Special Issue "Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 February 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Wilfried van Sark
Website
Guest Editor
Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 8a, 3584 CB Utrecht, Netherlands
Interests: photovoltaics; grid integration; building integrated photovoltaics; performance analysis; modeling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Ioannis Lampropoulos
Website
Guest Editor
Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 8a, 3584 CB Utrecht, Netherlands
Interests: power systems; smart grids; demand side management; renewable energy sources
Dr. Tarek Alskaif
Website
Guest Editor
Information Technology group (INF), Wageningen University & Research (WUR), Building No. 201 (Leeuwenborch), Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Interests: smart grids; energy management systems; battery storage; solar energy; optimization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems as a source of power generation in both standalone and grid-connected systems. While this plays an important role in the transition toward a more sustainable power supply, electricity generation from PV systems has an intermittent nature because of the seasonal, daily, and intra-day fluctuations of solar irradiation. Consequently, the supply of PV-generated electricity typically results in a mismatch with the power demand. Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) can be used as a complementary technology to support the dispatchability of clean and cheap electricity generated by PV systems. In addition, PV-coupled BESSs can be used to provide ancillary services, leading to a more resilient power system.

This Special Issue will focus on the assessment of PV-coupled BESSs and their applications in power systems, ranging from home to grid scale battery systems. We, therefore, invite papers on technology assessment, innovative technology developments, analytical models, reviews, and case studies. Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Technical, economic, and environmental assessment of PV-coupled BESS applications (including home-based, community, and grid scale applications)
  • Energy management models, forecasting, and optimization techniques
  • Innovative business models and case studies
  • Barriers for BESS implementation
  • Socio-economic issues and policy developments

Prof. Dr. Wilfried van Sark
Dr. Ioannis Lampropoulos
Dr. Tarek Alskaif
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • photovoltaics integration
  • battery energy storage systems
  • smart grids
  • technology assessment
  • modelling and optimization

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Performance-Assessment Methods for Residential PV Battery Systems
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5529; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215529 - 22 Oct 2020
Abstract
Declining costs for high-performance batteries are leading to a global increased use of storage systems in residential buildings. Especially in conjunction with reduced photovoltaic (PV) feed-in tariffs, a large market has been developed for PV battery systems to increase self-sufficiency. They differ in [...] Read more.
Declining costs for high-performance batteries are leading to a global increased use of storage systems in residential buildings. Especially in conjunction with reduced photovoltaic (PV) feed-in tariffs, a large market has been developed for PV battery systems to increase self-sufficiency. They differ in the type of coupling between PV and battery, the nominal capacities of their components, and their degree of integration. High system performance is particularly important to achieve profitability for the operator. This paper presents and evaluates methods for a uniform determination of PV battery system performance. Already the requirement analysis reveals that a performance comparison of PV battery systems must cover the efficiency and effectiveness during system operation. A method based on a derivation of key performance indicators (KPIs) for these two criteria through an application test is proposed. It is evaluated by comparison to other methods, such as the System Performance Index (SPI) and aggregation of conversion and storage efficiency. These methods are applied with five systems in a laboratory test bench to identify their advantages and drawbacks. Here, a particular focus is on compliance with the initially formulated requirements in terms of both test procedures and KPI derivations. Analysis revealed that the proposed method addresses these requirements well, and is beneficial in terms of result comprehensibility and KPI validity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Photovoltaics- and Battery-Based Power Network as Sustainable Source of Electric Power
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5048; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195048 - 25 Sep 2020
Abstract
With the rise in the utilization of free fuel energy sources, namely solar and wind, across the globe, it has become necessary to study and implement models of a sustainable power network. This paper focuses on the design of a conceptual power network [...] Read more.
With the rise in the utilization of free fuel energy sources, namely solar and wind, across the globe, it has become necessary to study and implement models of a sustainable power network. This paper focuses on the design of a conceptual power network based on photovoltaics (PV) for power generation and lithium-ion batteries for storage. The power system showcases the various metrics that are involved in a grid-tied PV- and battery-based power network. It also encompasses the various design parameters and sizing considerations to design and conceptualize such a power network. The model focuses on the importance of the conservation of power by avoiding wastage of generated power through inverter sizing and design considerations. Finally, an economic and feasibility analysis is carried out to showcase the economic viability of the PV- and battery-based power network in today’s alternating current (AC)-based grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Profitability of PV Electricity Sharing in Renewable Energy Communities in Selected European Countries
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5007; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195007 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The economic value of photovoltaic (PV) systems depends on country-specific conditions. This study investigates the impact of grid fees, solar irradiance and local consumption on the profitability and penetration of PV systems and batteries in renewable energy communities. The linear optimization model calculates [...] Read more.
The economic value of photovoltaic (PV) systems depends on country-specific conditions. This study investigates the impact of grid fees, solar irradiance and local consumption on the profitability and penetration of PV systems and batteries in renewable energy communities. The linear optimization model calculates the optimal investments into PV and storages applied on a test community, which represents the European housing situation. The comparison of eight countries considers individual heat and cooling demands as well as sector coupling. Results show that renewable energy communities have the potential to reduce electricity costs due to community investments and load aggregation but do not necessarily lead to more distributed PV. Besides full-load hours, the energy component of electricity tariffs has the highest impact on PV distribution. Under current market conditions, battery energy storage systems are rarely profitable for increasing PV self-consumption but there is potential with power pricing. Renewable energy communities enable individuals to be a prosumer without the necessity of owning a PV system. This could lead to more (community) PV investments in the short term. Hence, it hinders investments in a saturated PV market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Optimal Energy Management Strategies for a Building Powered by PV/Battery System in Corsica Island
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4510; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174510 - 01 Sep 2020
Abstract
The use of renewable energy sources, and in particular photovoltaics, can effectively reduce the supply of household energy from the main grid, contributing to a more sustainable community. In this paper, several energy management strategies were applied to an existing microgrid with photovoltaic [...] Read more.
The use of renewable energy sources, and in particular photovoltaics, can effectively reduce the supply of household energy from the main grid, contributing to a more sustainable community. In this paper, several energy management strategies were applied to an existing microgrid with photovoltaic (PV) production and battery storage in view to supply in electricity a building and an electric vehicle located in Ajaccio, France. The purpose was to determine how the choice of a management strategy can impact the cost and the energy share in the microgrid, using the actual electricity tariff in France as well as an over-cost due to the island situation. For some strategies, a forecasting tool was introduced and its influence on the performances of the microgrid was discussed. It appears that the performance of the strategy increased with its complexity and the use of PV forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Parameter Optimization Model Photovoltaic Battery System for Charging Electric Cars
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4497; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174497 - 01 Sep 2020
Abstract
Sales of electric cars and vehicles (EVs) have recently been showing a rapidly growing trend. In connection with rising electricity prices as well as social pressure on the environmental impacts of electromobility, there is also increasing interest of EV owners in the ecological [...] Read more.
Sales of electric cars and vehicles (EVs) have recently been showing a rapidly growing trend. In connection with rising electricity prices as well as social pressure on the environmental impacts of electromobility, there is also increasing interest of EV owners in the ecological source of electricity. The largest group of owners of EVs are residents of family houses, so, logically, they focus their attention on the possibility of using photovoltaic (PV) charging systems for EV charging. The design of the PV system for supporting EV charging is problematic due to several input parameters in the calculation of energy needs and due to the inconsistencies of electricity generation with normal electric vehicle (EV) charging time. While the PV system produces electricity during the day, family homeowners require charging EVs mainly at night. This requires batteries as part of a PV system. The optimal design of the PV of the battery system must take into account the real consumption of EV, the average daily distance traveled, the location, the weather bridging time, and, last but not least, the investor’s financial situation. The timing mismatch of electricity needs and generation may result in the oversizing or sub-scaling of the PV system depending on the time period for which the investor claims full coverage. With an average daily EV consumption of 10 kWh/day, the overproduction of electricity may be at 8620 kWh per year if it is required to fully cover PV systems in January. Conversely, for the installation of PVs for full coverage in August, the year-round electricity deficit will be 1500 kWh per year. For the analyzed geographical conditions, i.e., Latitude 48.8, the optimum performance of PV system for one-day electricity storage is 3.585 kW. This corresponds to the full coverage of EV consumption in March, the price of the whole system varies from EUR 9000 to EUR 20,000 depending on the type of battery. In addition to the battery price, the required accumulation time for electricity to overcome adverse weather increases the required performance of a photovoltaic system (PVS), which again results in system overshooting and financial loss by not using the generated electricity. This cycle of interdependencies is usually very difficult to adjust optimally. In the contribution, we analyzed the mutual relationships of calculating the performance of a PVS according to the daily consumption of EV and required time of overcoming adverse weather. The input data for the analyses were normal average EV consumption and the number of daily km traveled from 10 to 100 km/day scaled to 10. The optimization process consisted of determining the necessary performance of the PVS and its production in the event of a requirement to ensure full energy demand in each month. In addition, different types of batteries that influence the investment price enter into optimization analyses. This depends on the energy density of a given battery, the depth of discharge, capacity, and type. The result of this research is a computational model for determining a new indicator—we called it the monthly deviation factor. This indicates the degree of oversizing or undersizing of the PV system in relation to the stated factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Islanding Detection Technique for a Resilient Photovoltaic-Based Distributed Power Generation System Using a Tunable-Q Wavelet Transform and an Artificial Neural Network
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4238; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164238 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Finding an appropriate technique to detect an islanding issue is one of the major challenges associated with the design of a resilient grid-linked photovoltaic-based distributed power generation (PV-DPG) system. In general, the technique used for islanding detection must be able to sense the [...] Read more.
Finding an appropriate technique to detect an islanding issue is one of the major challenges associated with the design of a resilient grid-linked photovoltaic-based distributed power generation (PV-DPG) system. In general, the technique used for islanding detection must be able to sense the disruptions from the electric grid and quickly disconnect PV-DPG from the grid. The quick disconnection of PV-DPG mostly avoids power quality problems, damage to power assets, voltage stability issues, and frequency instability. In this paper, a new islanding detection technique that is based on tunable Q-factor wavelet transform (TQWT) and an artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed for PV-DPG. The proposed approach consists of two steps: in the first step, the vital detection parameters are computed by performing simulations considering all possible switching transients, islanding events, and faults from the grid side. Then, the decomposition of obtained signals is done using TQWT on different levels. Using the obtained coefficients, at each level, features such as range, minimum, mean, standard deviation, maximum, energy, and log energy entropy are computed. The optimal feature set was selected as the input for the second step. The classification of the non-islanding and islanding states for PV-DPG is made using the ANN classifier in the second step, which achieved an accuracy of 98%. The results representing the efficiency of the proposed approach in noisy and non-noisy environments are also explained. Overall, it is understood that the proposed islanding detection technique would provide suitable insights to detect an islanding issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Power Resilience Enhancement of a Residential Electricity User Using Photovoltaics and a Battery Energy Storage System under Uncertainty Conditions
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4193; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164193 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 13
Abstract
Even in today’s modern electric grid infrastructure, the uncertainty in the power supply is more often seen and is mainly due to power outages. The reasons for power outages might be any of the following: extreme weather events, asset failure, natural disasters, power [...] Read more.
Even in today’s modern electric grid infrastructure, the uncertainty in the power supply is more often seen and is mainly due to power outages. The reasons for power outages might be any of the following: extreme weather events, asset failure, natural disasters, power surges, acute accidents, and even operational errors by the workforce. Such uncertain situations are permitting us to think of it as a resilience problem. In most cases, the power outages may last from a few minutes to a few weeks, depending on the nature of the resilience issue and the power supply system (PSS) configuration. Therefore, it is imperative to understand and improve the resilience of a PSS. In this paper, a four-component resilience framework is proposed to study and compare the resilience of three different PSS configurations of residential electricity users (REUs) considering the realistic power outage conditions in the humid subtropical ecosystem. The proposed PSS configurations contain electric grid (EG), natural gas power generator (NGPG), battery energy storage (BES), and photovoltaics (PV) as the assets. The three PSS configurations of a REUs are EG + BES, EG + NGPG + BES, and EG + PV + BES, respectively, and in these, one REU is only the consumer and the other two REUs are prosumers. By using the proposed framework, simulations are performed on the three PSS configuration to understand the increasing load resiliency in the event of a power outage. Also, a comparative techno-economic and life cycle based environmental assessment is performed to select the most resilient PSS configuration among the EG + BES, EG + NGPG + BES, and EG + PV + BES for an REU. From the results, it was established that EG + PV + BES configuration would enhance the power resilience of an REU better than the other two PSS configurations. Besides, it is also observed that the identified resilient PSS configuration is cost-effective and environmentally efficient. Overall, the proposed framework will enable the REUs to opt for the PSS configuration that is resilient and affordable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Degradation Processes in Lead–Acid Batteries on the Technoeconomic Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4075; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164075 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Most technoeconomic feasibility studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries are mainly focused on the load demand, PV system profiles, total system costs, electricity price, and the remuneration rate. Nevertheless, most do not emphasise the influence degradation process such as corrosion, sulphation, stratification, [...] Read more.
Most technoeconomic feasibility studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries are mainly focused on the load demand, PV system profiles, total system costs, electricity price, and the remuneration rate. Nevertheless, most do not emphasise the influence degradation process such as corrosion, sulphation, stratification, active material seeding, and gassing on battery lifetime, efficiency, and capacity. In this paper, it is analysed the influence of the degradation processes in lead–acid batteries on the technoeconomic analysis of PV systems with and without battery. Results show that Net Present Value (NPV), Payback Period (PBP), and Discounted PayBack Period (DPBP) have a heavy dependence on the assumptions about the value of the battery performance parameters according to its degradation processes. Results show NPV differences in the range from −307% to 740%, PBP differences in the range from 9% to 188%, and DPBP differences in the range from 0% to 211%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
How Does the Electricity Demand Profile Impact the Attractiveness of PV-Coupled Battery Systems Combining Applications?
Energies 2020, 13(15), 4038; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13154038 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Energy storage is a key solution to supply renewable electricity on demand and in particular batteries are becoming attractive for consumers who install PV panels. In order to minimize their electricity bill and keep the grid stable, batteries can combine applications. The daily [...] Read more.
Energy storage is a key solution to supply renewable electricity on demand and in particular batteries are becoming attractive for consumers who install PV panels. In order to minimize their electricity bill and keep the grid stable, batteries can combine applications. The daily match between PV supply and the electricity load profile is often considered as a determinant for the attractiveness of residential PV-coupled battery systems, however, the previous literature has so far mainly focused on the annual energy balance. In this paper, we analyze the techno-economic impact of adding a battery system to a new PV system that would otherwise be installed on its own, for different residential electricity load profiles in Geneva (Switzerland) and Austin (U.S.) using lithium-ion batteries performing various consumer applications, namely PV self-consumption, demand load-shifting, avoidance of PV curtailment, and demand peak shaving, individually and jointly. We employ clustering of the household’s load profile (with 15-minute resolution) for households with low, medium, and high annual electricity consumption in the two locations using a 1:1:1 sizing ratio. Our results show that with this simple sizing rule-of-thumb, the shape of the load profile has a small impact on the net present value of batteries. Overall, our analysis suggests that the effect of the load profile is small and differs across locations, whereas the combination of applications significantly increases profitability while marginally decreasing the share of self-consumption. Moreover, without the combination of applications, batteries are far from being economically viable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Energy Storage from Photovoltaic Installations in Poland Using Batteries or Hydrogen
Energies 2020, 13(15), 4023; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13154023 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents a series of economic efficiency studies comparing three different investment variants: without energy storage, with energy stored in batteries and hydrogen installation with a PEM fuel cell stack for a location in Poland. To reach a target, the current solar [...] Read more.
This paper presents a series of economic efficiency studies comparing three different investment variants: without energy storage, with energy stored in batteries and hydrogen installation with a PEM fuel cell stack for a location in Poland. To reach a target, the current solar potential in Poland, the photovoltaic (PV) productivity, the capacity of the energy storage in batteries as well as the size of the hydrogen production system were calculated. The solar potential was determined using archival meteorological data and the Krieg estimation method. A laboratory scale PV system (1 kW) was used to estimate the decrease in real solar installation power during the last 10 years of operation. All analyses were made for a 100 kW photovoltaic array located in Poland using static and dynamic methods of investment project assessment, such as Simply Bay Back Period (SPBP) or Net Present Value (NPV). The results showed that the SPBP amounted to 8.8 years and NPV 54,896 € for non-storage systems. Whereas, for systems with energy stored the economic indexes were, as follow: SPBP = never, NPV = 183,428 € for batteries and SPBP = 14.74 years, NPV = 22,639 € for hydrogen/fuel cell installation. Storage in hydrogen is more advantageous than batteries due to the smaller investment outlays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
New Multifunctional Isolated Microinverter with Integrated Energy Storage System for PV Applications
Energies 2020, 13(15), 4016; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13154016 - 04 Aug 2020
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel multifunctional isolated microinverter which is able to extract the maximum available power from a solar photovoltaic module and inject it into the power grid, while simultaneously charging a battery energy storage system (BESS). The proposed microinverter integrates a [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel multifunctional isolated microinverter which is able to extract the maximum available power from a solar photovoltaic module and inject it into the power grid, while simultaneously charging a battery energy storage system (BESS). The proposed microinverter integrates a novel DC–DC power converter and a conventional DC–AC power converter. The DC–DC power converter is able to send electrical energy to the secondary side of a high-frequency transformer and to the BESS, using only two power switches. Throughout this paper, the converter topology, the operation modes, the control algorithms, and the development of a laboratory prototype of the proposed microinverter are described in detail. Moreover, simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Converting a Water Pressurized Network in a Small Town into a Solar Power Water System
Energies 2020, 13(15), 4013; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13154013 - 04 Aug 2020
Abstract
The efficient management of water and energy is one challenge for managers of water pressurized systems. In a scheme with high pressure on the environment, solar power appears as an opportunity for nonrenewable energy expenditure reduction and emissions elimination. In Spain, new legislation [...] Read more.
The efficient management of water and energy is one challenge for managers of water pressurized systems. In a scheme with high pressure on the environment, solar power appears as an opportunity for nonrenewable energy expenditure reduction and emissions elimination. In Spain, new legislation that eliminates old taxes associated with solar energy production, a drop in the cost of solar photovoltaic modules, and higher values of irradiance has converted solar powered water systems into one of the trendiest topics in the water industry. One alternative to store energy (compulsory in standalone photovoltaic systems) when managing pressurized urban water networks is the use of head tanks (tanks accumulate water during the day and release it at night). This work intends to compare the pressurized network running as a standalone system and a hybrid solution that incorporates solar energy supply and electricity grids. The indicator used for finding the best choice is the net present value for the solar power water system lifespan. This study analyzed the possibility of transferring the energy surplus obtained at midday to the electricity grid, a circumstance introduced in the Spanish legislation since April 2019. We developed a real case study in a small town in the Alicante Province, whose findings provide planning policymakers with very useful information in this case and similar case studies Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid vs. On-Grid Photovoltaic System: Multicriteria Analysis of Environmental, Economic, and Technical Aspects in Life Cycle Perspective
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3978; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153978 - 02 Aug 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Hybrid photovoltaic installations, defined as on-grid PV system in cooperation with battery energy storage system (BESS), are still rare among the typical investors because the investment cost of the hybrid installation is significantly higher than the one of the on-grid system. However, while [...] Read more.
Hybrid photovoltaic installations, defined as on-grid PV system in cooperation with battery energy storage system (BESS), are still rare among the typical investors because the investment cost of the hybrid installation is significantly higher than the one of the on-grid system. However, while considering the broader perspective, such as environmental or technological aspects, the mentioned solution can be competitive with photovoltaic on-grid systems and therefore should be carefully tested in the widest possible context. In this study, the authors compared 3.05 kW of peak power hybrid and on-grid installations operating in temperate climate conditions (Eastern Poland) using economic indicators, such as dynamic generation cost (DGC) and benefit–cost rate (BCR); environmental impact indicators (IMPACT 2002+ and GWP 100a) determined using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); and technological aspects consideration, including the reliability of examined systems. Creating a ranking of the considered solutions based on the equal weighting factors assigned to the appropriate features allows indicating the technological areas where the competitiveness of hybrid systems justifies the increased investment costs. One such area is business, where the economic criterion, the only negatively assessed one in the standard operation, can be radically changed by the possible financial losses due to interruption of energy supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Load Forecasting to Control Domestic Battery Energy Storage Systems
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3946; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153946 - 01 Aug 2020
Abstract
The profitability of domestic battery energy storage systems has been poor and this is the main barrier to their general use. It is possible to increase profitability by using multiple control targets. Market price-based electricity contracts and power-based distribution tariffs alongside storage of [...] Read more.
The profitability of domestic battery energy storage systems has been poor and this is the main barrier to their general use. It is possible to increase profitability by using multiple control targets. Market price-based electricity contracts and power-based distribution tariffs alongside storage of surplus photovoltaic energy make it possible to have multiple control targets in domestic use. The battery control system needs accurate load forecasting so that its capacity can be utilized in an optimally economical way. This study shows how the accuracy of short-term load forecasting affects cost savings by using batteries. The study was conducted by simulating actual customers’ load profiles with batteries utilized for different control targets. The results of the study show that knowledge of customers’ load profiles (i.e., when high and low peaks happen) is more important that actual forecast accuracy, as measured by error criteria. In many cases, the load forecast based on customers’ historical load data and the outdoor temperature is sufficient to be used in the control system, but in some cases a more accurate forecast can give better cost savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Photo-Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage Systems Based on Silicon Solar Cells and Supercapacitor-Engineering Concept
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3867; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153867 - 28 Jul 2020
Abstract
Recently, use of supercapacitors as energy storage systems has attracted considerable attention. However, the literature is scarce of information about the optimization of hybrid systems, using supercapacitors as the main energy storage system. In our study, we focused step-by-step on the engineering concept [...] Read more.
Recently, use of supercapacitors as energy storage systems has attracted considerable attention. However, the literature is scarce of information about the optimization of hybrid systems, using supercapacitors as the main energy storage system. In our study, we focused step-by-step on the engineering concept of a photo-rechargeable energy storage system based on silicon solar cells and supercapacitors. In the first step, based on commercially available elements, we designed a solar charger and simulated its work in idealized conditions. Secondly, we designed appropriate electronic connections and control systems, allowing for the charging–discharging process of the energy storage system. After constructing three type of demonstrators of solar energy charger, we tested it. The novel design allowed us to achieve total available energy from solar panel energy conversion up to 93%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Energy Distribution in Residential Areas: A Case Study Including Energy Storage Systems in Catania, Southern Italy
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3715; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143715 - 19 Jul 2020
Abstract
Complexity is a widely acknowledged feature of urban areas. Among the different levels to which this definition applies, the energy sector is one of the most representative of this way of conceiving cities. An evidence of this complexity can be detected in the [...] Read more.
Complexity is a widely acknowledged feature of urban areas. Among the different levels to which this definition applies, the energy sector is one of the most representative of this way of conceiving cities. An evidence of this complexity can be detected in the growing impact of prosumers. Prosumers produce energy to meet their own demands, distribute it directly to neighbors and, eventually, store the energy neither consumed nor distributed. The modelling of distribution networks is a challenging task that requires ad hoc models to simulate the mutual energy exchanges occurring among prosumers. To serve at this scope, this paper proposes an agent-based model aiming at determining which operating conditions enhance the energy distribution among prosumers and diminish the supply from traditional power plants. An application of the model within a residential territory is then presented and simulations are conducted under two scenarios: the first investigating the distribution among prosumers equipped with photovoltaics (PV) systems, the second integrating energy storage systems to PV panels. Both scenarios are studied at varying the installed PV capacity within the territory, the allowed distance of connection among prosumers, as well as the rate of utilization of the links of the network. Results from the simulated case study reveal that the energy distribution among prosumers can be enhanced by providing short-range links for the electricity exchange. Similar advantages can be achieved by integrating storage systems to PV, along with a significant reduction in the electricity requested to the centralized grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Engineering Concept of Energy Storage Systems Based on New Type of Silicon Photovoltaic Module and Lithium Ion Batteries
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3701; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143701 - 17 Jul 2020
Abstract
In recent years, a great importance has been given to hybrid systems of energy generators and energy storages. This article presents the results of our research aimed at checking the possibility of connecting a photovoltaic (PV) module and a lithium-ion battery (LIB), using [...] Read more.
In recent years, a great importance has been given to hybrid systems of energy generators and energy storages. This article presents the results of our research aimed at checking the possibility of connecting a photovoltaic (PV) module and a lithium-ion battery (LIB), using a simplified control module towards a cheap and efficient system. The photovoltaic modules based on crystalline silicon solar cells, tempered glass as the front layer and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer as encapsulation material are the most popular type in the industry. The disadvantage of such module type is the high weight of about 15 kg/m2. The weight of PV module used in the presented energy storage system is twice as small. This new type of PV module is based on treated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as back sheet; high transparent foil as front sheet. Changing glass layer to PMMA requires additional modification of the lamination process parameters and EVA polymer type. For this reason, an EVA polymer with reduced crosslinking temperature was used in most cases; the voltage obtained from solar panels is significantly different from the one required by battery system. Hence, voltage converters (step-up or step-down) are needed. The use of a voltage stabilizing converter (which is a kind of electrical buffer) between the solar cell and lithium-ion battery can in some cases replace the battery overcharge protection system. However, an indispensable element is the system protecting the battery from excessive discharge. The voltage converter permits direct connection between the electricity storage and power supply, which current-voltage parameters do not match. The converter’s task is to change the value of current and voltage in a way that meets the requirements of the powered receiver, minimizing power losses, increasing the whole system efficiency. Photovoltaic parameters of the energy storage systems were examined in laboratory and real conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Model for Energy Management Strategy in Smart Building with Energy Storage Systems and Electric Vehicles
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3605; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143605 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this work was to develop an optimal model for an energy management strategy in a real micro-grid, which involves a smart building, a photovoltaic system with storage, and a plug-in full electric vehicle. A controller based on a mathematical algorithm [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to develop an optimal model for an energy management strategy in a real micro-grid, which involves a smart building, a photovoltaic system with storage, and a plug-in full electric vehicle. A controller based on a mathematical algorithm was the core of each strategy, which directly acted on a relay board managing the interconnection between the different elements comprising the micro-grid. The development of an optimization model involving binary variables required an efficient code that achieved solutions in a short time. The analyzed case-study corresponded to the solar energy research center (CIESOL) smart building, a bioclimatic building, that is located at the University of Almería (Spain), designated to research in renewable energies. Using the methodologies described in this work, the total cost of the smart building energy consumption was minimized by decreasing the power supplied from the grid, especially at peak hours. Highlighting the use of a simple model that provided better performance than the current state of the art methodologies. The optimal model for energy management strategy demonstrated the advantages of using classical optimization techniques to solve this specific optimization problem, compared to a rule-based controller. The linear modeling was capable of producing a simple algorithm with less code development and a reduction in the computational effort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of the Effective Active Power Reserve for Fast Frequency Response of PV with BESS Inverters Considering Reactive Power Control
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3437; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133437 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The increasing presence of distributed generation (DG) in the electrical grid determines new challenges in grid operations, especially in terms of voltage and frequency regulation. Recently, several grid codes have required photovoltaic (PV) inverters to control their reactive power output in order to [...] Read more.
The increasing presence of distributed generation (DG) in the electrical grid determines new challenges in grid operations, especially in terms of voltage and frequency regulation. Recently, several grid codes have required photovoltaic (PV) inverters to control their reactive power output in order to provide voltage regulation services, and the allocation of a certain amount of active power reserve for fast frequency response (FFR) service during under-frequency contingencies is needed. This requirement involves a significant waste of energy for PV systems, due to the necessity to constantly operate in de-loaded mode, under normal operating conditions. In addition, the variability of the irradiance can affect the correct amount of active power reserve that the system can provide in the moments after an under-frequency occurrence. The increasing number of battery energy storage systems (BESSs), coupled to PV systems, can be used to provide a worthy contribution to this frequency regulation service. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of active power reserve provided by a BESS connected to the DC bus of a non-ideal grid-connected PV inverter, taking into account the impact of reactive power control. For this purpose, the contribution of BESSs to frequency regulation is discussed and, starting from an existing model of real inverter, an analytical formulation for active power reserve evaluation is presented. Results concerning the impact of reactive power control are also given. Finally, the possibility for a low voltage (LV) grid with aggregated PV systems and BESSs to contribute to grid active power reserve is considered. Different voltage control strategies are compared, defining a helpful new parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
How Does the Rate of Photovoltaic Installations and Coupled Batteries Affect Regional Energy Balancing and Self-Consumption of Residential Buildings?
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2738; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112738 - 29 May 2020
Abstract
The strong expansion of residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) and battery storage systems of recent years is expected to rise further. However, it is not yet clear to which degree buildings will be equipped with decentral energy producers. This study seeks to quantify the [...] Read more.
The strong expansion of residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) and battery storage systems of recent years is expected to rise further. However, it is not yet clear to which degree buildings will be equipped with decentral energy producers. This study seeks to quantify the effects of different PV and battery installation rates on the residential residual loads and grid balancing flows. A land surface model with an integrated residential energy component is applied, which maintains spatial peculiarities and allows a building-specific set-up of PV systems, batteries, and consumption loads. The study area covers 3163 residential buildings located in a municipality in the south of Germany. The obtained results show minor impacts on the residual loads for a PV installation rate of less than 10%. PV installation rates of one third of all residential buildings of the study region lead to the highest spatial balancing via the grid. The rise in self-consumption when utilizing batteries leads to declined grid balancing between the buildings. For high PV installation rates, regional balancing diminishes, whereas energy excesses rise to 60%. They can be decreased up to 10% by the utilization of battery systems. Therefore, we recommend subsidy programs adjusted to the respective PV installation rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Photovoltaic and Battery Storage Effects on the Load Matching Indicators Based on Real Monitored Data
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112727 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper reports on the electrical performance of two bloc-of-flats buildings located in Prague, Czech Republic. Measured data of electrical consumption were used to investigate the effect of photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) systems on the overlap between generation and [...] Read more.
This paper reports on the electrical performance of two bloc-of-flats buildings located in Prague, Czech Republic. Measured data of electrical consumption were used to investigate the effect of photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) systems on the overlap between generation and demand. Different PV array configurations and battery storage capacities were considered. Detailed solar analysis was carried out to analyze the solar potential of the building and to assess the PV electricity production. The evaluation of the building performance was done through MATLAB simulations based on one-year monitored data. The simulation results were used for the calculation of the load matching indices: namely, the self-consumption and self-sufficiency. It was found that optimized array tilt and orientation angles can effectively contribute to a better adjustment between electricity demand and solar PV generation. The addition of a façade PV system increases significantly the PV generation and thus the load matching during winter months. Mismatch is further reduced by using the energy flexibility provided by the BESS. Depending on the PV size and BESS capacity, the self-consumption and the self-sufficiency of the building could increase from 55% to 100% and from 24% up to 68%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Efficiency Estimation in Household Battery Energy Storage Equipment
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2719; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112719 - 28 May 2020
Abstract
Battery energy storage systems (BESS) are spreading in several applications among transmission and distribution networks. Nevertheless, it is not straightforward to estimate their performances in real life working conditions. This work is aimed at identifying test power profiles for stationary residential storage applications [...] Read more.
Battery energy storage systems (BESS) are spreading in several applications among transmission and distribution networks. Nevertheless, it is not straightforward to estimate their performances in real life working conditions. This work is aimed at identifying test power profiles for stationary residential storage applications capable of estimating BESS performance. The proposed approach is based on a clustering procedure devoted to group daily power profiles according to their battery efficiency. By performing a k-means clustering on a large dataset of load and generation profiles, four standard charge/discharge profiles have been identified to test BESS’ performances. Different clustering approaches have been considered, each of them splitting the dataset according to different properties of the profiles. A well-performing clustering approach resulted, based on the adoption of reference parameters for the clustering process of the maximum power exchanged by the BESS and the variation of battery energy content. Firstly, the results have been proven through a numerical procedure based on a BESS electrical model and on the definition of a key performance index. Then, an experimental validation has been carried out on a pre-commercial sodium-nickel chloride BESS: this device is available in the IoT lab of Politecnico di Milano within the H2020 InteGRIDy project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Net-Metering Compared to Battery-Based Electricity Storage in a Single-Case PV Application Study Considering the Lithuanian Context
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092286 - 05 May 2020
Abstract
Further increases in the number of photovoltaic installations in industry and residential buildings will require technologically and economically flexible energy storage solutions. Some countries utilize net-metering strategies, which use national networks as “virtual batteries.” Despite the financial attractiveness, net-metering faces many technological and [...] Read more.
Further increases in the number of photovoltaic installations in industry and residential buildings will require technologically and economically flexible energy storage solutions. Some countries utilize net-metering strategies, which use national networks as “virtual batteries.” Despite the financial attractiveness, net-metering faces many technological and economical challenges. It could also lead to the negative tendencies in prosumer behavior, such as a decrease in motivation for the self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV)-generated electricity. Batteries, which are installed on the prosumer’s premises, could be a solution in a particular case. However, the price for battery-based storage solutions is currently sufficiently unattractive for the average prosumer. This paper aimed to present a comparison of the economic and energy related aspects between net-metering and batteries for a single case study by considering the Lithuanian context. The net present value, degree of self-sufficiency, internal rate of return, payback time, and quantified reduction of carbon emission were calculated using a specially developed Prosumer solution simulation tool (Version 1.1, Delloite, Madrid, Spain) for both the PV and net-metering and PV and batteries cases. The received results highlight that the battery-based energy storage systems are currently not an attractive alternative in terms of price where net-metering is available; a rather radical decrease in the installation price for batteries is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Energy Communities
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4440; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234440 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
In this research, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials of electric vehicles, heat pumps, photovoltaic (PV) systems and batteries were determined in eight different countries: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Also, the difference between using prosuming electricity [...] Read more.
In this research, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials of electric vehicles, heat pumps, photovoltaic (PV) systems and batteries were determined in eight different countries: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Also, the difference between using prosuming electricity as a community (i.e., energy sharing) and prosuming it as an individual household was calculated. Results show that all investigated technologies have substantial GHG emission reduction potential. A strong moderating factor is the existing electricity generation mix of a country: the GHG emission reduction potential is highest in countries that currently have high hourly emission factors. GHG emission reduction potentials are highest in southern Europe (Portugal, Spain, Italy) and lowest in countries with a high share of nuclear energy (Belgium, France). Hence, from a European GHG emission reduction perspective, it has most impact to install PV in countries that currently have a fossil-fueled electricity mix and/or have high solar irradiation. Lastly, we have seen that energy sharing leads to an increased GHG emission reduction potential in all countries, because it leads to higher PV capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

INCREASING PHOTOVOLTAIC ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION ON CONGESTED TRANSMISSION LINES by Maaike Braat, Odysseas Tsafarakis, Ioannis Lampropoulos, Joris Besseling, Wilfried G. J.H. M. van Sark

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