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Molecular Mechanisms of Bioactive Nutrients Promoting Human Health

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 2657

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Food Science and Technology Program, Department of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University United International College, Zhuhai 519087, China
Interests: food science; phytochemicals; nutraceuticals; pharmaceuticals; functional foods; molecular nutrition; cell biology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Substantial evidence has supported that cellular oxidative damage and chronic neuroinflammation are the potential mechanisms involved in the onset and development of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cancers, and even neurodegenerative disease. Some bioactive nutrients, such as phytochemicals, antioxidant enzymes, peptides, polysaccharides, prebiotics, probiotics, essential fatty acids, rare amino acids, minerals, and vitamins, have positive effects on human health and could reduce the likelihood of developing numerous diseases, probably attributed to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the underlying mechanism of how natural bioactive components respond to chronic human disease damage is unclear. In this Special Issue, we aim to present the latest findings, including in vitro, animal, or clinical studies, relating to the health-promoting role of bioactive nutrients or their cellular signaling and molecular mechanism in response to disease prevention.

Prof. Dr. Baojun Xu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bioactive nutrients
  • antioxidants
  • anti-inflammatory
  • disease prevention
  • molecular mechanisms

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 2493 KiB  
Article
Oat Beta-Glucan as a Metabolic Regulator in Early Stage of Colorectal Cancer—A Model Study on Azoxymethane-Treated Rats
by Jacek Wilczak, Adam Prostek, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Małgorzata Gajewska, Łukasz Kopiasz, Joanna Harasym, Michał Oczkowski and Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(9), 4635; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25094635 - 24 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Factors that reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer include biologically active substances. In our previous research, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant effects of oat beta-glucans in gastrointestinal disease models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of [...] Read more.
Factors that reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer include biologically active substances. In our previous research, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant effects of oat beta-glucans in gastrointestinal disease models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an 8-week consumption of a diet supplemented with low-molar-mass oat beta-glucan in two doses on the antioxidant potential, inflammatory parameters, and colonic metabolomic profile in azoxymethane(AOM)-induced early-stage colorectal cancer in the large intestine wall of rats. The results showed a statistically significant effect of AOM leading to the development of neoplastic changes in the colon. Consumption of beta-glucans induced changes in colonic antioxidant potential parameters, including an increase in total antioxidant status, a decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and a reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration. In addition, beta-glucans decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12) and C-reactive protein (CRP) while increasing the concentration of IL-10. Metabolomic studies confirmed the efficacy of oat beta-glucans in the AOM-induced early-stage colon cancer model by increasing the levels of metabolites involved in metabolic pathways, such as amino acids, purine, biotin, and folate. In conclusion, these results suggest a wide range of mechanisms involved in altering colonic metabolism during the early stage of carcinogenesis and a strong influence of low-molar-mass oat beta-glucan, administered as dietary supplement, in modulating these mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Bioactive Nutrients Promoting Human Health)
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22 pages, 4661 KiB  
Article
Chicoric Acid Effectively Mitigated Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis in BALB/c Mice by Modulating the Gut Microbiota and Fecal Metabolites
by Jiani Yang, Jie Lin, Ting Gu, Quancai Sun, Weidong Xu and Ye Peng
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(2), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25020841 - 10 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
Chicoric acid (CA) has been reported to exhibit biological activities; it remains unclear, however, whether CA could regulate colitis via modulation of the gut microbiota and metabolites. This study aimed to assess CA’s impact on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, the gut microbiota, [...] Read more.
Chicoric acid (CA) has been reported to exhibit biological activities; it remains unclear, however, whether CA could regulate colitis via modulation of the gut microbiota and metabolites. This study aimed to assess CA’s impact on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, the gut microbiota, and metabolites. Mice were induced with 2.5% DSS to develop colitis over a 7-day period. CA was administered intragastrically one week prior to DSS treatment and continued for 14 days. The microbial composition in the stool was determined using 16S rRNA sequencing, while non-targeted metabolomics was employed to analyze the metabolic profiles of each mouse group. The results show that CA effectively alleviated colitis, as evidenced by an increased colon length, lowered disease activity index (DAI) and histological scores, and decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression levels. CA intervention restored the structure of gut microbiota. Specifically, it decreased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria at the phylum level and Bacteroides, Rosiarcus, and unclassified Xanthobacteraceae at the genus level, and increased the abundance of unclassified Lachnospiraceae at the genus level. Metabolomic analysis revealed that CA supplementation reversed the up-regulation of asymmetric dimethylarginine, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and N-acetylneuraminic acid, as well as the down-regulation of phloroglucinol, thiamine, 4-methyl-5-thiazoleethanol, lithocholic acid, and oxymatrine induced by DSS. Our current research provides scientific evidence for developing CA into an anti-colitis functional food ingredient. Further clinical trials are warranted to elucidate the efficacy and mechanism of CA in treating human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Bioactive Nutrients Promoting Human Health)
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