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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Energy Communities

1
Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 8a, 3584 CB Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Institute for Renewable Energy, Eurac Research, Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4440; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234440
Received: 12 October 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 19 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Photovoltaic-Battery Systems)
In this research, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials of electric vehicles, heat pumps, photovoltaic (PV) systems and batteries were determined in eight different countries: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Also, the difference between using prosuming electricity as a community (i.e., energy sharing) and prosuming it as an individual household was calculated. Results show that all investigated technologies have substantial GHG emission reduction potential. A strong moderating factor is the existing electricity generation mix of a country: the GHG emission reduction potential is highest in countries that currently have high hourly emission factors. GHG emission reduction potentials are highest in southern Europe (Portugal, Spain, Italy) and lowest in countries with a high share of nuclear energy (Belgium, France). Hence, from a European GHG emission reduction perspective, it has most impact to install PV in countries that currently have a fossil-fueled electricity mix and/or have high solar irradiation. Lastly, we have seen that energy sharing leads to an increased GHG emission reduction potential in all countries, because it leads to higher PV capacities. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy sharing; life-cycle assessment; greenhouse gasses; hourly emission factors; battery electric vehicle; stationary battery; photovoltaics energy sharing; life-cycle assessment; greenhouse gasses; hourly emission factors; battery electric vehicle; stationary battery; photovoltaics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schram, W.; Louwen, A.; Lampropoulos, I.; van Sark, W. Comparison of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Energy Communities. Energies 2019, 12, 4440. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234440

AMA Style

Schram W, Louwen A, Lampropoulos I, van Sark W. Comparison of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Energy Communities. Energies. 2019; 12(23):4440. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234440

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schram, Wouter; Louwen, Atse; Lampropoulos, Ioannis; van Sark, Wilfried. 2019. "Comparison of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Energy Communities" Energies 12, no. 23: 4440. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234440

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