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Open AccessArticle

The Health-Promoting Potential of Salix spp. Bark Polar Extracts: Key Insights on Phenolic Composition and In Vitro Bioactivity and Biocompatibility

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CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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CBQF—Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina—Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Rua de Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
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Biology Department and CESAM—Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120609
Received: 27 September 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Antioxidants and Health)
Salix spp. have been exploited for energy generation, along with folk medicine use of bark extracts for antipyretic and analgesic benefits. Bark phenolic components, rather than salicin, have demonstrated interesting bioactivities, which may ensure the sustainable bioprospection of Salix bark. Therefore, this study highlights the detailed phenolic characterization, as well as the in vitro antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, Staphylococcus aureus growth inhibitory effects, and biocompatibility of Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix fragilis L., and Salix viminalis L. bark polar extracts. Fifteen phenolic compounds were characterized by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection-mass spectrometry analysis, from which two flavan-3-ols, an acetophenone, five flavanones, and a flavonol were detected, for the first time, as their bark components. Salix bark extracts demonstrated strong free radical scavenging activity (5.58–23.62 µg mL−1 IC50 range), effective inhibition on angiotensin-I converting enzyme (58–84%), and S. aureus bactericidal action at 1250–2500 µg mL−1 (6–8 log CFU mL−1 reduction range). All tested Salix bark extracts did not show cytotoxic potential against Caco-2 cells, as well as S. atrocinerea Brot. and S. fragilis L. extracts at 625 and 1250 µg mL−1 against HaCaT and L929 cells. These valuable findings can pave innovative and safer food, nutraceutical, and/or cosmetic applications of Salix bark phenolic-containing fractions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salix spp. bark polar extracts; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity; anti-hypertensive potential; antibacterial effect; bioeconomy-based value chain Salix spp. bark polar extracts; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity; anti-hypertensive potential; antibacterial effect; bioeconomy-based value chain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramos, P.A.B.; Moreirinha, C.; Silva, S.; Costa, E.M.; Veiga, M.; Coscueta, E.; Santos, S.A.O.; Almeida, A.; Pintado, M.M.; Freire, C.S.R.; Silva, A.M.S.; Silvestre, A.J.D. The Health-Promoting Potential of Salix spp. Bark Polar Extracts: Key Insights on Phenolic Composition and In Vitro Bioactivity and Biocompatibility. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 609.

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