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Molecular Mechanisms of Bioactive Nutrients Promoting Health through Gut Microbiota 2.0

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 June 2024 | Viewed by 39565

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Food Science and Technology Program, Department of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University United International College, Zhuhai 519087, China
Interests: phytochemicals; natural products; functional foods; human health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro”, Largo Donegani 2, 28100 Novara, Italy
Interests: food chemistry; gas chromatography; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; polyphenols; volatile compounds; wine chemistry; extraction; fermentation; prebiotic compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is becoming clear that human gut microbiota plays a critical role in human health. The human gut microbiota, depending on dietary intake and consequently nutrient availability within the gut, can produce either harmful metabolite led to human diseases or beneficial compounds that protect against host diseases.  Abnormal gut microbiota can produce endotoxins, which enhance the chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by bioactive food components to balance its compositions becomes a promising strategy to help manage colon health and host health. Bioactive components obtained from dietary source which are designed and characterized to meet human nutritional and immunological needs as well as balance the gut microbiota. The goal of this special issue is to collect the latest research findings on the interrelationship among bioactive food components (such as phytochemicals and complex carbohydrates), gut microbiota, colon stem cells, and chronic metabolic diseases. Health benefits of small molecular phytochemicals and large biopolymer polysaccharides have been reported in different disciplines; however it is not clear that how gut microbiota metabolize these dietary phytochemicals and polymers; it is also not clear that how the gut metabolites from these dietary compounds further affect.

Prof. Dr. Baojun Xu
Dr. Matteo Bordiga
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • phytochemicals
  • complex carbohydrates
  • bioactive nutrients
  • gut microbiota
  • prebiotics
  • probiotics
  • inflammation
  • molecular mechanisms
  • human health

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1872 KiB  
Article
Bifidobacterium longum and Chlorella sorokiniana Combination Modulates IFN-γ, IL-10, and SOCS3 in Rotavirus-Infected Cells
by Felizardo Velderrain-Armenta, Guadalupe González-Ochoa, Patricia Tamez-Guerra, Ricardo Romero-Arguelles, César I. Romo-Sáenz, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Lilian Flores-Mendoza, Ramona Icedo-García and José G. Soñanez-Organis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(10), 5514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25105514 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Rotavirus is the main cause of acute diarrhea in children up to five years of age. In this regard, probiotics are commonly used to treat or prevent gastroenteritis including viral infections. The anti-rotavirus effect of Bifidobacterium longum and Chlorella sorokiniana, by reducing [...] Read more.
Rotavirus is the main cause of acute diarrhea in children up to five years of age. In this regard, probiotics are commonly used to treat or prevent gastroenteritis including viral infections. The anti-rotavirus effect of Bifidobacterium longum and Chlorella sorokiniana, by reducing viral infectivity and improving IFN-type I response, has been previously reported. The present study aimed to study the effect of B. longum and/or C. sorokiniana on modulating the antiviral cellular immune response mediated by IFN-γ, IL-10, SOCS3, STAT1, and STAT2 genes in rotavirus-infected cells. To determine the mRNA relative expression of these genes, HT-29 cells were treated with B. longum and C. sorokiniana alone or in combination, followed by rotavirus infection. In addition, infected cells were treated with B. longum and/or C. sorokiniana. Cellular RNA was purified, used for cDNA synthesis, and amplified by qPCR. Our results demonstrated that the combination of B. longum and C. sorokiniana stimulates the antiviral cellular immune response by upregulating IFN-γ and may block pro-inflammatory cytokines by upregulating IL-10 and SOCS3. The results of our study indicated that B. longum, C. sorokiniana, or their combination improve antiviral cellular immune response and might modulate pro-inflammatory responses. Full article
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15 pages, 2621 KiB  
Article
Bergamot Polyphenolic Extract Combined with Albedo and Pulp Fibres Counteracts Changes in Gut Microbiota Associated with High-Fat Diet: Implications for Lipoprotein Size Re-Arrangement
by Rocco Mollace, Roberta Macrì, Martina Nicita, Vincenzo Musolino, Micaela Gliozzi, Cristina Carresi, Irene Bava, Jessica Maiuolo, Annamaria Tavernese, Antonio Cardamone, Luigi Tucci, Giuseppe Trunfio, Elzbieta Janda, Ernesto Palma, Carolina Muscoli, Francesco Barillà, Massimo Federici, Federica Scarano and Vincenzo Mollace
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(16), 12967; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241612967 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Evidence exists that the gut microbiota contributes to the alterations of lipid metabolism associated with high-fat diet (HFD). Moreover, the gut microbiota has been found to modulate the metabolism and absorption of dietary lipids, thereby affecting the formation of lipoproteins occurring at the [...] Read more.
Evidence exists that the gut microbiota contributes to the alterations of lipid metabolism associated with high-fat diet (HFD). Moreover, the gut microbiota has been found to modulate the metabolism and absorption of dietary lipids, thereby affecting the formation of lipoproteins occurring at the intestinal level as well as systemically, though the pathophysiological implication of altered microbiota composition in HFD and its role in the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease (ATVD) remain to be better clarified. Recently, evidence has been collected indicating that supplementation with natural polyphenols and fibres accounts for an improvement of HFD-associated intestinal dysbiosis, thereby leading to improved lipidaemic profile. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of a bergamot polyphenolic extract (BPE) containing 48% polyphenols enriched with albedo and pulp-derived micronized fibres (BMF) in the gut microbiota of HFD-induced dyslipidaemia. In particular, rats that received an HFD over a period of four consecutive weeks showed a significant increase in plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and plasma glucose compared to a normal-fat diet (NFD) group. This effect was accompanied by body weight increase and alteration of lipoprotein size and concentration, followed by high levels of MDA, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. Treatment with a combination of BPE plus BMF (50/50%) resulted in a significant reduction in alterations of the metabolic parameters found in HFD-fed rats, an effect associated with increased size of lipoproteins. Furthermore, the effect of BPE plus BMF treatment on metabolic balance and lipoprotein size re-arrangement was associated with reduced gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, an effect subsequent to improved gut microbiota as expressed by modulation of the Gram-negative bacteria Proteobacteria, as well as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. This study suggests that nutraceutical supplementation of HFD-fed rats with BPE and BMP or with their combination product leads to restored gut microbiota, an effect associated with lipoprotein size re-arrangement and better lipidaemic and metabolic profiles. Full article
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15 pages, 1668 KiB  
Article
Integrated Multi-Omics Analysis Reveals Differential Effects of Fructo-Oligosaccharides (FOS) Supplementation on the Human Gut Ecosystem
by Tamotsu Kato, Masaharu Kagawa, Wataru Suda, Yuuri Tsuboi, Sayo Inoue-Suzuki, Jun Kikuchi, Masahira Hattori, Toshiko Ohta and Hiroshi Ohno
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(19), 11728; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231911728 - 3 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Changes in the gut ecosystem, including the microbiome and the metabolome, and the host immune system after fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation were evaluated. The supplementation of FOS showed large inter-individual variability in the absolute numbers of fecal bacteria and an increase in Bifidobacterium. [...] Read more.
Changes in the gut ecosystem, including the microbiome and the metabolome, and the host immune system after fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation were evaluated. The supplementation of FOS showed large inter-individual variability in the absolute numbers of fecal bacteria and an increase in Bifidobacterium. The fecal metabolome analysis revealed individual variability in fructose utilization in response to FOS supplementation. In addition, immunoglobulin A(IgA) tended to increase upon FOS intake, and peripheral blood monocytes significantly decreased upon FOS intake and kept decreasing in the post-FOS phase. Further analysis using a metagenomic approach showed that the differences could be at least in part due to the differences in gene expressions of enzymes that are involved in the fructose metabolism pathway. While the study showed individual differences in the expected health benefits of FOS supplementation, the accumulation of “personalized” knowledge of the gut ecosystem with its genetic expression may enable effective instructions on prebiotic consumption to optimize health benefits for individuals in the future. Full article
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16 pages, 5897 KiB  
Article
Egg Protein Transferrin-Derived Peptides Irw (Lle-Arg-Trp) and Iqw (Lle-Gln-Trp) Prevent Obesity Mouse Model Induced by a High-Fat Diet via Reducing Lipid Deposition and Reprogramming Gut Microbiota
by Zhuangzhuang Liu, Sujuan Ding, Hongmei Jiang and Jun Fang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(19), 11227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231911227 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1726
Abstract
Egg-derived peptides play important roles in insulin secretion and sensitivity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, suggesting their possible involvement in obesity management. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore the alleviating effects of IRW (lle-Arg-Trp) and IQW (lle-Gln-Trp) on obesity via the [...] Read more.
Egg-derived peptides play important roles in insulin secretion and sensitivity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, suggesting their possible involvement in obesity management. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore the alleviating effects of IRW (lle-Arg-Trp) and IQW (lle-Gln-Trp) on obesity via the mouse model induced by a high-fat diet. The entire experimental period lasted eight weeks. The results demonstrated that IQW prevented weight gain (6.52%), decreased the glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), malonaldehyde, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), and leptin levels, and increased the concentration of adiponectin (p < 0.05, n = 8). Although IRW failed to prevent weight gain, it reduced the concentration of glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL, and leptin, and increased the concentration of adiponectin (p < 0.05, n = 8). Moreover, IRW and IQW increased glucose tolerance and insulin resistance based on the results of the intraperitoneal glucose test and insulin tolerance test (p < 0.05, n = 8). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction results revealed that IRW and IQW downregulated the mRNA expression of DGAT1 (Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase 1), DGAT2 (Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase 2), TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β of liver tissue (p < 0.05, n = 8). The results of the 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing showed that IQW and IRW tended to reduce the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Parabacteroides, and that IRW enhanced the abundance of Bacteroides (p < 0.05, n = 8). Collectively, IRW and IQW supplementation could alleviate the progression of obesity due to the fact that the supplementation reduced lipid deposition, maintained energy balance, and reprogrammed gut microbiota. Full article
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Review

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45 pages, 4517 KiB  
Review
Polyphenols as Drivers of a Homeostatic Gut Microecology and Immuno-Metabolic Traits of Akkermansia muciniphila: From Mouse to Man
by María Carolina Rodríguez-Daza and Willem M. de Vos
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24010045 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 7517
Abstract
Akkermansia muciniphila is a mucosal symbiont considered a gut microbial marker in healthy individuals, as its relative abundance is significantly reduced in subjects with gut inflammation and metabolic disturbances. Dietary polyphenols can distinctly stimulate the relative abundance of A. muciniphila, contributing to [...] Read more.
Akkermansia muciniphila is a mucosal symbiont considered a gut microbial marker in healthy individuals, as its relative abundance is significantly reduced in subjects with gut inflammation and metabolic disturbances. Dietary polyphenols can distinctly stimulate the relative abundance of A. muciniphila, contributing to the attenuation of several diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, and liver damage. However, mechanistic insight into how polyphenols stimulate A. muciniphila or its activity is limited. This review focuses on dietary interventions in rodents and humans and in vitro studies using different phenolic classes. We provide critical insights with respect to potential mechanisms explaining the effects of polyphenols affecting A. muciniphila. Anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavanones, stilbenes, and phenolic acids are shown to increase relative A. muciniphila levels in vivo, whereas lignans exert the opposite effect. Clinical trials show consistent findings, and high intervariability relying on the gut microbiota composition at the baseline and the presence of multiple polyphenol degraders appear to be cardinal determinants in inducing A. muciniphila and associated benefits by polyphenol intake. Polyphenols signal to the AhR receptor and impact the relative abundance of A. muciniphila in a direct and indirect fashion, resulting in the restoration of intestinal epithelial integrity and homeostatic crosstalk with the gut microbiota by affecting IL-22 production. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that A. muciniphila participates in the initial hydrolysis of some polyphenols but does not participate in their complete metabolism. In conclusion, the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods targeting A. muciniphila as a pivotal intermediary represents a promising precision nutritional therapy to prevent and attenuate metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Full article
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40 pages, 5415 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Plant Phytochemicals on the Gut Microbiota of Humans for a Balanced Life
by Sarusha Santhiravel, Alaa El-Din A. Bekhit, Eresha Mendis, Joe L. Jacobs, Frank R. Dunshea, Niranjan Rajapakse and Eric N. Ponnampalam
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158124 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 10486
Abstract
The gastrointestinal tract of humans is a complex microbial ecosystem known as gut microbiota. The microbiota is involved in several critical physiological processes such as digestion, absorption, and related physiological functions and plays a crucial role in determining the host’s health. The habitual [...] Read more.
The gastrointestinal tract of humans is a complex microbial ecosystem known as gut microbiota. The microbiota is involved in several critical physiological processes such as digestion, absorption, and related physiological functions and plays a crucial role in determining the host’s health. The habitual consumption of specific dietary components can impact beyond their nutritional benefits, altering gut microbiota diversity and function and could manipulate health. Phytochemicals are non-nutrient biologically active plant components that can modify the composition of gut microflora through selective stimulation of proliferation or inhibition of certain microbial communities in the intestine. Plants secrete these components, and they accumulate in the cell wall and cell sap compartments (body) for their development and survival. These compounds have low bioavailability and long time-retention in the intestine due to their poor absorption, resulting in beneficial impacts on gut microbiota population. Feeding diets containing phytochemicals to humans and animals may offer a path to improve the gut microbiome resulting in improved performance and/or health and wellbeing. This review discusses the effects of phytochemicals on the modulation of the gut microbiota environment and the resultant benefits to humans; however, the effect of phytochemicals on the gut microbiota of animals is also covered, in brief. Full article
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31 pages, 8028 KiB  
Review
Prebiotics as a Tool for the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity and Diabetes: Classification and Ability to Modulate the Gut Microbiota
by Ashwinipriyadarshini Megur, Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Daiva Baltriukienė and Aurelijus Burokas
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(11), 6097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23116097 - 29 May 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 9909
Abstract
Diabetes and obesity are metabolic diseases that have become alarming conditions in recent decades. Their rate of increase is becoming a growing concern worldwide. Recent studies have established that the composition and dysfunction of the gut microbiota are associated with the development of [...] Read more.
Diabetes and obesity are metabolic diseases that have become alarming conditions in recent decades. Their rate of increase is becoming a growing concern worldwide. Recent studies have established that the composition and dysfunction of the gut microbiota are associated with the development of diabetes. For this reason, strategies such as the use of prebiotics to improve intestinal microbial structure and function have become popular. Consumption of prebiotics for modulating the gut microbiota results in the production of microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids that play essential roles in reducing blood glucose levels, mitigating insulin resistance, reducing inflammation, and promoting the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 in the host, and this accounts for the observed remission of metabolic diseases. Prebiotics can be either naturally extracted from non-digestible carbohydrate materials or synthetically produced. In this review, we discussed current findings on how the gut microbiota and microbial metabolites may influence host metabolism to promote health. We provided evidence from various studies that show the ability of prebiotic consumption to alter gut microbial profile, improve gut microbial metabolism and functions, and improve host physiology to alleviate diabetes and obesity. We conclude among other things that the application of systems biology coupled with bioinformatics could be essential in ascertaining the exact mechanisms behind the prebiotic–gut microbe–host interactions required for diabetes and obesity improvement. Full article
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17 pages, 1188 KiB  
Review
An Insight into Anti-Inflammatory Activities and Inflammation Related Diseases of Anthocyanins: A Review of Both In Vivo and In Vitro Investigations
by Zilong Ma, Bin Du, Jun Li, Yuedong Yang and Fengmei Zhu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 11076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011076 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 4102
Abstract
Anthocyanin is a type of flavonoid pigment widely present in fruits and vegetables. It can not only be used as natural pigment, but also has a variety of health functions, for instance, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and neuroprotective activities. Persistent proinflammatory status is a [...] Read more.
Anthocyanin is a type of flavonoid pigment widely present in fruits and vegetables. It can not only be used as natural pigment, but also has a variety of health functions, for instance, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and neuroprotective activities. Persistent proinflammatory status is a major factor in the development, progression, and complications of chronic diseases. Not surprisingly, there are thus many food ingredients that can potentially affect inflammation related diseases and many studies have shown that anthocyanins play an important role in inflammatory pathways. In this paper, the inflammation related diseases (such as, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer) of anthocyanins are introduced, and the anti-inflammatory effect of anthocyanins is emphatically introduced. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of anthocyanins is elaborated from the aspects of NF-κB, toll like receptor, MAPKs, NO, and ROS and the main efficacy of anthocyanins in inflammation and related diseases is determined. In conclusion, this review aims to get a clear insight into the role of anthocyanins in inflammation related diseases. Full article
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