of the spatial data sources, but due to its unstructured form, the quality of noisy crowd judgments is a challenge. In this study, we address the problem of detecting and removing crowdsourced data bias as a prerequisite for better-quality open-data [...] Read more.
Crowdsourcing is one of the spatial data sources, but due to its unstructured form, the quality of noisy crowd judgments is a challenge. In this study, we address the problem of detecting and removing crowdsourced data bias as a prerequisite for better-quality open-data output. This study aims to find the most robust data quality assurance system (QAs). To achieve this goal, we design logic-based QAs variants and test them on the air quality crowdsourcing database. By extending the paradigm of urban air pollution monitoring from particulate matter concentration levels to air-quality-related health symptom load, the study also builds a new perspective for citizen science (CS) air quality monitoring. The method includes the geospatial web (GeoWeb) platform as well as a QAs based on conditional statements. A four-month crowdsourcing campaign resulted in 1823 outdoor reports, with a rejection rate of up to 28%, depending on the applied. The focus of this study was not on digital sensors’ validation but on eliminating logically inconsistent surveys and technologically incorrect objects. As the QAs effectiveness may depend on the location and society structure, that opens up new cross-border opportunities for replication of the research in other geographical conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Citizen Science and Geospatial Capacity Building)
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Article
Identifying Complex Junctions in a Road Network
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10010004 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Automated generalization of road network data is of great concern to the map generalization community because of the importance of road data and the difficulty involved. Complex junctions are where roads meet and join in a complicated way and identifying them is a [...] Read more.
Automated generalization of road network data is of great concern to the map generalization community because of the importance of road data and the difficulty involved. Complex junctions are where roads meet and join in a complicated way and identifying them is a key issue in road network generalization. In addition to their structural complexity, complex junctions don’t have regular geometric boundary and their representation in spatial data is scale-dependent. All these together make them hard to identify. Existing methods use geometric and topological statistics to characterize and identify them, and are thus error-prone, scale-dependent and lack generality. More significantly, they cannot ensure the integrity of complex junctions. This study overcomes the obstacles by clarifying the topological boundary of a complex junction, which provides the basis for straightforward identification of them. Test results show the proposed method can find and isolate complex junctions in a road network with their integrity and is able to handle different road representations. The integral identification achieved can help to guarantee connectivity among roads when simplifying complex junctions, and greatly facilitate the geometric and semantic simplification of them. Full article
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Article
Participatory Rural Spatial Planning Based on a Virtual Globe-Based 3D PGIS
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9120763 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
With the current spatial planning reform in China, public participation is becoming increasingly important in the success of rural spatial planning. However, engaging various stakeholders in spatial planning projects is difficult, mainly due to the lack of planning knowledge and computer skills. Therefore, [...] Read more.
With the current spatial planning reform in China, public participation is becoming increasingly important in the success of rural spatial planning. However, engaging various stakeholders in spatial planning projects is difficult, mainly due to the lack of planning knowledge and computer skills. Therefore, this paper discusses the development of a virtual globe-based 3D participatory geographic information system (PGIS) aiming to support public participation in the spatial planning process. The 3D PGIS-based rural planning approach was applied in the village of XiaFan, Ningbo, China. The results demonstrate that locals’ participation capacity was highly promoted, with their interest in 3D PGIS visualization being highly activated. The interactive landscape design tools allow stakeholders to present their own suggestions and designs, just like playing a computer game, thus improving their interactive planning abilities on-site. The scientific analysis tools allow planners to analyze and evaluate planning scenarios in different disciplines in real-time to quickly respond to suggestions from participants on-site. Functions and tools such as data management, marking, and highlighting were found to be useful for smoothing the interactions among planners and participants. In conclusion, virtual globe-based 3D PGIS highly supports the participatory rural landscape planning process and is potentially applicable to other regions. Full article
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Article
The Land Use Mapping Techniques (Including the Areas Used by Pedestrians) Based on Low-Level Aerial Imagery
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9120754 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Traditionally, chorochromatic maps with a qualitative measurement level are used for land use presentations. Along with the use of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), it became possible to register dynamic phenomena in a small space. We analyze the application of qualitative and quantitative mapping [...] Read more.
Traditionally, chorochromatic maps with a qualitative measurement level are used for land use presentations. Along with the use of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), it became possible to register dynamic phenomena in a small space. We analyze the application of qualitative and quantitative mapping methods to visualize land use in a dynamic context thanks to cyclically obtained UAV imaging. The aim of the research is to produce thematic maps showing the actual land use of the small area urbanized by pedestrians. The research was based on low-level aerial imagery that recorded the movement of pedestrians in the research area. Additionally, based on the observation of pedestrian movement, researchers pointed out the areas of land that pedestrians used incorrectly. For this purpose, the author will present his own concept of the point-to-polygon transformation of pedestrians’ representation. The research was an opportunity to demonstrate suitable mapping techniques to effectively convey the information on land use by pedestrians. The results allowed the authors of this article to draw conclusions on the choice of suitable mapping techniques during the process of thematic land use map design and to specify further areas for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Automatic Workflow for Roof Extraction and Generation of 3D CityGML Models from Low-Cost UAV Image-Derived Point Clouds
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9120743 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
Developments in UAV sensors and platforms in recent decades have stimulated an upsurge in its application for 3D mapping. The relatively low-cost nature of UAVs combined with the use of revolutionary photogrammetric algorithms, such as dense image matching, has made it a strong [...] Read more.
Developments in UAV sensors and platforms in recent decades have stimulated an upsurge in its application for 3D mapping. The relatively low-cost nature of UAVs combined with the use of revolutionary photogrammetric algorithms, such as dense image matching, has made it a strong competitor to aerial lidar mapping. However, in the context of 3D city mapping, further 3D modeling is required to generate 3D city models which is often performed manually using, e.g., photogrammetric stereoplotting. The aim of the paper was to try to implement an algorithmic approach to building point cloud segmentation, from which an automated workflow for the generation of roof planes will also be presented. 3D models of buildings are then created using the roofs’ planes as a base, therefore satisfying the requirements for a Level of Detail (LoD) 2 in the CityGML paradigm. Consequently, the paper attempts to create an automated workflow starting from UAV-derived point clouds to LoD 2-compatible 3D model. Results show that the rule-based segmentation approach presented in this paper works well with the additional advantage of instance segmentation and automatic semantic attribute annotation, while the 3D modeling algorithm performs well for low to medium complexity roofs. The proposed workflow can therefore be implemented for simple roofs with a relatively low number of planar surfaces. Furthermore, the automated approach to the 3D modeling process also helps to maintain the geometric requirements of CityGML such as 3D polygon coplanarity vis-à-vis manual stereoplotting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual 3D City Models)
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Article
A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Modelling Uncertainty in Open Geospatial Data on Landfill Suitability Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9120737 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Besides OpenStreetMap (OSM), there are other local sources, such as open government data (OGD), that have the potential to enrich the modeling process with decision criteria that uniquely reflect some local patterns. However, both data are affected by uncertainty issues, which limits their [...] Read more.
Besides OpenStreetMap (OSM), there are other local sources, such as open government data (OGD), that have the potential to enrich the modeling process with decision criteria that uniquely reflect some local patterns. However, both data are affected by uncertainty issues, which limits their usability. This work addresses the imprecisions on suitability layers generated from such data. The proposed method is founded on fuzzy logic theories. The model integrates OGD, OSM data and remote sensing products and generate reliable landfill suitability results. A comparison analysis demonstrates that the proposed method generates more accurate, representative and reliable suitability results than traditional methods. Furthermore, the method has facilitated the introduction of open government data for suitability studies, whose fusion improved estimations of population distribution and land-use mapping than solely relying on free remotely sensed images. The proposed method is applicable for preparing decision maps from open datasets that have undergone similar generalization procedures as the source of their uncertainty. The study provides evidence for the applicability of OGD and other related open data initiatives (ODIs) for land-use suitability studies, especially in developing countries. Full article
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Article
Form Follows Content: An Empirical Study on Symbol-Content (In)Congruences in Thematic Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9120719 - 02 Dec 2020
Abstract
Through signs and symbols, maps represent geographic space in a generalized and abstracted way. Cartographic research is, therefore, concerned with establishing a mutually shared set of signs and semiotic rules to communicate geospatial information successfully. While cartographers generally strive for cognitively congruent maps, [...] Read more.
Through signs and symbols, maps represent geographic space in a generalized and abstracted way. Cartographic research is, therefore, concerned with establishing a mutually shared set of signs and semiotic rules to communicate geospatial information successfully. While cartographers generally strive for cognitively congruent maps, empirical research has only started to explore the different facets and levels of correspondences between external cartographic representations and processes of human cognition. This research, therefore, draws attention to the principle of contextual congruence to study the correspondences between shape symbols and different geospatial content. An empirical study was carried out to explore the (in)congruence of cartographic point symbols with respect to positive, neutral, and negative geospatial topics in monothematic maps. In an online survey, 72 thematic maps (i.e., 12 map topics × 6 symbols) were evaluated by 116 participants in a between-groups design. The point symbols comprised five symmetric shapes (i.e., Circle, Triangle, Square, Rhomb, Star) and one Asymmetric Star shape. The study revealed detailed symbol-content congruences for each map topic as well as on an aggregated level, i.e., by positive, neutral, and negative topic clusters. Asymmetric Star symbols generally showed to be highly incongruent with positive and neutral topics, while highly congruent with negative map topics. Symmetric shapes, on the other hand, emerged to be of high congruence with positive and neutral map topics, whilst incongruent with negative topics. As the meaning of point symbols showed to be susceptible to context, the findings lead to the conclusion that cognitively congruent maps require profound context-specific considerations when designing and employing map symbols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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Article
OurPlaces: Cross-Cultural Crowdsourcing Platform for Location Recommendation Services
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9120711 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper presents a cross-cultural crowdsourcing platform, called OurPlaces, where people from different cultures can share their spatial experiences. We built a three-layered architecture composed of: (i) places (locations where people have visited); (ii) cognition (how people [...] Read more.
This paper presents a cross-cultural crowdsourcing platform, called OurPlaces, where people from different cultures can share their spatial experiences. We built a three-layered architecture composed of: (i) places (locations where people have visited); (ii) cognition (how people have experienced these places); and (iii) users (those who have visited these places). Notably, cognition is represented as a paring of two similar places from different cultures (e.g., Versailles and Gyeongbokgung in France and Korea, respectively). As a case study, we applied the OurPlaces platform to a cross-cultural tourism recommendation system and conducted a simulation using a dataset collected from TripAdvisor. The tourist places were classified into four types (i.e., hotels, restaurants, shopping malls, and attractions). In addition, user feedback (e.g., ratings, rankings, and reviews) from various nationalities (assumed to be equivalent to cultures) was exploited to measure the similarities between tourism places and to generate a cognition layer on the platform. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the OurPlaces-based system, we compared it with a Pearson correlation-based system as a baseline. The experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the baseline by 2.5% and 4.1% in the best case in terms of MAE and RMSE, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Systems Based on Open and Crowdsourced Location Data)
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Article
Network Characteristics and Vulnerability Analysis of Chinese Railway Network under Earthquake Disasters
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9120697 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The internal structure and operation rules of railway network have become increasingly complex along with the expansion of the network, putting a higher demand on the development of the railway and the reliability and adaptability of the railway under earthquake disasters. The theory [...] Read more.
The internal structure and operation rules of railway network have become increasingly complex along with the expansion of the network, putting a higher demand on the development of the railway and the reliability and adaptability of the railway under earthquake disasters. The theory and method concerning complex railway network can well capture the internal structure of railway facilities system and the relationship between subsystems. However, most of the research focuses on the vulnerability based on the logical network of railway, deviating from the actual spatial location of railway network. Additionally, only random attacks and deliberate attacks are factored in, ignoring the impact of earthquake disasters on actual railway lines. Therefore, this paper built a geographic railway network and analyzed topological structure of the network and its vulnerability under earthquake disasters. First, the geographic network of Chinese railway was built based on the methods of complex network, linear reference and dynamic segmentation. Second, the spatial distribution of railway network flow was analyzed by node degree, betweenness and clustering coefficient. Finally, the vulnerability of the geographic railway network in areas with high seismic hazards were assessed, aiming to improve the capacity to prevent and resist earthquake disasters. Full article
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Article
Developing Versatile Graphic Map Load Metrics
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9120705 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
Graphic map load is a property of a map quantifying the amount of map content. It indicates the visual complexity of the map and helps cartographers to adapt maps and other geospatial visualizations to accomplish their purpose. Generally, map design needs to enable [...] Read more.
Graphic map load is a property of a map quantifying the amount of map content. It indicates the visual complexity of the map and helps cartographers to adapt maps and other geospatial visualizations to accomplish their purpose. Generally, map design needs to enable the user to quickly, comprehensively, and intuitively obtain the relevant spatial information from a map. Especially, this applies in cases like crisis management, immunology and military. However, there are no widely applicable metrics to assess the complexity of cartographic products. This paper evaluates seven simple metrics for graphic map load calculation based on image analytics using the set of 50 various maps on an easily understandable scale of 0–100%. The metrics are compared to values of user-perceived map load survey joined by 62 respondents. All the suggested metrics are designed for calculation with easy-accessible software and therefore suitable for use in any user environment. Metrics utilizing the principle of edge detection have been found suitable for a diversity of geospatial visualizations providing the best results among other metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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Article
Worldwide Detection of Informal Settlements via Topological Analysis of Crowdsourced Digital Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9110685 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
The recent growth of high-resolution spatial data, especially in developing urban environments, is enabling new approaches to civic activism, urban planning and the provision of services necessary for sustainable development. A special area of great potential and urgent need deals with urban expansion [...] Read more.
The recent growth of high-resolution spatial data, especially in developing urban environments, is enabling new approaches to civic activism, urban planning and the provision of services necessary for sustainable development. A special area of great potential and urgent need deals with urban expansion through informal settlements (slums). These neighborhoods are too often characterized by a lack of connections, both physical and socioeconomic, with detrimental effects to residents and their cities. Here, we show how a scalable computational approach based on the topological properties of digital maps can identify local infrastructural deficits and propose context-appropriate minimal solutions. We analyze 1 terabyte of OpenStreetMap (OSM) crowdsourced data to create worldwide indices of street block accessibility and local cadastral maps and propose infrastructure extensions with a focus on 120 Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) in the Global South. We illustrate how the lack of physical accessibility can be identified in detail, how the complexity and costs of solutions can be assessed and how detailed spatial proposals are generated. We discuss how these diagnostics and solutions provide a multiscalar set of new capabilities—from individual neighborhoods to global regions—that can coordinate local community knowledge with political agency, technical capability, and further research. Full article
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Article
Time-Series Clustering for Home Dwell Time during COVID-19: What Can We Learn from It?
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9110675 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 21
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the potential driving factors that lead to the disparity in the time-series of home dwell time in a data-driven manner, aiming to provide fundamental knowledge that benefits policy-making for better mitigation strategies of future pandemics. Taking Metro Atlanta [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the potential driving factors that lead to the disparity in the time-series of home dwell time in a data-driven manner, aiming to provide fundamental knowledge that benefits policy-making for better mitigation strategies of future pandemics. Taking Metro Atlanta as a study case, we perform a trend-driven analysis by conducting Kmeans time-series clustering using fine-grained home dwell time records from SafeGraph. Furthermore, we apply ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) coupled with post-hoc Tukey’s test to assess the statistical difference in sixteen recoded demographic/socioeconomic variables (from ACS 2014–2018 estimates) among the identified time-series clusters. We find that demographic/socioeconomic variables can explain the disparity in home dwell time in response to the stay-at-home order, which potentially leads to disparate exposures to the risk from the COVID-19. The results further suggest that socially disadvantaged groups are less likely to follow the order to stay at home, pointing out the extensive gaps in the effectiveness of social distancing measures that exist between socially disadvantaged groups and others. Our study reveals that the long-standing inequity issue in the U.S. stands in the way of the effective implementation of social distancing measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIScience for Risk Management in Big Data Era)
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Article
Exploring Travel Patterns during the Holiday Season—A Case Study of Shenzhen Metro System During the Chinese Spring Festival
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9110651 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Research has shown that the growing holiday travel demand in modern society has a significant influence on daily travel patterns. However, few studies have focused on the distinctness of travel patterns during a holiday season and as a specified case, travel behavior studies [...] Read more.
Research has shown that the growing holiday travel demand in modern society has a significant influence on daily travel patterns. However, few studies have focused on the distinctness of travel patterns during a holiday season and as a specified case, travel behavior studies of the Chinese Spring Festival (CSF) at the city level are even rarer. This paper adopts a text-mining model (latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)) to explore the travel patterns and travel purposes during the CSF season in Shenzhen based on the metro smart card data (MSC) and the points of interest (POIs) data. The study aims to answer two questions—(1) how to use MSC and POIs inferring travel purpose at the metro station level without the socioeconomic backgrounds of the cardholders? (2) What are the overall inner-city mobility patterns and travel activities during the Spring Festival holiday-week? The results show that six features of the CSF travel behavior are found and nine (three broad categories) travel patterns and trip activities are inferred. The activities in which travelers engaged during the CSF season are mainly consumption-oriented events, visiting relatives and friends and traffic-oriented events. This study is beneficial to metro corporations (timetable management), business owners (promotion strategy), researchers (travelers’ social attribute inference) and decision-makers (examine public service). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Methods in Social and Behavioral Sciences)
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Article
Urban Population Distribution Mapping with Multisource Geospatial Data Based on Zonal Strategy
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9110654 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Mapping population distribution at fine resolutions with high accuracy is crucial to urban planning and management. This paper takes Guangzhou city as the study area, illustrates the gridded population distribution map by using machine learning methods based on zoning strategy with multisource geospatial [...] Read more.
Mapping population distribution at fine resolutions with high accuracy is crucial to urban planning and management. This paper takes Guangzhou city as the study area, illustrates the gridded population distribution map by using machine learning methods based on zoning strategy with multisource geospatial data such as night light remote sensing data, point of interest data, land use data, and so on. The street-level accuracy evaluation results show that the proposed approach achieved good overall accuracy, with determinant coefficient (R2) being 0.713 and root mean square error (RMSE) being 5512.9. Meanwhile, the goodness of fit for single linear regression (LR) model and random forest (RF) regression model are 0.0039 and 0.605, respectively. For dense area, the accuracy of the random forest model is better than the linear regression model, while for sparse area, the accuracy of the linear regression model is better than the random forest model. The results indicated that the proposed method has great potential in fine-scale population mapping. Therefore, it is advised that the zonal modeling strategy should be the primary choice for solving regional differences in the population distribution mapping research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring, Mapping, Modeling, and Visualization of Cities)
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