# Modelling Energy Distribution in Residential Areas: A Case Study Including Energy Storage Systems in Catania, Southern Italy

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

## 3. Case Study and Scenarios

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- simulations run on a $\mathrm{T}=24\text{}\mathrm{h}$ cycle, with a temporal time-step of 60 s;
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- the electricity exchanges are permitted on the grounds of two different values of the $\mathrm{radius}$, i.e., $50\text{}\mathrm{m}$ and $200\text{}\mathrm{m}$ and when varying the installed solar capacity within the territory. In this case, and with respect to the territory and buildings’ characteristics, the maximum installed capacity of PV of the entire area has been estimated to be around $7708\text{}\mathrm{MW}/\mathrm{y}$, opportunely divided to consider specific days of simulation. Simulations have been conducted by varying the installed capacity at fixed steps; it is worth noting that the increased installed capacity within the territory also corresponds to the increase in the number of buildings that become producers due to the installation of PV panels. As said, the increase in PV panels satisfies the operating conditions previously commented on and related to shading, available area for cables and maintenance, and location of the cells relative to the sun;
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- the constraint on the usage of links for the exchange, i.e., the $\mathrm{limit}$, is posed at 0%, 5% and 10%. According to these values, links are counted if along them electricity is exchanged at least one time in the time interval (case 0%), or for 5% or 10% of the total simulation time (24 h), respectively.

## 4. Results and Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

#### Policy and Managerial Implications

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**(

**a**) Distribution patterns established on the grounds of the value of the $surplu{s}_{it}$; (

**b**) Direction of the energy exchange in accordance with the sign of the $surplu{s}_{it}$.

**Figure 5.**Case study area for (

**a**) nodes connected with $\mathrm{radius}=50\text{}\mathrm{m}$, (

**b**) nodes connected with $\mathrm{radius}=200\text{}\mathrm{m}$.

**Figure 8.**The $utilization\text{}rate$ in both scenarios at different $\mathrm{radius}$ and when varying the installed capacity on the urban territory when (

**a**) $\mathrm{limit}=0\%$; (

**b**) $\mathrm{limit}=5\%$ and (

**c**) $\mathrm{limit}=10\%$.

**Figure 9.**The $excess$ and the $central\text{}supply$ in both scenarios at different $\mathrm{radius}$ and when varying the installed capacity on the urban territory when (

**a**) $\mathrm{limit}=0\%$; (

**b**) $\mathrm{limit}=5\%$ and (

**c**) $\mathrm{limit}=10\%$.

**Figure 10.**Combined effect of the $excess$ and $central\text{}supply$ for $\mathrm{limit}=5\%$ under the two scenarios.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Fichera, A.; Pluchino, A.; Volpe, R. Modelling Energy Distribution in Residential Areas: A Case Study Including Energy Storage Systems in Catania, Southern Italy. *Energies* **2020**, *13*, 3715.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143715

**AMA Style**

Fichera A, Pluchino A, Volpe R. Modelling Energy Distribution in Residential Areas: A Case Study Including Energy Storage Systems in Catania, Southern Italy. *Energies*. 2020; 13(14):3715.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143715

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Fichera, Alberto, Alessandro Pluchino, and Rosaria Volpe. 2020. "Modelling Energy Distribution in Residential Areas: A Case Study Including Energy Storage Systems in Catania, Southern Italy" *Energies* 13, no. 14: 3715.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143715