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Biol. Life Sci. Forum, 2021, Foods 2021

The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Foods—“Future Foods and Food Technologies for a Sustainable World”

Online | 15–30 October 2021

Volume Editor:
Arun K. Bhunia, Purdue University, USA

Number of Papers: 125
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume of conference proceedings aims to gather the papers presented at the 2nd International Electronic Conference on Foods, “Future Foods and Food Technologies for a Sustainable [...] Read more.
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2 pages, 202 KiB  
Abstract
Enrichment of Bread with Lycium barbarum (Goji) Puree
by Monica Rosa Loizzo, Antonio Mincione, Rosa Tundis and Vincenzo Sicari
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10924 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 766
Abstract
With a great variety of foods on the market, the consumer’s responsibility is to choose food that can allow him to maintain his state of health and prevent chronic diseases. For this reason, several functional foods classified as fortified or enriched are currently [...] Read more.
With a great variety of foods on the market, the consumer’s responsibility is to choose food that can allow him to maintain his state of health and prevent chronic diseases. For this reason, several functional foods classified as fortified or enriched are currently being developed. In fact, the functional food market size is estimated to reach USD 267,924.4 million by 2027 [1]. Functional foods are able to provide essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and bioactive substances. The opportunities for incorporating these bioactive constituents into bread have grown rapidly, as bread is the staple food in many countries. Lycium barbarum (goji) berries are a source of phytochemicals with important biological functions and are designated as super-fruits [2]. The aim of the study was to add goji puree at different percentages (50% and 70%) to the bread dough. To evaluate the characteristics of bread enriched in goji puree, chemical–physical, sensory, rheological analysis and radical scavenging activity tests were carried out [3,4]. The best results were obtained with the sample enriched with 50% goji puree (B50G), showing a total phenol content of 42.07 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g bread and an ABTS radical scavenging activity of 833.48 µmol Trolox/100 g bread. Bread sensory profile was identified by a trained panel using quantitative descriptive analysis, showing significant differences compared with the untreated sample in terms of crust, crumb colour and structural crunchiness, while olfactory and gustatory descriptors did not differ significantly. Furthermore, the enriched product is characterized by a higher content of bioactive substances, with particular reference to phenolic compounds, and by an interesting antioxidant activity. The absence of substantial changes in the sensory profile represents another fundamental aspect appreciated by the consumers. Collectively, our results demonstrate the potential health properties of this enriched bread. Full article
2 pages, 218 KiB  
Abstract
Nutritional Composition and Biological Activity of Goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.): An Emerging Fruit Crop in Portugal
by Mikel Añibarro-Ortega, José Pinela, Jovana Petrović, Miguel A. Prieto, Marina Soković, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, Jesus Simal-Gandara and Lillian Barros
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10949 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 966
Abstract
European consumers have a growing interest in new fruits and flavours, which has promoted the production and commercialisation of exotic fruits such as goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L., Fam. Solanaceae). Colombia and South Africa are currently the main producers of this fruit, but [...] Read more.
European consumers have a growing interest in new fruits and flavours, which has promoted the production and commercialisation of exotic fruits such as goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L., Fam. Solanaceae). Colombia and South Africa are currently the main producers of this fruit, but it can be cultivated in almost all the highlands of the tropics and in several parts of the subtropics, given its ability to adapt to a wide range of agroecological conditions [1]. Consumer demand for this small orange berry has also been driven by its nutritional value and health-promoting effects [2]. Although there have been different studies about this fruit, the available information is still scarce. Furthermore, the fruit quality attributes can vary depending on the agricultural practices used and the edaphoclimatic conditions of the growing sites. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional composition and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of goldenberry cultivated in the northeast region of Portugal. Goldenberry samples were lyophilised and analysed to determine their proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat, ash, dietary fibre, and carbohydrates), following official methods of food analysis [3]. Their profiles of sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, and tocopherols were characterised by standardised chromatographic methods [3]. The powdered goldenberry sample was also prepared in a hydroethanolic extract used for the evaluation of antioxidant activity (by oxidative haemolysis and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays) and antimicrobial effects against foodborne bacteria and fungi (by serial microdilution methods) [3]. The nutritional analysis revealed high levels of carbohydrates (manly fructose and glucose) and fibre and a lipid fraction consisting mainly of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Citric and ascorbic acids were detected in high amounts, as well as the four tocopherol isoforms. The hydroethanolic berry extract showed capacity for inhibiting haemolytic oxidation and lipid peroxidation, antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, and antifungal activity against Aspergillus and Penicillium strains. Overall, this work highlighted the nutritional value of goldenberry, which has been noted as a functional fruit with a growing presence in the Portuguese market. Full article
2 pages, 205 KiB  
Abstract
Targeted HPLC-UV-FLD Polyphenolics to Assess Paprika Geographical Origin
by Xavi Collado, Guillem Campmajó, Sònia Sentellas, Javier Saurina and Oscar Núñez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10923 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Paprika is a red powder seasoning with a characteristic flavour obtained from the drying and grinding of red pepper fruits of the genus Capsicum (Solanaceae family). In Europe, seven paprika products are distinguished with the protected designation of origin (PDO) label, which ensures [...] Read more.
Paprika is a red powder seasoning with a characteristic flavour obtained from the drying and grinding of red pepper fruits of the genus Capsicum (Solanaceae family). In Europe, seven paprika products are distinguished with the protected designation of origin (PDO) label, which ensures a high-quality product through strict requirements, leading to higher retail prices than unlabelled paprika and making them susceptible to fraudulent practices. Contents of polyphenol and phenolic compounds depend on several factors, such as the environmental conditions of the production area. Thus, in the present study, a simple and feasible high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescent detection (HPLC-UV-FLD) method was developed to determine 17 polyphenols in paprika samples, aiming to authenticate them through chemometrics. Reversed-phase chromatographic separation was optimised, using a C18 column and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase components. The proposed methodology exhibited limits of detection below 0.9 mg L−1, as well as good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.984), precision (RSD day-to-day values below 24%), and trueness (relative errors below 14%). Moreover, compound confirmation was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The proposed methodology was applied to 109 paprika samples, including samples from Spain (La Vera PDO, Murcia PDO, and Mallorca PDO), Hungary, and the Czech Republic. The obtained HPLC-UV-FLD polyphenolic profiles were employed as sample chemical descriptors to authenticate paprika geographical origin using a classification decision tree constructed via partial least squares regression–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models. As a result, a sample classification rate of 87.8% was reached after external validation. Moreover, two different paprika geographical origin blend scenarios (La Vera vs. Murcia and the Czech Republic vs. Murcia) were evaluated through partial least squares (PLS) regression, allowing blend percentage prediction with errors below 10.8% after external validation. Full article
2 pages, 205 KiB  
Abstract
Assessment of the Polyphenolic Composition of Orange Waste from Agri-Food Industries by HPLC-UV-MS/MS
by Àlex Cáceres, Mercè Granados, Javier Saurina and Sonia Sentellas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10935 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 656
Abstract
The industrial production of orange juices generates large amounts of waste highly rich in polyphenolic compounds with great antioxidant properties. Hence, in the framework of circular economy, orange residues result in an excellent source of valuable byproducts that can be recovered and purified [...] Read more.
The industrial production of orange juices generates large amounts of waste highly rich in polyphenolic compounds with great antioxidant properties. Hence, in the framework of circular economy, orange residues result in an excellent source of valuable byproducts that can be recovered and purified to be further used in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. In this work, orange waste consisting of solid mixtures of skin and pulp residues have been treated with water and hydroalcoholic solutions under mechanical shaking to recover the polyphenolic components. The resulting extracts have been centrifuged and filtered, and solutions obtained have been analyzed chromatographically to try to identify the most remarkable phenolic species they contain. The analytical method relies on reversed phase (C18) liquid chromatography with UV/vis and mass spectrometric (MS) detection using 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the components of the mobile phase. Chromatograms have been acquired with UV detection at 280, 325 and 370 nm, and MS (low and high resolution) detection with different acquisition modes, including full scan, data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Results have confirmed the presence of astilbin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferulic acid, diosmin, caffeic acid, hesperetin, naringenin and hesperidin, which have also been quantified using HPLC-MS. Hesperidin is the major compound in the extract solutions, with a concentration of about 30 mg L−1. Naringenin and hesperetin are found at concentrations of about 13 and 3 mg L−1, respectively, and the rest of the compounds are found at concentrations below 1 mg L−1. Full article
2 pages, 192 KiB  
Abstract
Cooking with Microwave Bags Affects the Quality of Broccoli: Easy-to-Cook Is a Friend or Foe?
by Erika Paulsen, Diego A. Moreno, Paula M. Periago and Patricia Lema
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11059 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Cooking vegetables in microwave bags has become a popular cooking method. However, information about the effect of this cooking method on the phytochemical content and microbiological safety of vegetables is limited. The aim of this work was to study the effect of microwave-bag [...] Read more.
Cooking vegetables in microwave bags has become a popular cooking method. However, information about the effect of this cooking method on the phytochemical content and microbiological safety of vegetables is limited. The aim of this work was to study the effect of microwave-bag cooking vs. conventional microwaving, on the phytochemical content and microbiological quality of broccoli florets. The influence of cooking time on these quality parameters was also evaluated. Broccoli florets were placed into microwaveable bags and cooked in a microwave oven for 3 and 5 min. The product cooked under the same conditions, without using bag, was used as a control. Samples were taken before and after cooking. Glucosinolate (GSL) content and hydroxycinnamic acid (HCAs) content were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. To evaluate the microbiological quality, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and moulds and yeasts were analyzed. Microwaving broccoli for 3 min showed no significant losses of total GSL content, regardless of cooking method. For 5 min cooking, microwave-bag-cooked broccoli showed higher total GSL content (32.3 ± 2.6 μmol g−1) than conventional microwaved broccoli (26.4 ± 1.3 μmol g−1). HACs content declined by 40% compared to fresh broccoli, in all conditions (from 2.52 ± 0.08 μmol g−1 to 1.52 ± 0.31 μmol g−1). Microwave-bag cooking showed a greater reduction in mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria than conventional microwaving. The counts of moulds and yeasts were <102 cfu/g, independently of cooking method and time applied. Microwave-bag cooking is a novel method that has been shown to be microbiologically safe, as well as preserving GSL content, the main bioactive compound of broccoli. Furthermore, this option is a fast, easy and clean cooking option, to fulfill modern consumers’ needs. Full article
2 pages, 165 KiB  
Abstract
Effect of Different Drying Methods on Quality Attributes and Microstructure of Mycelium (Pleurotus eryngii)
by Shubham Mandliya and Hari Niwas Mishra
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10950 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Expanding populations and limited natural resources are leading to demands for alternative dietary proteins. The world food supply needs to be increased to feed the increasing population with the same limited resources. To overcome the hunger problem, alternative protein sources such as fungal [...] Read more.
Expanding populations and limited natural resources are leading to demands for alternative dietary proteins. The world food supply needs to be increased to feed the increasing population with the same limited resources. To overcome the hunger problem, alternative protein sources such as fungal “Mycelium” can be regarded as a novel, sustainable and safe dietary protein to support health with limited resources (water, land) and with a lower carbon footprint. Although, mycelium is rich in various minerals, vitamin D2, fibers, essential amino acids along with protein, its storage life is relatively short due to its high moisture content (89% wb). Thus, drying of mycelium would facilitate shelf-life enhancement for further processing. Moving in this direction, cold pressing as a pre-processing step was conducted to reduce the initial moisture of mycelium so as to reduce the drying time and cost by a significant amount. Then, the influence of different drying techniques such as vacuum (VD), microwave (MWD) and freeze (FD) drying methods on quality attributes such as color, microstructure (SEM), water solubility index, water absorption index, bulk and tapped density, and flowability of Pleurotus eryngii was determined. Pressing at 5 N for 30 s reduced drying time by approximately 50–55%. FD was the most effective which retained the main characteristics of P. eryngii followed by VD and MWD. SEM analysis showed that FD sample contains porous fibrous structure, whereas MWD and VD samples contain a hard structure with less or no pores. Finally, despite having the shortest drying time, MWD and VD damages the structure of P. eryngii, whereas nutrient loss is not significant in all the drying processes. Full article
2 pages, 206 KiB  
Abstract
Characterization of Musts, Wines and Sparkling Wines Based on Their Elemental Composition Determined by ICP-OES and ICP-MS
by Biel Granell, Anaïs Izquierdo-Llopart, Àngels Sahuquillo, Javier Saurina and Jose Fermín López-Sánchez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10928 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 635
Abstract
The control of the composition of food products with protected designation of origin, such as wines and sparkling wines, is essential to prevent fraudulent practices and adulterations. A wide range of compounds can be used as tentative biomarkers for the characterization and authentication [...] Read more.
The control of the composition of food products with protected designation of origin, such as wines and sparkling wines, is essential to prevent fraudulent practices and adulterations. A wide range of compounds can be used as tentative biomarkers for the characterization and authentication purposes, with elemental composition being one of the most successful sources of information, especially for dealing with geographical origin and varietal issues. Currently, Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) are the techniques of choice to carry out multi-elemental analysis of these kinds of beverages in a rapid and simple way. In our study, samples from the different processing stages in the elaboration of sparkling wine (cava)—including must, base wine and sparkling wine—of Pinot Noir and Xarel·lo grape varieties have been analyzed by ICP techniques to determine the elemental composition. The resulting data have been used to classify these products according to oenological practices and product qualities. For this purpose, principal components analysis, box plot diagrams and bar charts have been used. Different markers and sample patterns have been found to deal with changes resulting from the different steps of the production process of cava wines. Results have revealed the relevance of some elements as descriptors of winemaking processes. For instance, Cu and K are abundant in must and their concentrations progressively decrease through the cava production process. S levels suddenly increase at the base wine step (and further decay) of the addition of sulphites as preserving species. Finally, concentrations of Na, Ca, Fe and Mg increase from the first fermentation due to the addition of clarifying agents such as bentonite. Full article
2 pages, 177 KiB  
Abstract
Food-to-Food Fortification of Rice Flour (Swarna Cv.) Using Dried Basil, Marjoram, and Spearmint Leaves Powders: A Physicochemical and Nutritional Study
by Siddharth Vishwakarma, Chandrakant Genu Dalbhagat and Hari Niwas Mishra
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10947 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Food-to-food fortification (FtFF) is an emerging technique used to enrich nutrient-deficient foods by adding foods with relatively high amounts of one or more than one type of micro- and macronutrients. The dried leaves of herbs such as basil, marjoram, and spearmint have excellent [...] Read more.
Food-to-food fortification (FtFF) is an emerging technique used to enrich nutrient-deficient foods by adding foods with relatively high amounts of one or more than one type of micro- and macronutrients. The dried leaves of herbs such as basil, marjoram, and spearmint have excellent nutritional properties. These can fortify staple raw materials such as rice flour (RF) to produce gluten-free fortified products. Thus, in this study, an attempt was made to find the effect of these dried herbs on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of RF with skim milk powder (SMP) (3% w/w) already added at different fortification levels (FLs) (1–4% w/w). The physicochemical and nutritional properties viz., water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), oil absorption capacity (OAC), water absorption capacity (WAC), solubility (SL), iron (Fe), and proximate analysis were calculated. Results showed insignificant (p > 0.05) changes in all physicochemical properties at 1% addition of marjoram, spearmint, and basil as compared to the control. Further, an insignificant (p > 0.05) increase in WAI was noticed at 2% addition of marjoram, spearmint, and basil. Similar, no significant (p > 0.05) change in WAI was noticed up to the highest FL in all fortificants. An opposite behavior was observed with the WSI for marjoram; however, no significant (p > 0.05) change was observed with spearmint among all FLs. In addition, basil at 4% fortification caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in WSI as compared to control. For WAC, neither marjoram nor spearmint resulted in any significant (p > 0.05) change among all FLs but basil at 4% showed a significant (p < 0.05) change. A similar result was noticed for SL. Nevertheless, a significant (p < 0.05) color change was observed at all FLs. The iron, protein, and crude fiber levels were significant (p < 0.05) and they all improved at 4% fortification. A similar result was noticed for carbohydrate, energy, and crude fat levels with a higher FL. This study will help food processors to formulate fortified foods using dried herbs. Full article
2 pages, 215 KiB  
Abstract
Recovery of Polyphenols and Compounds with Antioxidant Activity from Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) through the Use of Different Organic Solvents Assisted by Pulsed Electric Fields
by Francisco J. Martí-Quijal, Francisco J. Barba and Francesc Ramon-Mascarell
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10963 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Currently, there is a growing nutritional interest in microalgae because they are a good source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. These bioactive compounds include polyphenols, which are known to be beneficial to health due to their antioxidant capacity. However, their extraction by conventional [...] Read more.
Currently, there is a growing nutritional interest in microalgae because they are a good source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. These bioactive compounds include polyphenols, which are known to be beneficial to health due to their antioxidant capacity. However, their extraction by conventional methods requires time and uses organic solvents, which are harmful to the environment. To reduce both time and environmental impact, the use of pulsed electric fields technology as a pre-treatment prior to extraction by stirring has been studied. For this purpose, a treatment of 100 kJ/kg at 3 kV/cm was applied to a suspension of 2% spirulina in water. Afterwards, an extraction was carried out using ethanol (EtOH) 50% or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 50% in water (v/v) for 3 h. In order to evaluate both the polyphenol extraction and the antioxidant capacity, a kinetic curve for each was established at different extraction times with the different solvents. It was observed that pre-treatment with PEF had a significant (p < 0.05) positive effect on the extraction at all times with respect to the conventional treatment. The greatest differences were observed in the first 5–15 min of the extraction. The highest antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC and TEAC was obtained using EtOH as solvent. When DMSO was used, PEF pre-treatment allowed a higher recovery of polyphenols after 5 min (12.53 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight) than the control sample after 180 min (4.84 ± 0.48 mg/g). For both solvents, the highest value of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was obtained after 120 min of extraction. Finally, PEF increased the extraction of polyphenols by 408% using EtOH 50% as solvent. It can be concluded that PEF technology increases the extraction of polyphenols from microalgae, reducing the process time and the consumption of organic solvents. Full article
2 pages, 195 KiB  
Abstract
Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Recovery of Antioxidant Protein Extracts from Fish Side Streams
by Francisco J. Martí-Quijal, Francisco J. Barba and Francesc Ramon-Mascarell
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10962 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Fish side streams represent between 20–80% of the weight of fish, and their disposal represents an environmental and economic problem. These side streams contain proteins and antioxidant compounds that give them added value. In order to valorise these side streams, an extraction assisted [...] Read more.
Fish side streams represent between 20–80% of the weight of fish, and their disposal represents an environmental and economic problem. These side streams contain proteins and antioxidant compounds that give them added value. In order to valorise these side streams, an extraction assisted by pulsed electric fields (PEF) was carried out to obtain proteins and compounds with antioxidant activity. An extraction for the same time but without PEF pre-treatment was used as a control. The side streams used were head, skin, viscera and backbone from sea bass. The antioxidant capacity was measured by two complementary methods, TEAC and ORAC. The results showed that in the case of head and skin, treatment with PEF notably improved protein extraction by 37.7 and 37.8%, respectively. However, for viscera, the best values were achieved with the control extraction. Finally, backbone did not show significant differences in protein recovery between PEF-assisted extraction and control extraction. Regarding antioxidant capacity, the results followed the same trend as for proteins. For head and skin, the pre-treatment with PEF increased the extraction of antioxidant compounds, improving the TEAC values by 21.74 and 29.11%, respectively. On the other hand, ORAC results increased 22.11% for head extracts and 40.93% for skin extracts. In the extracts obtained from the viscera, the TEAC and ORAC values were better in the control sample, being 21.43% and 24.82% higher, respectively. The antioxidant compounds present in the samples may be bioactive peptides, but a more exhaustive analysis using chromatographic techniques would be necessary to complete the information. Therefore, it has been seen that PEF-assisted extraction can be a good strategy to increase the recovery of proteins and antioxidant compounds from fish side streams such as head or skin, but not for viscera and backbone. Full article
2 pages, 199 KiB  
Abstract
Appraising Blueberry Residues as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds
by Maria Celeiro, Aly Castillo, Alicja Rosalowska, Carmen Garcia-Jares and Marta Lores
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10931 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 802
Abstract
The main solid byproduct of blueberry juice processing is peel, representing up to 20% of the initial fruit weight. Blueberries are considered as a particularly interesting fruit for their well-known antioxidant and antimicrobial properties [1]. It is expected that blueberry peel [...] Read more.
The main solid byproduct of blueberry juice processing is peel, representing up to 20% of the initial fruit weight. Blueberries are considered as a particularly interesting fruit for their well-known antioxidant and antimicrobial properties [1]. It is expected that blueberry peel retains some compounds with interesting properties. However, its excessive accumulation causes a seasonal management and environmental problem. These byproducts could be reused to reduce the environmental impact of the industrial activity and obtain, in parallel, an economical profit. The main objective of this work was to perform a deep characterization of blueberry peel residues and their derived extracts. To obtain extracts that are rich in bioactive compounds and ready-to-use in other sectors, environmentally-friendly procedures, namely matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and medium-scale ambient temperature systems (MSATs) [2,3], were employed. Physical, mechanical, and chemical characteristics of the raw material (blueberry), as well as the total polyphenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity, and sugar content of corresponding byproducts and their derived extracts were assessed, obtaining high values. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was employed to quantify individual phenolic compounds. The results revealed that anthocyanins were the most abundant polyphenolic group of compounds in the blueberry peel extracts reaching concentrations of up to 6899 µg g−1 dw, followed by flavonols, especially quercetin and its derivatives (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside). Moreover, other non-flavonoids, such as hydroxycinnamic acids, including caffeic and chlorogenic, were found at high concentration levels (1226 µg g−1 dw) in the obtained extracts. The ultimate conclusion of this work is the investigation of the utility of food processing wastes as raw materials, in order to obtain extracts with added value for use in new products with beneficial health properties. Full article
2 pages, 176 KiB  
Abstract
Assessing the Content of Phytochemicals in Honey Samples: Polyphenols as Bio-Indicators of Their Botanical Origin
by Maria Celeiro, Lua Vazquez, Daniel Armada, Thierry Dagnac and Maria Llompart
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10936 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Honey is a natural food product well known for its high nutritional value. Apart from sugars, it contains phytochemicals, including polyphenols and flavonoids, that are compounds with highly demonstrated antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. The main goal of this work is the development of [...] Read more.
Honey is a natural food product well known for its high nutritional value. Apart from sugars, it contains phytochemicals, including polyphenols and flavonoids, that are compounds with highly demonstrated antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. The main goal of this work is the development of an analytical methodology to obtain the polyphenolic profile of honeys from different varieties and pollen sources. To isolate the target compounds from the samples, miniaturized vortex (VE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) employing aqueous solvent followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were employed. The results revealed that more than 20 different polyphenols were detected in the analyzed samples among the 40-targeted compounds, reaching total concentrations up to hundreds of µg g−1. Other indexes such as the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) were also evaluated by spectrophotometric techniques. ANOVA and PCA based on the results from TPC, AA and individual polyphenol concentrations showed that significant differences appeared depending on the honey variety, being several of the identified polyphenols, especially hydroxycinnamic acids, responsible for the main differentiation. The results also revealed that two components were enough to explain more than 90% of variance and honey classification in six different groups. Having regard to the occurence and concentrations of individual polyphenols, it is shown that the combination of chromatographic analysis, mass spectrometry detection and PCA are suitable tools to investigate the botanical authentication of honey. Full article
2 pages, 224 KiB  
Abstract
Green and Sustainable Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Salicornia ramosissima 
by Ana Margarida Silva, João Pedro Lago, Manuela M. Moreira, Cristina Delerue-Matos and Francisca Rodrigues
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11087 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Halophytes are salinity-sensitive plants that tolerate extremely high salt concentrations, and are mainly found in saltmarshes and coastal areas worldwide, including Portugal [1]. Halophytes, such as Salicornia spp., are used by humans for commercial, ecological and gastronomic purposes [2]. Inside this genus, Salicornia [...] Read more.
Halophytes are salinity-sensitive plants that tolerate extremely high salt concentrations, and are mainly found in saltmarshes and coastal areas worldwide, including Portugal [1]. Halophytes, such as Salicornia spp., are used by humans for commercial, ecological and gastronomic purposes [2]. Inside this genus, Salicornia ramosissima is of particular interest, being considered an alternative to salt [3]. The valorization of S. ramosissima may be a sustainable and environmentally friendly way to obtain extracts, which may be of interest for the nutraceutical industry. Nevertheless, extraction is a key step in acquiring bioactive compounds from plants, with emphasis on the extraction technique and solvent employed, which should maximize the extraction yield [4]. The aim of this study was to recover bioactive compounds from S. ramosissima by conventional extraction (CE) and Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) techniques using water as an extractor solvent. In this study, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) and antioxidant/antiradical activities (through FRAP and ABTS assays), as well as the phenolic profile and the in vitro effects on intestinal cells, were screened. Briefly, CE was performed as a decoction preparation while MAE was executed at selected temperatures (72–94 °C) for 1 to 5 min, with constant medium stirring. After the extraction, samples were filtrated and lyophilized for further assays. The values of TPC ranged between 8.34 and 15.02 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g for CE and MAE extracts, respectively. Similarly, CE extract exhibited the highest TFC value (8.44 mg of catechin equivalents (CAE)/g). Regarding the ABTS and FRAP assays, the MAE extract showed the highest values (60.61 μmol FSE/g dw and 16.06% inhibition for FRAP and ABTS assays, respectively). On the other hand, the total amounts of phenolic compounds identified and quantified in both extracts were similar, the phenolic acids and flavonols being the principal constituents. For both extracts, myricetin was the compound present in the highest amounts (0.4250 and 0.4655 mg myricetin/g dw for CE and MAE extracts, respectively), and gallic acid was the major phenolic acid present in the extracts (0.2105 and 0.1553 mg gallic acid/g dw for CE and MAE extracts, respectively). The cell effects demonstrated that neither extract led to a decrease in HT29-MTX viability. In the Caco-2 cell line, only the highest concentration of MAE (1000 µg/mL) led to a decrease in viability (86.55%). In this sense, S. ramosissima extracted by CE or MAE can be classified as non-toxic and rich in bioactive compounds. However further studies, such as in vitro intestinal permeation assays and in vivo studies, are needed to underline this potential. Full article
2 pages, 168 KiB  
Abstract
Selection of Promising Exopolysaccharide-Producing Starter Cultures for Gluten-Free Sourdough
by Giovanna Iosca, Camilla Febo, Hossein Haghighi, Luciana De Vero, Maria Gullo and Andrea Pulvirenti
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10952 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy that affects the small intestine and is caused by the gliadin fraction of wheat gluten and other alcohol-soluble proteins (prolamines) of barley and rye in genetically predisposed subjects. Nowadays, the only recognized cure for this pathology is [...] Read more.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy that affects the small intestine and is caused by the gliadin fraction of wheat gluten and other alcohol-soluble proteins (prolamines) of barley and rye in genetically predisposed subjects. Nowadays, the only recognized cure for this pathology is the use of gluten-free (GF) products. Although the market for GF products has grown in the last few years, their improvement is still a challenge for the food industry. With regard to GF bakery products, some of them can result in an unappetizing taste with a high fat content. These inconveniences can be minimized or solved by using sourdough fermentation. Sourdough is a stable culture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast in a mixture of flour and water. In particular, GF sourdough represents a rich source of naturally occurring LAB and wild yeasts, which play important roles in food fermentation. This is mainly due to their potential in improving functional, technological, and probiotics properties, contributing to safe food with a better taste. Moreover, exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strains can also contribute to improving the sensory and rheological quality of the different GF products. This study aims to isolate and characterize the microbial pool from a GF sourdough made with rice flour and to evaluate the ability of selected LAB strains to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). The yeast and LAB were isolated in selective agar media. A total of 220 isolates (110 yeasts and 110 bacteria) were obtained. They were taxonomically identified and characterized using both traditional and molecular approaches. Sequencing analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA and the 16S rRNA genes, for yeasts and bacteria, respectively, revealed the occurrence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as predominant yeasts and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus as dominant LAB. Regarding the EPS production, 25 strains were able to produce dextran-like EPS with a maximum yield of 2 g/L. This study allowed the isolation and selection of promising EPS-producing starter cultures for the different types of flour sourdough, in particular, GF sourdough. Full article
2 pages, 194 KiB  
Abstract
In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Impact on the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts Produced from the Macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis and Ulva rigida
by Sara A. Cunha, Paulo Nova, Ana S. Salsinha, Ana Gomes and Manuela Pintado
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11069 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 693
Abstract
The interest in edible algae has been growing over the years due to their richness in molecules with nutritional and bioactive potential, such as proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Furthermore, due to their interesting protein content, they have been described as [...] Read more.
The interest in edible algae has been growing over the years due to their richness in molecules with nutritional and bioactive potential, such as proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Furthermore, due to their interesting protein content, they have been described as a source of bioactive peptides, with scientifically documented antioxidant, anti-hypertensive and antimicrobial properties. In this work, water-soluble extracts were produced from the macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis and Ulva rigida, with focus on their antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the impact of in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion on the antioxidant activity of both extracts was studied, with the goal of evaluating their potential as functional food ingredients. Extracts were produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, with a cellulase and a subtilisin protease, using a previously optimized method. Then, both were submitted to simulated GI conditions, similar to those found in the human digestive system. The antioxidant activity was determined by ORAC and ABTS assays in four stages of GI simulation (before digestion, and after mouth, stomach and intestine digestion). The antioxidant activity did not decrease throughout the different stages of digestion. Interestingly, the antioxidant capacity increased after some phases. For instance, both extracts presented higher ORAC values after all digestion phases, when compared to the non-digested extract, being statistically significant after stomach digestion, for G. gracilis extract (p < 0.05). On this study, both extracts maintained their antioxidant activity during in vitro GI digestion, with an increase after almost all digestion phases, when compared to the non-digested extract. The observed increase may be explained by the production of smaller and more bioactive peptides, by the action of the gastrointestinal enzymes, such as pepsin and pancreatin. In conclusion, since antioxidant activity is maintained throughout the GI tract, these results showed that G. gracilis and U. rigida extracts may be considered potential ingredients for the development of functional foods with antioxidant properties. Full article
1 pages, 165 KiB  
Abstract
Application of Sericin-Based Materials in Food Packaging: An Overview
by Su Jin Seo, Kyung-Jik Im, Han-Seung Shin, Gitishree Das and Jayanta Kumar Patra
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10921 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 927
Abstract
Proteins are some of the most commonly used biomaterials in food technology, especially in food packaging, coatings, and additives. They are outstanding candidates for producing innovative food components due to their immense nutritional properties, molecular characteristics, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and safe status. Numerous application [...] Read more.
Proteins are some of the most commonly used biomaterials in food technology, especially in food packaging, coatings, and additives. They are outstanding candidates for producing innovative food components due to their immense nutritional properties, molecular characteristics, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and safe status. Numerous application examples of protein-based films and coatings in food packaging also approve their significant role in food packaging materials. Sericin is a natural silk globular protein, which is usually discarded as a biological waste material after removing the fibroin for making silk products from the silk cocoon. In the current investigation, an attempt was made to extract this usually wasted silk protein from the silk cocoon, purify it, and study its potential applications in the food sector as a food packaging material. The sericin was extracted from the silk cocoon by the degumming method. The protein concentration of the extracted crude sericin sample was estimated by the standard Lowry’s method using the bovine serum albumin as the reference standard. Linearity was obtained (R2 > 0.99), and the protein concentration of the crude sericin was found out to be 3.60 % (w/v). The purification of the crude protein was carried out by dialysis using a cellulose tubing with a molecular weight cutoff of 12 kDa, followed by freeze-drying. The protein concentration of the purified sericin was found out to be 3.47 % (w/v). Following extraction, sericin can be used as the food packaging material. Proteins, especially sericin, which is a byproduct, can provide a low-cost and naturally occurring raw material to be used as green formulation ingredients in the food industry as a food packaging material. Further research is under process to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the extracted sericin and study its applications, including food packaging materials. Full article
2 pages, 190 KiB  
Abstract
Natural Fish Oil from Fishery Biowaste via a Circular Economy Process
by Antonino Scurria, Mario Pagliaro and Rosaria Ciriminna
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11071 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
The consumption of omega-3 long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in oily fish, krill, shrimp, and algae, is critical for the physical and mental health of adults and children [...] Full article
1 pages, 179 KiB  
Abstract
Rapid Method for Faults Detection in Beer Using a Low-Cost Electronic Nose and Machine Learning Modelling
by Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Sigfredo Fuentes and Carmen Hernandez-Brenes
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10956 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Beer is susceptible to developing different faults (off-flavours/off-aromas) due to its main ingredients and variability in the conditions within the production stages and storage; this is especially challenging for craft breweries. Therefore, it is important to develop novel, rapid, and non-destructive methods for [...] Read more.
Beer is susceptible to developing different faults (off-flavours/off-aromas) due to its main ingredients and variability in the conditions within the production stages and storage; this is especially challenging for craft breweries. Therefore, it is important to develop novel, rapid, and non-destructive methods for detecting faults. A dry lager beer was used as the base to spike with 18 different faults commonly found in beer at two different concentrations. Those 18 samples and a control group were analyzed in triplicates using a low-cost and portable electronic nose (e-nose) to assess the volatile compounds. Three machine learning models based on artificial neural networks (ANN) were developed using the e-nose outputs as inputs to (i) classify the samples into control, low, and high concentration of faults (Model 1); (ii) predict faults in the low concentration samples (Model 2); and (iii) predict faults in the high-concentration samples (Model 3). The three models had very high accuracy (Model 1: R = 0.95; Model 2: R = 0.97; Model 3: R = 0.96). This method may also be applied within different stages of beer production for the early detection of faults, which may help to apply any corrective actions before obtaining the final product. Full article
2 pages, 184 KiB  
Abstract
The Perspective of Nectarine Fruit as a Functional Ingredient of Puddings Prepared with Corn and Rice Starch
by Dasha Mihaylova, Aneta Popova, Zhivka Goranova, Dorina Petkova, Pavlina Doykina and Anna Lante
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11086 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 652
Abstract
It has long been recognized that fruits are healthy diet compounds since they are excellent sources of health beneficial bioactive components (polyphenols, minerals, vitamins, organic acids, etc.). The diversification of the consumer’s taste calls for an expansion of food options and novel ingredients. [...] Read more.
It has long been recognized that fruits are healthy diet compounds since they are excellent sources of health beneficial bioactive components (polyphenols, minerals, vitamins, organic acids, etc.). The diversification of the consumer’s taste calls for an expansion of food options and novel ingredients. The excessive refined sugar intake in recent years demands for the incorporation of sugar alternatives in popular dessert recipes, and high calorie obesogenic foods in general. Puddings are a well-known food choices introduced in the human diet at a very early age because of its easy and high digestion. Four formulations with two types of starch (corn and rice) were selected as objects of analysis. Nectarines were incorporated as a purée and lyophilized powder. The nectarine variety “Gergana” is a local variety used for preparations with proven beneficial properties. The study aimed to analyze the physical (moisture, ash, color, water-holding capacity, water activity, density, and syneresis), rheological (firmness, gumminess, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness), nutritional, and sensory characteristics of the nectarine-enriched puddings. The outcomes obtained from this study provide significant information about the possible application of the formulations in the children’s daily menus. All four formulations had distinct peachy aroma. The formulations prepared with nectarine purée resulted in better sensory perception, better texture, and better water holding capacity. The formulations prepared with lyophilized fruit had similar CIELAB color values. The same trend was observed in the nectarine purée formulations. At this point, the formulation prepared with lyophilized fruit and rice starch showed the most promising results. Sufficient evidence leads to further exploration of the perspective of fruit-enriched puddings in order to improve their technological and health-promoting properties. Full article
2 pages, 181 KiB  
Abstract
The Marvellous Oregano Spices
by Mariana Oalđe Pavlović, Tanja Lunić, Marija Mandić, Ana Alimpić Aradski, Sonja Duletić-Laušević and Biljana Božić Nedeljković
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11085 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 654
Abstract
People are using plants with health-boosting properties, such as oregano species, in their daily diet. Nowadays, these plants, characterized as potential functional foods, are being extensively scientifically analyzed. Bearing that in mind, as well as the fact that neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s [...] Read more.
People are using plants with health-boosting properties, such as oregano species, in their daily diet. Nowadays, these plants, characterized as potential functional foods, are being extensively scientifically analyzed. Bearing that in mind, as well as the fact that neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s are affecting millions of people worldwide, this study was defined to assess the antineurodegenerative, antineuroinflammatory, and neuroprotective potential of Origanum majorana (marjoram) and O. vulgare (oregano) from Serbia. The plant material was obtained from the Institute for Medicinal Plant Research “Dr. Josif Pančić”, Serbia, and the ethanolic extracts were prepared using classic maceration protocol. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase (TYR) inhibition protocols were used to examine antineurodegenerative activity. Microglial (BV2) cells stimulated with LPS were used to evaluate antineuroinflammatory activity in MTT, NBT, and Griess assays, while neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells were used to determine the neuroprotective activity of the extracts in MTT and Griess assays. The results suggest that oregano extracts are slightly better at inhibiting AChE and TYR (68% vs. 61% at 0.1 mg/mL) than marjoram extracts (53% vs. 59% at 0.1 mg/mL), making them more active than the positive controls (galantamine 41% vs. kojic acid 25% at 0.1 mg/mL). Furthermore, these extracts normalized LPS-stimulated BV2 cells’ viability, while also reducing their production of inflammatory mediators, i.e., reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, to the level of untreated cells. Additionally, supernatants of LPS-stimulated BV2 cells that were previously treated with these extracts normalized the viability of neurons compared to the control neurons (treated with supernatants of LPS-stimulated BV2 that were not previously treated with the extracts). Both extracts exhibited noticeable antineurodegenerative, antineuroinflammatory, and neuroprotective activities which represent powerful sources of phytochemicals with promising neuroprotective activity, which could be further examined for potential dietary supplement manufacturing. Full article
2 pages, 194 KiB  
Abstract
Plant-Derived Peptides Rubiscolin-6, Soymorphin-6 and Their C-Terminal Amide Derivatives: Pharmacokinetic Properties and Biological Activity
by Azzurra Stefanucci, Giancarlo Tenore, Stefano Pieretti, Paola Minosi, Gokhan Zengin, Chiara Sturaro, Girolamo Calò, Ettore Novellino, Angelo Cichelli and Adriano Mollica
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11060 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 632
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities of rubiscolin-6, soymorphin-6, and their C-terminal amides. Rubiscolin-6 and soymorphin-6 are two exhorphins derived from spinach and soybean, respectively. The four peptides were synthesized following Fmoc-SPPS strategy to give the [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities of rubiscolin-6, soymorphin-6, and their C-terminal amides. Rubiscolin-6 and soymorphin-6 are two exhorphins derived from spinach and soybean, respectively. The four peptides were synthesized following Fmoc-SPPS strategy to give the final peptides in excellent overall yields, and purity following an analytical RP-HPLC analysis. Rubiscolin-6-amide exhibits a significative antinociceptive effect after i.c.v. and s.c. administration. Rubiscolin-6 shows the best in vitro intestinal bioavailability in the CaCo2 cell monolayer, and stability to the brush border exopeptidases in the apical compartment. In silico experiments show the interaction of rubiscolin-6 and rubiscolin-6 amide at the binding cavity of DOR compared with the crystallographic ligand TIPP-NH2. Full article
2 pages, 164 KiB  
Abstract
The Impact of COVID-19 Hygienic Measures on Food Choice and Eating Behavior
by Jarina Gabrielle Aquino Oliveira, Adriana Sampaio and Olivia Morgan Lapenta
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11081 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 528
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to several changes that have affected not only emotional and psychological well-being but also eating behavior. Herein, we sought to evaluate if depicting pandemic-related sanitary measures in a food consumption video would impact food appraisal, decreasing food attractiveness [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to several changes that have affected not only emotional and psychological well-being but also eating behavior. Herein, we sought to evaluate if depicting pandemic-related sanitary measures in a food consumption video would impact food appraisal, decreasing food attractiveness and the desire to eat. Participants performed, on two different days, an online protocol in which foods presented in a video, and following, in pictures, were evaluated regarding visual aspect, expected smell and taste, and desire to eat. The videos presented each day differed only regarding the presence/absence of sanitary elements adopted during the pandemic, composing COVID/non-COVID conditions. For both conditions, sweet and high-calorie foods were better evaluated when compared to salty and low-calorie foods, with the sweet food evaluation higher for the non-COVID condition when compared to the COVID-condition. Only for the non-COVID condition was the reported desire to eat higher immediately after the video, and for both conditions, it was higher at the end of the task when compared to the baseline. Correlation analysis suggests that depression and anxiety symptoms may reduce the smell appreciation of foods presented in the pandemic scenario. We conclude that food perception is affected by the presence of the sanitary measures adopted during the pandemic by reducing the desire to eat and food hedonic appreciation and, further, that depression and anxiety symptoms may be related to a higher negative impact of the pandemic on eating behavior. Full article
2 pages, 186 KiB  
Abstract
Development and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Edible Films Based on Whey Protein Isolate and Incorporated with Tarragon Essential Oil
by Maria-Ioana Socaciu, Melinda Fogarasi, Andersina Simina Podar, Vlad Mureșan, Sonia Ancuța Socaci, Dan Cristian Vodnar and Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11197 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 637
Abstract
The effects of heat treatment and the addition of tarragon essential oil on physical and mechanical properties of films prepared with 5% whey-protein isolate (WPI) and 5% glycerol were investigated in this study. Heat-treatment of the film-forming solution caused increases in thickness, moisture [...] Read more.
The effects of heat treatment and the addition of tarragon essential oil on physical and mechanical properties of films prepared with 5% whey-protein isolate (WPI) and 5% glycerol were investigated in this study. Heat-treatment of the film-forming solution caused increases in thickness, moisture content, swelling degree, water vapor permeability (WVP), b*-value, ΔE*-value, transmittance values in the 200–300 nm region, transparency, and puncture resistance of the film, but decreases in water solubility, L*-value, a*-value, transmittance values in the 350–800 nm region, and puncture deformation. When incorporated with tarragon essential oil, heat-treated films have the potential to be used as antimicrobial food packaging. The addition of tarragon essential oil in film-forming solution caused increases in moisture content, solubility in water, WVP, a*-value, b*-value, ΔE*-value, and transparency of the film, and decreases in L*-value, and transmittance values in the range of 600–800 nm. It also caused variations in swelling degree, transmittance values in the range of 300–550 nm, puncture resistance, and puncture deformation. Nevertheless, different tendencies were noticed in UNT and HT films in terms of transparency, light transmittance, puncture resistance, and puncture deformation. Based on these findings, HT films show improved physical and mechanical properties; therefore, they are more suitable for food-packaging applications. Full article
2 pages, 165 KiB  
Abstract
Novel Digital Technologies to Assess Smoke Taint in Wine Using Non-Invasive Chemical Fingerprinting, a Low-Cost Electronic Nose, and Artificial Intelligence
by Sigfredo Fuentes, Vasiliki Summerson, Eden Tongson and Claudia Gonzalez Viejo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10958 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
Climatic anomalies, such as heatwaves and bushfires, are increasing in number, intensity, and severity worldwide due to climate change. Bushfires are especially important in winemaking countries since smoke contamination can reach vineyards in critical periods of berry development, producing smoke contamination, which is [...] Read more.
Climatic anomalies, such as heatwaves and bushfires, are increasing in number, intensity, and severity worldwide due to climate change. Bushfires are especially important in winemaking countries since smoke contamination can reach vineyards in critical periods of berry development, producing smoke contamination, which is passed to the wine as smoke taint in the winemaking process. The only alternative for winemakers to assess berry or wine contamination is sending samples to specialized laboratories, which can be time-consuming, cost-prohibitive and only sentinel plants or batches can be monitored. New and emerging technologies based on non-destructive remote sensing, such as near-infrared spectroscopy and the development of low-cost e-noses coupled with artificial intelligence (AI) tools, have been developed by the Digital Agriculture, Food and Wine Group from The University of Melbourne. The machine learning (ML) classification models developed showed high accuracy (97–98%) for berries, leaves and wine assessment to predict the level of smoke contamination. Furthermore, ML regression models to predict smoke-derived compounds in berries, must, and wine also presented very high accuracy (R = 0.98–0.99). On the other hand, ML models to predict consumers acceptability of smoke-tainted wines were also successfully developed (R = 0.97–0.98). These models can result in cost-effective and accurate technologies applicable to the vineyard and wineries to assess levels of smoke taint and associated compounds for decision-making purposes. Full article
1 pages, 170 KiB  
Abstract
Use of Prickly Pears in Cod Fish-Burgers as Functional Ingredients
by Flavia Dilucia, Amalia Conte and Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11075 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 660
Abstract
Since the problem of food waste has become a global concern, this study has the goal to make full use of the zero-waste concept, aiming to find a way to recycle all the parts of a food product, without producing waste. To the [...] Read more.
Since the problem of food waste has become a global concern, this study has the goal to make full use of the zero-waste concept, aiming to find a way to recycle all the parts of a food product, without producing waste. To the end, prickly pears (Opuntia ficus india) were completely used, without discarding the peel as a by-product (the fruit peel is around 50% of the total product). Pulp and peel were each used to produce an active powder to be added as ingredient in fish burgers. Prickly pears are tropical plants, rich in polyphenolic compounds, and able to control microbial proliferation and general detrimental phenomena occurring in food. For the current study, the pulp and the peel were separately dehydrated and reduced to a fine powder in order to be used as a food ingredient in cod fish burgers to improve sensory quality and prevent microbial growth during storage at 4 °C. An in vitro test of the powders was carried out against target microorganisms. After that, three different amounts (i.e., 2.5 g, 7.5 g and 12.5 g) of peel and pulp in proper combination, were added to the fish burger formulation. Results demonstrate that this addition of the entire prickly pear improved the microbial quality of burgers, reducing the growth of fish spoilage microorganisms (i.e., Pseudomonas spp., psychrotolerant and heat-labile aerobic bacteria and psychrotropic bacteria) and that 12.5 g was the best condition of all those used. In addition, the use of the prickly pears enhanced the sensory properties of the burgers, thus demonstrating that this fruit could be advantageously used, without producing any waste, to prolong food shelf life, with beneficial consequences from the environmental, technological and practical points of view. Full article
1 pages, 160 KiB  
Abstract
The Reuse of Food By-Products to Formulate Enriched Foods
by Maria Marziliano, Amalia Conte and Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10945 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
During the production process, many foods generate by-products, which become food waste and have environmental and economic consequences. These by-products are rich in bioactive compounds, so they could be reused. With this in mind, to embrace the concept of a circular economy, waste [...] Read more.
During the production process, many foods generate by-products, which become food waste and have environmental and economic consequences. These by-products are rich in bioactive compounds, so they could be reused. With this in mind, to embrace the concept of a circular economy, waste could be turned into new raw materials. This review focuses on the ability to recycle by-products in new foods using innovative technologies such as zero-waste, and by reusing the waste parts of foods. The aims of the techniques analyzed in this study are to assess food functionalization. The final food products obtained through the addition of by-products had improved nutritional, technological and sensory characteristics, and should be recognized as sustainable foods. This overview conducts a critical analysis of the development of the scientific literature available, to date, on the reuse of food by-products to formulate enriched foods. First, a series of case studies is shown in which food is produced using the zero-waste approach; then, a wide range of case studies related to various food supply chains are discussed. In these last examples by-products generated from industrial processes are partially reused in new foods. The following food groups and industries are analyzed: fruit and vegetable products, the coffee industry, alcoholic beverages (wine and beer), the oil industry, the dairy industry, the by-products of legumes and cereals, and the fishing industry. Full article
2 pages, 195 KiB  
Abstract
In Vitro Hypolipidemic and Hypoglycaemic Properties of Mushroom Extracts
by Rosa Tundis, Nicodemo G. Passalacqua, Maria C. Tenuta, Marco Bonesi, Giovanni Sicoli, Lorenza Trabalzini, Federica Finetti, Brigitte Deguin and Monica R. Loizzo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10925 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 852
Abstract
Mushrooms are considered a valuable food due to their unique taste, nutritional properties, and biological effects [1]. They are a source of several classes of phytochemicals, including phenols, terpenoids, steroids, and polysaccharides that demonstrate a wide range of biological activities [ [...] Read more.
Mushrooms are considered a valuable food due to their unique taste, nutritional properties, and biological effects [1]. They are a source of several classes of phytochemicals, including phenols, terpenoids, steroids, and polysaccharides that demonstrate a wide range of biological activities [2]. Obesity is a metabolic disorder, which results from the excessive accumulation of body fat, associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, various types of cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus [3]. Several natural compounds possess the ability to reduce body weight and to prevent diet-induced obesity by inhibiting enzymes that interfere with the hydrolysis and absorption of dietary carbohydrates and lipids, such as alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase [4,5]. This study was constructed to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activity of Leccinum duriusculum and Lanmaoa fragrans (=Boletus fragrans) from Calabria (southern Italy), two symbiotic edible mushrooms belonging to the Boletaceae family, growing the former in poplar tree forests and the latter in a mycorrhizal association with oaks. Both mushrooms were dried and exhaustively extracted by maceration with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. Extracts were investigated for their inhibitory activity against alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and lipase [6]. The best results against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase were obtained with L. duriusculum methanol and dichloromethane extracts, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species exhibited the most promising results in inhibiting lipase (IC50 of 35.02 and 22.40 μg/mL, for L. duriusculum and L. fragrans, respectively, vs. IC50 of 37.63 μg/mL for the positive control orlistat). These data provided evidence that both species are able to inhibit key enzymes that interfere with the hydrolysis and absorption of dietary carbohydrates and lipids, suggesting their potential use for the development of new potential agents for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, further research is required to confirm these effects in vivo. Full article
2 pages, 196 KiB  
Abstract
Evaluation of Drying Conditions on the Quality Properties of Dried Kiwi Slices
by Vincenzo Sicari, Rosa Romeo, Rosa Tundis and Monica Rosa Loizzo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10957 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Fruits and vegetables are products which can be consumed in their raw forms without undergoing processing or transformation. Drying is one of the oldest methods of food preservation [1]. It is still widely used to preserve foods for home consumption and for sale. [...] Read more.
Fruits and vegetables are products which can be consumed in their raw forms without undergoing processing or transformation. Drying is one of the oldest methods of food preservation [1]. It is still widely used to preserve foods for home consumption and for sale. Dried fruits are one of the most popular products made by small-scale processors. The health benefits of consuming fruit are well documented [2]. Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv Hayward) is a nutrient-dense fruit, and extensive research over the last decade on its health benefits has linked its regular consumption to improvements not only in nutritional status but also benefits to digestive, immune and metabolic health [2]. Dried kiwis are highly needed in food industries. The dehydration process removes much of the water content from kiwi slices, making them richer in nutrients. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of the air-drying temperature on quality and nutritional compounds of dehydrated kiwi slices over 120 days of storage. Hot-air-drying of kiwi slices was investigated at drying temperatures ranging from 40 °C to 55 °C and a slice thickness of 4 mm. Fresh and dried kiwi slices were analysed for their pH, activity water, total solid soluble (TSS), colour, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, total phenols and flavonoids content, as well as radical scavenging activities evaluated by an ABTS test [3,4]. The analysis carried out on the dehydrated kiwifruit have shown a good disposition of the kiwi towards the drying process. Particularly, it has been observed that drying treatment at low temperature preserved the nutraceutical properties of the food matrix. Samples treated at 40 °C showed the highest values of total phenols and flavonoids content with values of 2179 mg/100 g dried weight (DW) and 281 mg/100 DW fruits, respectively. This high phytochemical content is responsible for the dried kiwifruit’s promising antioxidant activity (1657 mmol Trolox/100 g DW fruits). Moreover, on average, all dried samples exhibited, at the end of storage, a high content of ascorbic acid (429–339 mg/100g DW fruits) and a slight variation of physicochemical parameters. Full article
2 pages, 199 KiB  
Abstract
A Non-Targeted Metabolomic Approach for the Characterization of Chemical Profile of Sparkling Wines Produced Using Autochthonous Yeast Strains
by Antonino Rizzuti, Maria Tufariello, Vito Gallo, Piero Mastrorilli, Lorenzo Palombi, Biagia Musio, Vittorio Capozzi and Francesco Grieco
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11074 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 794
Abstract
The Champenoise method for the production of sparkling wines consists of an “in bottle” re-fermentation induced by a low number of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, the limited use of these strains can induce flattening of the sensorial properties of the produced wine. [...] Read more.
The Champenoise method for the production of sparkling wines consists of an “in bottle” re-fermentation induced by a low number of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, the limited use of these strains can induce flattening of the sensorial properties of the produced wine. Indeed, the volatile compounds produced by the yeasts during the fermentative process play an essential role in the constitution of the Bouchet sparkling wines prepared using indigenous grape varieties and, in particular, deriving from Apulia (Southern Italy), whose economic significance is constantly increasing [1]. To the best of our knowledge, only two investigations [2,3] have assessed the influence of autochthonous starter strains on the volatile profiles of sparkling wine. Moreover, no information exists on the oenological potential of the indigenous grape cv Maresco for the production of typical sparkling wine. This investigation evaluated the impact of the selected autochthonous yeast strains on the chemical properties of Maresco sparkling wines, applying a non-targeted metabolomics approach by the application of HPLC–HRMS and GC–MS techniques. Saccharomyces cerevisiae DV10 (Lallemand, Petaluma, CA, USA) was used as a control. The obtained findings indicated that previously selected native yeast strains influenced the amount of several fermentative compounds, i.e., polysaccharides, organic acids, phenolic acids, and lipids [4,5]. In order to reveal any grouping of wines based on the composition of volatile compounds and chemical data, as well as to identify the main components contained within each group, the data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). Additionally, the correlation matrix on HPLC–HRMS/GC–MS data was performed and a map was obtained, which represents a useful tool to monitor the different patterns of aroma release. The contribution supplies information that will support the modulation of the sensorial properties of regional sparkling wines obtained from typical autochthonous grape varieties using selected autochthonous microbial resources. Full article
2 pages, 187 KiB  
Abstract
Bioactive Compound Contents and Biological Activities of the Algerian Medicinal Plant Rhus Pentaphylla (Jacq.) Desf. (Anacardiaceae)
by Houari Benamar and Malika Bennaceur
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10915 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Rhus pentaphylla (Jacq.) Desf. is an Algerian food and medicinal specie used to treat diarrhea and abdominal colic and is employed as a digestive [1,2,3], yet there is little information available concerning its bioactive composition. The aim [...] Read more.
Rhus pentaphylla (Jacq.) Desf. is an Algerian food and medicinal specie used to treat diarrhea and abdominal colic and is employed as a digestive [1,2,3], yet there is little information available concerning its bioactive composition. The aim of this study was to quantify bioactive compounds and to investigate antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of extracts obtained from leaves of R. pentaphylla in order to prove its possible use as potential natural source for human health. The bioactive compounds were quantified using colorimetric methods. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was assayed using several test systems, namely total antioxidant capacity, DPPH, ABTS and OH radical scavenging activity, a ferric reducing power assay, and a ferrous ion chelating capacity and β-carotene bleaching assay. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was determined using bioautographic and spectrophotometric methods. The results showed that extracts of R. pentaphylla are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, especially regarding its high flavonoid and hydrolysable tannin contents (36.26 ± 1.77 mg CE/g DE and 898.64 ± 26.56 mg TAE/g DE, respectively), promoting high antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis led to the identification of several phenolic compounds that were dominated by flavonoids and phenolic acids. The extracts showed potential antioxidant activity in the different tests. This could be attributed to their polyphenol, tannin, and flavonoid contents. The extracts of R. pentaphylla also exhibited anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. Owing to its phenolic profile and biological activities, R. pentaphylla could be considered as potential functional ingredient for pharmaceutical applications. Full article
2 pages, 218 KiB  
Abstract
Effective Production of Bioactive Phenolic Compounds from Olive Stones
by Carmen Padilla-Rascón, Encarnación Ruiz, Eulogio Castro, Luisa B. Roseiro, Luis C. Duarte and Florbela Carvalheiro
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10940 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Olive stones (OS) are a by-product generated in the olive oil production process. This residue is obtained in industries after the oil extraction process, and it is recognized as an interesting feedstock for the production of bioenergy and value-added products. Nevertheless, currently, it [...] Read more.
Olive stones (OS) are a by-product generated in the olive oil production process. This residue is obtained in industries after the oil extraction process, and it is recognized as an interesting feedstock for the production of bioenergy and value-added products. Nevertheless, currently, it is only used as a low-cost solid biofuel for combustion. An alternative valorization approach has been developed based on an acid-catalyzed process for the solubilization of hemicelluloses [1] and the production of furfural [2]. This process yields a solid cellulose and lignin-rich material, which can be further upgraded. In this work, an organosolv process for the delignification of the material and improvement of the enzymatic digestibility was applied and optimized. The organosolv stage was carried out with an ethanol:water ratio (50:50, w/w) in a Parr reactor, varying the temperature (140–190 °C) and the addition of the catalyst (0–100 mM H2SO4). The liquid fraction obtained was analyzed to evaluate the presence of value-added products, such as phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method, obtaining a phenol concentration between 5 and 13 g GAE/L, corresponding to a phenol yield of 8 g GAE/100 g of processed material, which ranks in the range of those obtained from other plant sources, in other olive by-products such as exhausted olive pomace, up to 9 g GAE/100 g of extract have been reported [3]. The phenolic profile was obtained by capillary electrophoresis analysis, allowing the identification, among others, of vanillin and syringaldehyde as naturally occurring flavor components exhibiting antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Therefore, with the present study, we were able to determine that the liquor obtained after the organosolv pretreatment of olive stones can also be valued as a bio-source of non-synthetic preservatives and additives for the food industry. Full article
2 pages, 224 KiB  
Abstract
Novel Incorporation of Red-Stage Haematococcus pluvialis Wet Paste as a Colourant and Enhancer of the Organoleptic and Functional Properties of Filloas
by Aly Castillo, Tiane C. Finimundy, Sandrina A. Heleno, Paula Rodrigues, Filipa A. Fernandes, Simón Pereira, Carmen Garcia-Jares, Lillian Barros and Marta Lores
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11072 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 891
Abstract
Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow is a microalga used as a nutraceutical, due to its high content in bioactive compounds, mainly carotenoids, in which astaxanthin stands out [1]. Furthermore, H. pluvialis has shown a high antioxidant potential, and combined with its intense red [...] Read more.
Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow is a microalga used as a nutraceutical, due to its high content in bioactive compounds, mainly carotenoids, in which astaxanthin stands out [1]. Furthermore, H. pluvialis has shown a high antioxidant potential, and combined with its intense red colour, this microalga could have dual functionality: as a colourant and a bioactive ingredient [2]. The process to obtain this ingredient involves several transformation steps—namely, lyophilisation and saponification—raising the costs to develop and obtain free astaxanthin, which paradoxically presents greater instability and solubility than its esterified counterpart [3]. Thus, this study provides an alternative approach for the application of red, astaxanthin-rich, H. pluvialis wet paste as a partial substitute for wheat flour (7% and 13% w/w) in the preparation of filloas (Galician pancakes), a typical dessert from the northwestern region of the Iberian Peninsula. To evaluate its power as a natural pigment, the stability of colour over time (3, 6, and 9 days) was measured, and the results were compared with those of a commercial colourant. At the same time, its physicochemical properties such as the microbiological profile were measured to determine its functionality as a food preservative. As a result, redness stability (a*) of 8% higher than that of the commercial colourant was obtained for the maximum concentration of H. pluvialis analysed. The texture showed a significant response (p < 0.02), improving its properties as the concentration of the microalga increased, which showed a tenacity of 3.23 N and extensibility of 15.10 mm during the first 6 days, i.e., a 52% and 19% improvement, respectively, in relation to the control group. In turn, an enrichment of carotenoids, fatty acids, and phenolic compounds, in combination with a potential moderator of microbiological degradation by this unicellular organism, gives added value to this food matrix. Full article
2 pages, 195 KiB  
Abstract
Nigella sativa—A Promising Source of Bioactive Compounds with Beneficial Effects in CVD
by Raluca Maria Pop, Ioana Corina Bocsan, Veronica Sanda Chedea and Anca Dana Buzoianu
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11080 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite socioeconomic status [1]. Plant bioactive compounds are studied as complementary therapies in CVD. Among natural products, Nigella sativa and its bioactive compounds or derived products proved their [...] Read more.
Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite socioeconomic status [1]. Plant bioactive compounds are studied as complementary therapies in CVD. Among natural products, Nigella sativa and its bioactive compounds or derived products proved their efficacy against multiple cardiovascular risk factors through its antioxidant capacity, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, or anti-atherosclerotic effects [2–6]. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the Nigella sativa oil (N. sativa oil) effect using an in vivo model of induced myocardial infarction with isoproterenol in rats. Materials and Methods: N. sativa oil was characterized for its bioactive compounds using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) analysis. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as follows: the control group (saline solution), the isoproterenol group (45 mg/kg), and N. sativa oil group (isoproterenol—45 mg/kg and N. sativa oil 0.4 mL/100 g). Myocardial infarction was induced on the 14th day of the experiment. Electrocardiography was performed at the beginning and after one day from infarct induction. Serum analysis was evaluated using biochemical evaluation like alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the myocardial fraction of creatine kinase (CK-Mb). The inflammatory status was evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1  (IL-1 ) inflammatory cytokines. Results: N. sativa oil was rich in flavonoids, thymol derivatives  -thujene, p-cymene,  -pinene, and thymoquinone. Administration of N. sativa oil had a significant effect in reducing ventricular conduction while preventing isoproterenol cardiotoxic effects in the ventricular myocardium. Also, N. sativa oil administration significantly decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines when compared to the isoproterenol group. The levels of CK-Mb were as well significantly reduced. Conclusions: The anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects of N. sativa oil in the isoproterenol-induced experimental myocardial infarction indicate its potential use in human diets with promising applicability in the control of several associated CVD risk factors. Full article
2 pages, 207 KiB  
Abstract
IntegroPectin: A New Citrus Pectin with Uniquely High Biological Activity
by Rosaria Ciriminna, Lorenzo Albanese, Francesco Meneguzzo and Mario Pagliaro
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11199 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
First isolated in 2019 via hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) of waste orange peel directly on semi-industrial scale (30 kg of orange processing biowaste in 120 L water) [1], and subsequently also from waste lemon [2] and grapefruit [3] [...] Read more.
First isolated in 2019 via hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) of waste orange peel directly on semi-industrial scale (30 kg of orange processing biowaste in 120 L water) [1], and subsequently also from waste lemon [2] and grapefruit [3] biowaste from the citrus juice industry, “IntegroPectin” is the name we gave to a new family of citrus pectins obtained via HC of (organically grown) citrus industry waste. Easily achieved without the need to use ultrasounds, as happens in acoustic cavitation, the HC-based extraction process carried out in water only is an ideally suited green extraction technology [4]. Rich in adsorbed citrus terpenes [5], flavonoids and phenolic acids [6] concentrated at the pectin’s surface after mildly drying the aqueous extract, the new IntegroPectin pectin family has distinctly higher and broader biological activity in comparison to commercial citrus pectin. For instance, compared to commercial citrus pectin conventionally extracted with hot mineral acid, lemon IntegroPectin shows substantially higher antimicrobial activity [7]. Furthermore, whereas commercial pectin shows antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria [8], lemon and grapefruit IntegroPectin share powerful antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative ubiquitous pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pesudomonas aeruginosa [3]. Remarkably, grapefruit IntegroPectin is bactericidal for both strains at low concentration [3]. Lemon IntegroPectin is also a powerful mito- and neuroprotective agent [9], whereas grapefruit IntegroPectin is both neuroprotective and antiproliferative [10]. The latter properties are entirely absent in commercial citrus pectin. The antioxidant activity of lemon IntegroPectin measured by its ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) exceeding 122.000 μmol TE/100 g [2], amounts to 60% of the most powerful natural antioxidant extract, namely, freeze-dried olive mill wastewater. The original hypothesis for which the enhanced biological activity of the IntegroPectin is due to the synergistic action of the unique structure of the new RG-I-enriched pectin and the adsorbed bioactive small molecules [3], has been recently demonstrated studying the controlled release of the latter substances from highly antimicrobial cross-linked IntegroPectin films [11]. In this lecture, we will present the latest outcomes of collaborative research activities. The conclusions are of significant relevance to biomedical and food science researchers. Pectin indeed is the third most important (in terms of market value) hydrocolloid used by the food industry [12], and by far the most versatile. Full article
2 pages, 209 KiB  
Abstract
Characterization of Polyphenolic Composition of Extracts from Winery Wastes by HPLC-UV-MS/MS
by Iris Carretero, Mercè Granados, Javier Saurina and Sònia Sentellas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10934 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 658
Abstract
Winery wastes are rich in polyphenols and have great added value when used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and agri-food products. Polyphenols display a wide range of positive health effects, thus helping with the prevention or treatment of some diseases because of their great antioxidant, [...] Read more.
Winery wastes are rich in polyphenols and have great added value when used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and agri-food products. Polyphenols display a wide range of positive health effects, thus helping with the prevention or treatment of some diseases because of their great antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antineoplastic properties. This work aims at characterizing the polyphenols recovered from various wastes generated during wine production processes using chromatographic techniques. Phenolic acids, flavonoids and related compounds have been extracted from different types of oenological residues, such as lees from malolactic fermentation and husks, by liquid extraction using aqueous or hydro-organic solvents. The resulting extracts have been further analyzed by liquid chromatography with UV/vis and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The chromatographic separation was carried out by a reversed-phase mode on a core-shell C18 column using 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the components of the mobile phase. Chromatograms were acquired with UV detection at 250, 280, 325 and 370 nm, whereas MS detection, with both low- and high-resolution analyzers, was performed using different acquisition modes, including full scan, data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The most abundant polyphenols in the extracts were identified as follows: caftaric acid with a concentration of 20 mg L−1, and trans-coutaric acid, cis-coutaric acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid with concentrations of 5 mg L−1 or less. Other minor polyphenols such as gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, chlorogenic acid, ethyl gallate, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, astilbin and resveratrol were also found. Full article
1 pages, 171 KiB  
Abstract
Using 3D Printing Technology in Cookie Production
by Gamze Nil Yazici and Mehmet Sertac Ozer
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10948 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 796
Abstract
Nowadays, 3D food printing, in other words, food layered manufacturing, has gained more importance. The most common driving forces behind using 3D technology in the food sector are designing complex external and internal food structures, the customizability of sensorial and nutritional features, and [...] Read more.
Nowadays, 3D food printing, in other words, food layered manufacturing, has gained more importance. The most common driving forces behind using 3D technology in the food sector are designing complex external and internal food structures, the customizability of sensorial and nutritional features, and the relationship between the sustainability of each. In this regard, 3D-printed cereal-based products, especially cookies, are some of the most common food products. According to studies that have used 3D printing technology for cookie production, some food additives such as hydrocolloids, in particular xanthan gum, could be used to increase mechanical strength in the post-processing steps, such as baking, frying, or steaming. However, the concentration of hydrocolloids is important due to influencing extrudability and porosity, which could bring about poor textural properties. On the other hand, it is possible to produce 3D-printed cookies without hydrocolloids or stabilizers by modifying the cookie recipes by means of changing fat and flour types or the concentration of sugar. Besides, applying the pre-heating process in cookie dough could enhance the resistance of deformation and could be implemented as 3D printing inks, which is giving better results in flours with lower starch content rather than higher starch content like tapioca. Moreover, 3D-printed technology also makes fortifying cookies with some microalgae like Arthrospira platensis and Chlorella vulgaris available, culminating in enhancing printability and stability. Moreover, to obtain novel functional foods with high nutritional properties, pea protein, grape skin powder, jackfruit seed powder, and finger millet powder have also been used in 3D-printed cookies. To sum up, 3D printing technology has great potential and is a promising solution for personalized cookies with complex shapes and textures, by taking into consideration the contribution of ingredients and printing parameters to produce high-quality end-products with higher repeatability and accuracy. Full article
1 pages, 177 KiB  
Abstract
Encapsulation: A Promising Technology for Future Food Applications, but What Policies Are Countries Following Today?
by Emel Hasan Yusuf
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11061 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 708
Abstract
The simple definition of encapsulation is “enclosing something in a capsule”. Encapsulation is applied as micro- and nanotechnology in pharmaceutical and food sciences for varied materials. Moreover, we will see more implementations in the forthcoming years because of the promising nature of this [...] Read more.
The simple definition of encapsulation is “enclosing something in a capsule”. Encapsulation is applied as micro- and nanotechnology in pharmaceutical and food sciences for varied materials. Moreover, we will see more implementations in the forthcoming years because of the promising nature of this technology. However, the adverse effects of encapsulated tiny materials are unknown, and the health authorities of countries do not follow specific legislations on micro- and nano-encapsulated foods. Indeed, applications of micro- and nanotechnology are observed with different regulations in different countries. For instance, in the USA, there are no regulations for encapsulation studies required by the FDA. Standard food tests are applied for micro and nano food products as well. In the European Union, no strict rules are required by the EFSA for approval requests from authorized institutions regarding the safety of food products utilizing micro- and nanotechnologies [1]. Furthermore, there are no regulations in Argentina, Canada, China, and the Republic of Korea for nanomaterials used in foods. Encapsulated food products are tiny, and the extent of accumulation of materials in the human body is unknown [2]. More importantly, encapsulated foods might create some unpredictable changes in the human body and produce harmful byproducts for the environment as well [3]. Full article
2 pages, 199 KiB  
Abstract
Olive Leaf Extracts as a Source of Antibacterial Compounds against Campylobacter spp. Strains Isolated from the Chicken Food Chain
by Jose Manuel Silvan, Rodrigo Casado, Marisol Villalva, Soledad Diaz, Alba Gutierrez-Docio, Esperanza Guerrero-Hurtado, Marin Prodanov and Adolfo J. Martinez-Rodriguez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10951 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Infections by Campylobacter in humans are generally caused by consuming contaminated foods of animal origin, with poultry, especially chicken, being the main reservoir. The high prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken carcasses and the [...] Read more.
Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Infections by Campylobacter in humans are generally caused by consuming contaminated foods of animal origin, with poultry, especially chicken, being the main reservoir. The high prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken carcasses and the growing resistance to the most widely used antibiotics has driven EFSA to propose a regulation (2017/1495) containing new microbiological criteria to regulate the presence of Campylobacter in broiler carcasses. In this context, there has been an increase in the number of research aimed at the search for new tools to reduce Campylobacter incidence in chicken meat. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of two olive leaf extracts (A y B) against eleven Campylobacter spp. strains (C. jejuni y C. coli) isolated from chicken food chain. Results showed that all Campylobacter strains had resistance to at least one of the eight antibiotics evaluated, and 46% of them were antibiotic multi-resistant. HPLC analysis showed that hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein were the major phenolic compounds in extracts A and B, respectively. Extract A showed a significant antibacterial activity against all Campylobacter strains tested in the present work. The use of a pure standard of hydroxytyrosol confirmed the contribution of this compound to the antibacterial effect of extract A. These results suggest that olive leaves could be used as a source of bioactive compounds to obtain extracts with antibacterial activity against Campylobacter spp potentially applicable to reduce the presence of Campylobacter in chicken carcasses. Full article
2 pages, 212 KiB  
Abstract
Influence of Coffee Silverskin, Caffeine and 5-Caffeoylquinic Acid on Sugar Uptake Using Caco-2 Cells: A Preliminary Study
by Juliana A. Barreto Peixoto, Nelson Andrade, Susana Machado, Anabela S. G. Costa, Maria Beatriz P. P. Oliveira, Fátima Martel and Rita C. Alves
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11011 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Coffee silverskin (CS) is the major by-product of coffee roasting and a source of caffeine and chlorogenic acids (CGA), recognized modulators of sugar metabolism. In this work, the effect of a CS extract on glucose and fructose uptake by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) [...] Read more.
Coffee silverskin (CS) is the major by-product of coffee roasting and a source of caffeine and chlorogenic acids (CGA), recognized modulators of sugar metabolism. In this work, the effect of a CS extract on glucose and fructose uptake by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells was ascertained. Freeze-dried aqueous extracts were prepared using an ultrasound probe. The obtained powder was characterized regarding its caffeine content and CGA profile by RP-HPLC-DAD. Caco-2 cells were incubated (at 37 °C for 24 h) with 1 mg/mL of extract, and then glucose and fructose uptake were measured by incubating the cells (at 37 °C for 6 min) with 10 nM 3H-deoxy-D-glucose (3H-DG) or 100 nM 14C-fructose (14C-FRU), respectively. The effects of the major compounds identified were similarly assessed using standards, individually and combined. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of the intestinal transporters of these sugars (SGLT1, GLUT2, and GLUT5) were quantified by RT-qPCR after cell treatment (for 24 h) with the CS extract. Caffeine was the main component of the extract and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) was the major CGA, followed by 5-feruloylquinic acid (5-FQA). Other isomers were found in minor amounts (3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 4-FQA). CS was able to significantly reduce 3H-DG and 14C-FRU uptake (~17% and ~19%, respectively). These effects were not related to cytotoxicity, as confirmed by the lactate dehydrogenase assay. When testing individual compounds at the concentrations present in the extract, neither caffeine nor 5-CQA influenced 3H-DG and 14C-FRU uptake, but significant inhibitions were found when the compounds were combined together (~16% and ~18%, for 3H-DG and 14C-FRU uptake, respectively). This synergistic activity suggests their major role in CS effects. The extract also decreased (in 71%) the expression levels of the GLUT2 transporter, without any influence on the SGLT1 and GLUT5 transporters, thus evidencing the importance of GLUT2 on sugar uptake results. Overall, these findings highlight the beneficial effects that CS might have on type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders. Full article
2 pages, 833 KiB  
Abstract
Novel Method to Conduct Remote Sensory Sessions and Biometrics during Isolation
by Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Eden Tongson and Sigfredo Fuentes
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10959 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Background: The recent pandemic due to the appearance of COVID-19 in 2020 has led to lockdowns worldwide, which have affected companies and universities conducting sensory evaluations. Therefore, a novel method to conduct sensory sessions for descriptive and consumer tests using biometrics in isolation [...] Read more.
Background: The recent pandemic due to the appearance of COVID-19 in 2020 has led to lockdowns worldwide, which have affected companies and universities conducting sensory evaluations. Therefore, a novel method to conduct sensory sessions for descriptive and consumer tests using biometrics in isolation has been developed. Materials and Methods: The method consists of using communication software such as Zoom and online software such as Google forms or RedJade to conduct the sensory sessions remotely. Different studies have been conducted using this technology to assess (i) consumers’ acceptability towards coffee labels (N = 69), (ii) videos of beer while pouring (N = 100), and (iii) images from the Geneva affective picture database (GAPED) using self-reported and biometric (subconscious) responses from consumers (N = 100), and (iv) wine samples using a trained panel (N = 11) with a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA®) method and a 15 cm non-structured scale. The researcher shared the questionnaire link with the participants and connected through Zoom during the session, using the camera to record videos of consumers’ responses while evaluating the samples for the biometrics. Results: Study 1 showed several associations between the coffee label concepts and self-reported and biometric responses. Some of these were that the Premium label was associated with perceived coffee strength, brand as the preferred area of interest (AOI), , and valence and relaxed subconscious responses. On the other hand, the Everyday label was associated with pleasantness, colors as preferred AOI, , , , and subconscious responses such as Joy and Smile (Figure in the Poster as Supplementary Material) [1]. Study 2 showed that consumers had more positive emotions and higher perceived quality towards beers, with higher liking of foam-related parameters. In Study 3, using GAPED images, based on the self-reported and subconscious responses, participants were able to correctly distinguish positive, neutral, and negative images [2]. On the other hand, in Study 4, the trained panel was able to accurately assess the intensity of aromas in different wine samples (Shiraz and Chardonnay) [3]. Conclusions: Findings were consistent with those from similar studies from previous publications conducted in a sensory laboratory [4,5,6,7,8,9], which confirms the reliability of the proposed virtual method. Further developments involve the assessment of multiple participants to record their biometrics simultaneously and optimize the sensory session time. Full article
2 pages, 182 KiB  
Abstract
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Replacement with p-Coumaric Acid: A Green Alternative in Wine Industry
by Christina Sakarikou, Constantinos Giaginis, Zacharoula Kokonozi, Nikolaos Vakirtzis, Dimitrios Krassos, Yorgos Kotseridis and Georgios K. Vasios
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10944 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Introduction: Sulfur dioxide has been traditionally used in winemaking as an effective preservative even though it often has negative taste- and health-related effects on consumers, particularly when used in excess. Furthermore, it can induce both SO2-related resistance and SO2-related [...] Read more.
Introduction: Sulfur dioxide has been traditionally used in winemaking as an effective preservative even though it often has negative taste- and health-related effects on consumers, particularly when used in excess. Furthermore, it can induce both SO2-related resistance and SO2-related viable but not culturable (VBNC) states in different wine yeast and bacteria species. Currently, the replacement of sulfur dioxide with plant-derived compounds, used as food bio-preservatives, has been proposed in winemaking at the laboratory scale as a green and healthier alternative. Purpose: To replace sulfur dioxide with p-coumaric acid, a plant-derived phenolic compound, in winemaking on an industrial scale in order to produce a safe, natural wine that is more sustainable, authentic and healthier. Methods: Both sulfur dioxide- and p-coumaric acid-treated wine was made in parallel at a winery on an industrial scale (into two 10,000 L stainless steel tanks) using the same quantity of the same grape variety (10,000 kg of Lemnos Island organic white wine grapes, Muscat of Alexandria) during the harvest of 2019 and following the same oenological procedures. The influence of p-coumaric acid on wine properties and quality was compared with that of sulfur dioxide under the same conditions after 3 months of storage in a bottle. To this end, several analytical parameters of wine related to oenological, microbiological, antioxidant, sensory and safety properties were determined according to the International Standards Organization (ISO) and International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) official analytical methods for both wine samples. Results: In general, there were no significant differences observed in stability, microbiological, antioxidant and oenological profiles due to sulfur dioxide replacement with p-coumaric acid, while the sensory profile was slightly ameliorated. Significance: This replacement technology resulted in a suitable green alternative to sulfur dioxide and could be easily applied to the wine industry in order to guarantee high-quality green products. Full article
1 pages, 169 KiB  
Abstract
Sustainable Use of Fruit and Vegetable By-Products as New Food Ingredients: The Case of Fortified Cereal-Based Products
by Valentina Lacivita, Amalia Conte and Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11073 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 613
Abstract
In recent years, the issue of sustainability has been widely discussed, being the future challenge for the food sector. Among the various strategies proposed to promote the development of a sustainable food system, the recovery, recycling and valorization of food by-products is one [...] Read more.
In recent years, the issue of sustainability has been widely discussed, being the future challenge for the food sector. Among the various strategies proposed to promote the development of a sustainable food system, the recovery, recycling and valorization of food by-products is one of them. Fruits and vegetables have the greatest amounts of by-products, which are source of bioactive compounds and therefore can be re-utilized as functional ingredients for development of novel foods. In this scenario, the possibility of using by-products of olive oil, tomatoes and wine industry was evaluated. In particular, after an adequate drying and grinding process, the olive paste flour (10% w/w) was used to enrich bread, while tomato peel flour (10 and 15% w/w) and red grape marc flour (15 % w/w) were used to enrich pasta. The sensory quality and the nutritional characteristics (total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) of the enriched products were evaluated and compared to control samples. In addition, the bio-accessibility of bioactive components and their effects on the glycemic response were also assessed. In general, results suggest that the proper fortification with by-products improved the nutritional quality and the glycemic response (active samples vs control) without compromising products acceptability. It can be concluded that these examples represent a starting point for exploiting industrial by-products and creating valid food with beneficial properties in a more sustainable perspective. Full article
1 pages, 169 KiB  
Abstract
Application of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Maceration Extraction of Antioxidants from Cosmos caudatus 
by Aisyah Amirah Hambali and Noor Hadzuin Nik Hadzir
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10918 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Cosmos caudatus has been proclaimed as a high source of bioactive compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and ascorbic acid. Reported evidence indicates that C. caudatus exhibits high antioxidant activities. This study is undertaken to study the effect of extraction time and ethanol [...] Read more.
Cosmos caudatus has been proclaimed as a high source of bioactive compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and ascorbic acid. Reported evidence indicates that C. caudatus exhibits high antioxidant activities. This study is undertaken to study the effect of extraction time and ethanol concentration on yield and DPPH scavenging activity and to optimize the maceration extraction conditions for C. caudatus. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was applied to obtain significant variables and the optimum conditions. The independent variables were extraction time (h) and ethanol concentration (%, v/v). The range of the extraction time was between 6 and 24 h and ethanol concentration was 30 to 100% (v/v). The dependent variables were yield (%) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (%). Results show that extraction yields ranged between 11% and 25%, and DPPH scavenging activity ranged between 29% and 99%. Yield was only influenced by ethanol concentration. However, both extraction time and ethanol concentration significantly affected DPPH scavenging activity. Maximum yield and DPPH scavenging activity are the optimal extract qualities. Thus, the optimal conditions were 24 h extraction time and 84% (v/v) ethanol concentration. The experimental values agreed with those expected by RSM models, showing the eligibility of the method used and RSM’s performance in optimizing the conditions of extraction. Full article
2 pages, 180 KiB  
Abstract
UPLC-ESI-MS/MS Profiling, Antihaemolysin and Anti-Biofilm Activities of the Underground Parts of Common Iris Specie
by Mona Okba, Passent Abdel-Baki, Mohammed Abu-Elghait, Amr Shehabeldine, Moshera El-Sherei, Amal Khaleel and Mohamed Salem
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10943 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Microbial resistance inhibition is increasingly focused on the use of plant extracts and their phytochemicals as candidates for targeting virulence factors. Here, we report on the chemical composition and virulence inhibition potential of both polar (PF) and non-polar fractions (NPF) of the underground [...] Read more.
Microbial resistance inhibition is increasingly focused on the use of plant extracts and their phytochemicals as candidates for targeting virulence factors. Here, we report on the chemical composition and virulence inhibition potential of both polar (PF) and non-polar fractions (NPF) of the underground parts of three common Iris species (I. confusa, I. pseudacorus and I. germanica). The anti-haemolytic and biofilm inhibition potential of the aforementioned Iris species against methicillin-resistant and -sensitive (MRSA and MSSA) S. aureus bacterial strains was explored. I. pseudacorus PF exhibited the most potent effect against S. aureus haemolytic activity. Intriguingly, all the tested fractions from all the species, except I. pseudacorus NPF, had no significant inhibition on the biofilm formation of MRSA and MSSA. Metabolite profiling of the investigated species revealed ninety and forty-five metabolites detected in the PFs and NPFs, respectively. Nigricin-type, tectorigenin-type isoflavonids and xanthones allowed the discrimination of I. pseudacorus PF underground parts from the other species, highlighting the importance of these metabolites in exerting its promising activity. On the other hand, triterpene acids, iridals, triacylglycerols, ceramides, and acid were the metabolites detected in the highest abundance in I. pseudacorus NPF. Full article
1 pages, 183 KiB  
Abstract
FIA-ESI-MS Fingerprinting Method with Chemometrics for the Characterization of Adulterated Coffee Samples
by Nerea Núñez, Josep Pons, Javier Saurina and Oscar Núñez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10919 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 592
Abstract
Food products are very complex matrices, which makes the quality of these products an issue of great interest in our society. Considering the complexity of the food chain, the adulteration of food is increasing, causing food fraud cases. In this field, drinks are [...] Read more.
Food products are very complex matrices, which makes the quality of these products an issue of great interest in our society. Considering the complexity of the food chain, the adulteration of food is increasing, causing food fraud cases. In this field, drinks are food products that can be very easily adulterated. This work will focus on the theme of fraud detection in coffee, one of the most popular beverages in the world. Coffee contains an elevated number of bioactive substances (phenolic acids, polyphenols, and alkaloids, being especially abundant in ellagic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids) that give rise to its important antioxidant activity, known for its beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to develop an efficient non-targeted FIA-ESI-MS fingerprinting method in combination with chemometrics to achieve the characterization, classification, and authentication of coffee samples, together with possible adulterants (barley, chicory, and flours) using partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) chemometric method. In addition, Arabica and Robusta coffee samples were adulterated with barley, chicory and flour and the obtained FIA-ESI-MS data subjected to partial least squares (PLS) regression. Results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed methodology to assess coffee authenticity and to quantify adulteration levels (down to 15%), showing good calibration and prediction errors. The poster of this work is provided in the supplementary materials. Full article
1 pages, 176 KiB  
Abstract
A Computational Study on the Multi-Component Nutrient Delivery System and Its Binding Interaction with Liposomal Membrane
by Monalisha Pattnaik and Hari Niwas Mishra
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10938 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 841
Abstract
Liposomes are made up of lipid bilayers and can enclose both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active ingredients. They act as drug vehicles for the effective delivery of small molecules to targeted cells. Most vitamins are susceptible to degradation when exposed to adverse conditions; hence, [...] Read more.
Liposomes are made up of lipid bilayers and can enclose both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active ingredients. They act as drug vehicles for the effective delivery of small molecules to targeted cells. Most vitamins are susceptible to degradation when exposed to adverse conditions; hence, they are often enclosed within a membrane to prevent deterioration and ensure maximum uptake. A computational study on the ligand–receptor interaction will provide comprehensive knowledge about the bilayer composition that will aid in liposome structuring. In this study, the docking of vitamins as ligands (B12, B9, A, D) with the lipid bilayer membrane is investigated using Autodock Vina. The docking studies are further coupled with molecular dynamic simulation (MDS) for 3ns to analyse the energies. The binding interaction of vitamins with the lipid membrane influence bioavailability and also effect diffusion across the membrane, determining the stability. Hydrophobic vitamins showed stronger binding affinity with the membranes varying from 10.8 to 12.7 kcal/mol. Hydrophilic vitamins had a weaker binding affinity of 5.1–5.7 kcal/mol. A few unfavourable bonds were observed in hydrophilic vitamins. Electrostatic force showed a stronger influence over the molecules than Van der Waals attraction. The diffusion coefficient (×10−5) suggested that a leaky membrane might have formed. The docking study of these vitamins with lipid bilayer membranes provides information about their binding affinity (RMSD~0.00) and their interaction with receptor pockets. Hence, the simultaneous co-encapsulation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic cavities could be a promising strategy to improve the delivery of micronutrients. Full article
2 pages, 188 KiB  
Abstract
Untargeted HPLC-UV-FLD Fingerprinting for the Characterization, Classification, and Authentication of Tea
by Josep Pons, Nerea Núñez, Javier Saurina and Oscar Núñez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10927 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 657
Abstract
Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most popular beverages, commonly consumed all over the world. Depending on the fermentation process, tea leaves can be categorized into three major groups: unfermented green tea, semifermented Oolong tea, and fully fermented black tea. [...] Read more.
Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most popular beverages, commonly consumed all over the world. Depending on the fermentation process, tea leaves can be categorized into three major groups: unfermented green tea, semifermented Oolong tea, and fully fermented black tea. The latter accounts for over 80% of worldwide production. The quality of tea products is determined by color, freshness, strength, and aroma. Phenolic and polyphenolic components contribute to the color and taste, whereas volatile components are directly related to the aroma. Unfortunately, food fraud is increasing globally. The widespread adulteration is the main concern for commercial functional tea extracts and tea-based nutraceuticals on the market. Especially for powdered extracts, the product quality of functional tea extracts varies highly on the market. The growing demand and interest in functional tea extracts are causing the proliferation of frauds that can seriously affect public health. Chicory, husk of pulses, and cereal starch are non-permitted materials typically employed as adulterants in tea extracts. The aim of this work was to develop an efficient untargeted high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection (HPLC-UV-FLD) method in combination with chemometrics to address the characterization, classification, and authentication of tea samples, together with possible adulterants such as chicory extracts. A reversed-phase chromatographic separation was optimized, using a C18 column, and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase components. The proposed methodology was applied to 87 tea samples, differing in variety and production region, and 12 chicory samples. In any case, the sample treatment consisted of sample infusion with hot water and filtration, and the obtained HPLC-UV-FLD fingerprints were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) chemometric methods. Perfect discrimination was achieved between different tea varieties and chicory demonstrating that untargeted HPLC-UV-FLD fingerprints can be proposed as good sample chemical descriptors to assess tea authentication and to prevent frauds dealing with adulteration with chicory. The poster of this work is provided in the supplementary materials. Full article
2 pages, 208 KiB  
Abstract
Influence of Oenological Processes and Product Qualities on the Compositional Profiles of Biogenic Amines of Sparkling Wines
by Aina Mir-Cerdà, Anaïs Izquierdo-Llopart, Javier Saurina and Sonia Sentellas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10920 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 662
Abstract
Biogenic amines (BAs) are low-molecular nitrogenous compounds especially abundant in fermented foodstuff such as wine and cheese, as well as in spoiled products. BAs are bioactive compounds that can cause toxicological problems—e.g., migraines, hypertension, rash, etc.—when ingested in high amounts. Contents of BAs [...] Read more.
Biogenic amines (BAs) are low-molecular nitrogenous compounds especially abundant in fermented foodstuff such as wine and cheese, as well as in spoiled products. BAs are bioactive compounds that can cause toxicological problems—e.g., migraines, hypertension, rash, etc.—when ingested in high amounts. Contents of BAs in wines may depend on different factors such as fermentation processes and other oenological practices, as well as on grape quality. This work aims at assessing the evolution of biogenic amines during the manufacturing process of sparkling wines by analysing samples of must, base wines, stabilized wines and 3-month- and 7-month-aged sparkling wines obtained from Pinot Noir and Xarel·lo grape varieties. In addition, the effect of grape quality was also evaluated. The determination of BA contents relies on liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with precolumn derivatization of analytes with dansyl chloride. Principal component analysis has been applied to try to extract featured information concerning overall patterns dealing with wine production steps and qualities. The analysis has shown that putrescine is the most abundant amine in this type of samples. Ethanolamine, tyramine, cadaverine and histamine concentrations are also remarkable. Regarding BA formation, their concentrations are quite low in musts, but especially rise after the first alcoholic fermentation. Besides, BA levels are smaller in the products elaborated with grapes of the best qualities, while significantly increase when using grapes of lower qualities. Full article
2 pages, 211 KiB  
Abstract
Berry-Based Products Classification by FIA–HRMS Fingerprinting and Chemometric Analysis
by Guillem Campmajó, Javier Saurina and Oscar Núñez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10916 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
In recent years, nutraceuticals prepared with cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) have gained special attention because of their beneficial effects on human health (e.g., antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against bacteria involved in a wide range of diseases), which are mainly attributed to [...] Read more.
In recent years, nutraceuticals prepared with cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) have gained special attention because of their beneficial effects on human health (e.g., antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against bacteria involved in a wide range of diseases), which are mainly attributed to the high content of specific polyphenols in cranberry. However, these products present a risk of fraud consisting of the total or partial substitution of cranberry extracts with cheaper and more abundant fruit extracts. Therefore, in this study, flow injection analysis coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (FIA−HRMS) fingerprinting was proposed as a rapid high-throughput analytical approach to address the classification of berry-based products through chemometrics, focusing on cranberry-based products authentication. Thus, several berry-based natural products (including 18 based on blueberry, 25 on grape, 12 on raspberry, and 28 on cranberry) and 21 cranberry-based nutraceuticals were analyzed. Sample treatment consisted of a simple solid–liquid extraction method, using acetone:water: hydrochloric acid (70:29.9:0.1, v/v/v) as the extracting mix. After both negative and positive electrospray ionization FIA−HRMS sample analysis, raw data were processed with mzMine 2.53 software to obtain the corresponding fingerprints. In this line, four different data matricesincluding negative, positive, low-level data fusion (LLDF), and mid-level data fusion (MLDF) FIA−HRMS fingerprints—were then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) using Solo 8.6 chemometrics software. PCA results allowed the identification of specific sample groups and trends. Subsequently, the complete sample classification was segregated through a classification decision tree—consecutive two-input class PLS-DA models—leading to excellent assignment accuracies after external validation according to sample botanical origin (independently of the employed data matrix). The poster of this work is provided in the supplementary materials. Full article
2 pages, 197 KiB  
Abstract
Discrimination and Characterization of Dark Chocolates Based on Polyphenolic Profiles by Liquid Chromatography with UV and Fluorescence Detection
by Tamara Parada, Pablo Pardo, Javier Saurina and Sonia Sentellas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11089 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 567
Abstract
The popularity of dark chocolate has increased greatly in recent years not only because it is considered a delicacy, but also due to its high polyphenolic content that provides some interesting healthy properties, such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. This work aims at [...] Read more.
The popularity of dark chocolate has increased greatly in recent years not only because it is considered a delicacy, but also due to its high polyphenolic content that provides some interesting healthy properties, such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. This work aims at characterizing and classifying dark chocolate samples based on their geographical origin, cocoa variety and cocoa content using their alkaloid and polyphenolic composition as the data. In the study, 42 chocolate samples from four different bean varieties (Criollo, Forastero, Nacional and Trinitario) and 3 different geographical origins (Africa, America and Asia) were analysed in triplicate. Samples were first defatted with chloroform, and the resulting residues, containing the polyphenolic species, were further extracted with a methanol/water 60:40 (v:v) solution. The resulting extracts were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and fluorescence detection (HPLC-UV-FLD). Compounds were separated on a C18 reversed-phase column with an elution gradient using 0.1% aqueous formic acid solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase components. Chromatograms were acquired at 280 nm, 325 nm and 370 nm in UV, and at 280/330 nm as the excitation/emission wavelengths in FLD. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used as exploratory and classification methods, respectively, relying on compositional profiles as the potential descriptors of chocolate features. Classification and discrimination of the chocolates were achieved based on their variety, origin and cocoa content. Results suggested that African samples are characterized by the abundance of flavanols, while American samples are richer in alkaloids. Regarding cocoa varieties, (−)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and procyanidins B2 and C1 are more abundant in Forastero and Nacional derived chocolates, caffeine and theobromine in Criollo, and Trinitario is characterized by the high levels of flavanols and poor (+)-catechin content (see figure in the poster). Full article
2 pages, 217 KiB  
Abstract
INFOGEST 2.0 Digestion Method: Characterization of the Sterol Content in the Digestion Reagents
by Manuel Muñoz-Checa, Mussa Makran, Gabriel López-García, Antonio Cilla, Reyes Barberá, Amparo Alegría and Guadalupe García-Llatas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10932 - 3 Oct 2021
Viewed by 773
Abstract
The INFOGEST digestion method was adapted for the evaluation of sterol bioaccessibility in a plant sterol (PS)-enriched beverage [1]. Recent modifications of the method, such as the addition of gastric lipase and cholesterol esterase, showed that the presence of sterols in [...] Read more.
The INFOGEST digestion method was adapted for the evaluation of sterol bioaccessibility in a plant sterol (PS)-enriched beverage [1]. Recent modifications of the method, such as the addition of gastric lipase and cholesterol esterase, showed that the presence of sterols in digestion reagents has an important role on sterol bioaccessibility [2]. However, the specific sterol contribution from these extracts is unknown. Therefore, in the present study, the sterol content of the extracts used in the INFOGEST 2.0 digestion method (rabbit gastric extract—RGE, porcine pancreatin and bovine bile) is determined via GC-FID. The results show that the cholesterol content of the extracts is as follows: bovine bile > porcine pancreatin > RGE (4.07 ± 0.18, 1.41 ± 0.07 and 0.57 ± 0.05 mg/g extract, respectively). Considering the amount of each extract added to the digestion, the greatest cholesterol contributor is porcine pancreatin, followed by bovine bile and RGE (1.72 ± 0.08, 1.00 ± 0.04, and 0.046 ± 0.004 mg, respectively). However, cholesterol in bile is found in pre-formed micelles that increase its solubility, and, therefore, it would compete for sterol micellarization against sterol provided by the digested foods. This fact has been observed in previous studies in which the cholesterol content of the blanks of digestion was inversely correlated with PS bioaccessibility [2]. On the other hand, bovine bile contains stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and sitostanol (0.14 ± 0.01, 0.93 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.01 mg/g extract, respectively), while porcine pancreatin contains campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and sitostanol (0.103 ± 0.004, 0.25 ± 0.02, 2.17 ± 0.42 and 0.32 ± 0.01 mg/g extract, respectively). Nevertheless, these PSs present in the extracts appear in negligible amounts in the digestion blank, reflecting their low solubility vs. cholesterol. In conclusion, in order to optimize the INFOGEST 2.0 gastrointestinal method for the evaluation of sterol bioaccessibility, the characterization of the sterol content in digestion reagents provides valuable information since it may affect their solubility. Full article
2 pages, 179 KiB  
Abstract
Improving Gluten-Free Bread Properties by Ohmic Baking: Role of Starch and Flour
by Elok Waziiroh, Denisse Bender, Anisa Saric, Henry Jaeger and Regine Schoenlechner
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11078 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 589
Abstract
The rheological properties of Gluten-Free (GF) batter are an important factor to consider for designing GF bread recipes, which is critical when they are baked by ohmic heating. This research demonstrated that batter properties are not only significantly modified by the starch:water ratio, [...] Read more.
The rheological properties of Gluten-Free (GF) batter are an important factor to consider for designing GF bread recipes, which is critical when they are baked by ohmic heating. This research demonstrated that batter properties are not only significantly modified by the starch:water ratio, but also greatly by the starch source and structure, which influenced its physical properties (e.g., water holding capacity, swelling power, solubility, starch damage, and pasting properties). This study aimed to investigate the role of GF starches (corn, wheat, potato, cassava) and flours (rice and buckwheat), as well as the rheological behavior of GF batter and the final bread quality after baking with ohmic heating. The starch (or flour) to water ratios were 1:0.9, 1:1.3, and 1:1.7, while buckwheat needed higher water ratios of 1:1, 1:1.5, and 1:2. The attempt was to thoroughly understand the interaction between the rheological properties and ohmic baking and to define a suitable viscosity range for this processing approach. All batters consistently exhibited shear-thinning and dominant viscous behavior. Between viscosity and ohmic-heated bread properties, a non-linear relationship was observed. These breads were generally higher in volume and softer in texture as opposed to conventional baked bread. Two categories of required water content or viscosity ranges were defined for estimating final ohmic-heated GF bread properties: low water content with a viscosity range of 47.12–56.20 Pa·s for B-type starches (tuber starches) and medium water content with a low to medium viscosity range of 2.29–15.86 Pa·s for A-type starches (cereal starches). This fact showed that viscosity played a critical role in determining GF bread structure and crumb properties. This finding could be useful for further research to design GF batter viscosities for tailored bread quality. Full article
2 pages, 164 KiB  
Abstract
Comparative Study on the Physicochemical Properties of Extruded Fortified Rice Kernels Produced from Different Rice Varieties with Their Corresponding Rice Varieties
by A. Nithya, Chandrakant Genu Dalbhagat and Hari Niwas Mishra
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11065 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Broken rice is a by-product of rice milling industries that could be refabricated to produce fortified rice kernels (FRK), a novel health product. FRK are manufactured by blending broken rice flour with a vitamin-mineral premix and extruding it to rice-shaped kernels. These FRK [...] Read more.
Broken rice is a by-product of rice milling industries that could be refabricated to produce fortified rice kernels (FRK), a novel health product. FRK are manufactured by blending broken rice flour with a vitamin-mineral premix and extruding it to rice-shaped kernels. These FRK are then mixed with raw rice in a specific ratio to produce micronutrient fortified rice, which reduces the cost of rice fortification. For this purpose, the FRK produced from a rice variety must match the properties of the same rice variety. Therefore, the study aimed to collect the broken rice of different varieties (raw and parboiled) and produce FRK thereof. In this study, four parboiled and three raw rice varieties were collected and processed to produce FRK. The FRK’s apparent amylose content (AAC), color, density, functional properties, and cooking time were compared with that of the corresponding native rice variety. The AAC of the native rice varieties was in the range of 20% to 24%. After extrusion, the AAC of the FRK (18.02% to 22.79%) decreased. The lightness, redness, and yellowness values of the FRK varied between 68 to 77, 0.9 to 3, and 16.02 to 19.06, respectively. The total color change (Δ–E) of FRK were < 3.6 for the raw rice, while were 7.19–10.29 for parboiled rice. The difference between the bulk density of all varieties of raw rice and FRK was < 9%. The water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WS)I, and cooking time of the FRK were lower than that of the native rice. This study showed that there were significant differences between the properties of FRK of different rice varieties. Further studies on the optimization of the processing conditions for rice varieties based on amylose: amylopectin ratio would help the production of FRK that matches the characteristics of native rice variety, thus facilitating sustainable production of low-cost novel health food. Full article
2 pages, 236 KiB  
Abstract
Subcritical Water Extraction of Actinidia arguta Leaves: Radical Scavenging Capacity and Cell Effects
by Ana Sofia Luís, Ana Margarida Silva, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Ricardo Ferraz, Jaroslava Švarc-Gajić and Francisca Rodrigues
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10954 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Kiwiberry is a nutritive fruit produced by Actinidia arguta vine [1]. During its production and harvesting, different by-products, such as leaves, are generated [2]. These by-products are enriched in bioactive compounds, enabling its recovery and reuse [1]. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Kiwiberry is a nutritive fruit produced by Actinidia arguta vine [1]. During its production and harvesting, different by-products, such as leaves, are generated [2]. These by-products are enriched in bioactive compounds, enabling its recovery and reuse [1]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, radical scavenging, and cell viability effects of A. arguta leaf extracts at different temperatures (110–160 °C), applying subcritical water extraction (SWE), a sustainable extractive methodology. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antiradical activity (DPPH and ABTS assays) were evaluated, as well as the scavenging activity against superoxide (O2•−), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and peroxyl radical (ROO). Additionally, cell viability assays on HT29-MTX and Caco-2 cell lines were performed. The extract obtained at 123 °C achieved the best results in all assays (TPC = 109.72 mg GAE/g dw; TFC = 53.11 mg CE/g dw; DPPH = 497.13 µg/mL; O2 = 335.23 µg/mL; HOCl = 17.06 µg/mL; Ssample/STrolox = 0.15), except in ABTS assay. TPC, TFC, and HOCl values were better than those obtained by different authors employing other extractive methods [2–4]. The cell viability assays allowed us to observe that the viability was not affected by the extracts at the highest tested concentration (1000 µg/mL) for HT29-MTX cells. Relative to Caco-2 cells, the extract at 160 °C displayed viabilities of 80.93% at concentrations of 10 µg/mL. Therefore, temperature probably influences the content of the extracted bioactive compounds, leading to the obtained results. These results highlight the potentialities of A. arguta leaves for pharmaceutical, food, or cosmetic applications. Full article
2 pages, 190 KiB  
Abstract
Inhibitory Activity of Three Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains: Bacteriocin Production
by Zahia Benmouna Benamar, Fatiha Dalache, Halima Zadi Karam and Nour-Eddine Karam
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10939 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Background: The bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are candidates for applications such as biopreservation of food. Due to their potential as alternatives to antibiotics, their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria are of great research interest. The enterocins, which are produced [...] Read more.
Background: The bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are candidates for applications such as biopreservation of food. Due to their potential as alternatives to antibiotics, their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria are of great research interest. The enterocins, which are produced by the Enterococcus species have been widely studied; they are recognized as probiotics by several researchers [1]. In the present study, we explore three LAB strains: Enterococcus sp. CM9, Enterococcus sp. CM18, and Enterococcus sp. H3 that produce bacteriocins named enterocins CM9, enterocins CM18, and enterocins H3, respectively [2]. Method: For the antimicrobial test, fifteen pathogenic bacteria were tested by the spot agar [3] and the well diffusion assays [4]. For the characterization of enterocins, the effect of pH, heat, and chemical agents on the activity of enterocins was evaluated by the well diffusion assay [5]. Results: The LAB used in the present work showed inhibitory activity against all pathogenic bacteria tested, while the supernatant of LAB exhibited inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes, E. coli and S. Typhimirium. The enterocins produced by the three LABs appeared stable to adjustment of an acidic or basic pH. They were resistant to the temperature until 121 °C for 15 min, therefore demonstrating their thermostability. Excepting the triton X100, they remained stable after treatment with between 20 and 80, NaCl, SDS, urea, and EDTA. Conclusion: The results indicate that the enterocins CM9 and CM18 belong to class IIa bacteriocins and experimentation will be required for their application. Full article
2 pages, 212 KiB  
Abstract
Impact of Pulsed Electric Fields Technology on Pigments Extraction Yield from Arthrospira platensis 
by Francisco J. Martí-Quijal, Francisco J. Barba and Francesc Ramon-Mascarell
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10964 - 3 Oct 2021
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Pulsed electric field (PEF) is an innovative technology that allows the creation of pores in the cell membrane through the application of an electric field. Among its main advantages, the increase in the extraction performance of intracellular compounds stands out. In order to [...] Read more.
Pulsed electric field (PEF) is an innovative technology that allows the creation of pores in the cell membrane through the application of an electric field. Among its main advantages, the increase in the extraction performance of intracellular compounds stands out. In order to study this effect on pigment recovery, a PEF-assisted extraction was performed. For that purpose, a PEF treatment at 3 kV/cm and 100 kJ/kg was applied to a 2% (p/v) suspension of the Arthrospira platensis microalgae, also known as spirulina. After pre-treatment with PEF, the suspension was stirred for 3 h, taking samples at different times. This extraction was compared with a control extraction, which consisted of stirring for 3 h without PEF pre-treatment. Furthermore, the influence of the solvent was evaluated in each case. Therefore, the extraction yield obtained using ethanol 50% (v/v) and DMSO 50% (v/v) was compared. The best results were obtained using 50% (v/v) ethanol as a solvent. In addition, a greater extraction of pigments was observed in the samples pre-treated with PEF. This was especially noticeable at lower extraction times. In conclusion, these results show that PEF is a promising technology for pigment extraction as it is environmentally friendly while improving the profitability of the process. Full article
2 pages, 175 KiB  
Abstract
Characterization of Active Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose/Orange Cellulose Nanocrystals Films Enriched with Ethyl Lauroyl Arginate for Food Packaging Applications
by Francesco Bigi, Enrico Maurizzi, Heinz Wilhelm Siesler, Andrea Pulvirenti and Hossein Haghighi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10933 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 737
Abstract
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are extracted from orange peels using an alkaline/H2O2 bleaching pre-treatment followed by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Extracted CNCs were added as a reinforcing agent into films based on chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose blend (CS/HPMC) enriched with lauroyl arginate ethyl (LAE) [...] Read more.
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are extracted from orange peels using an alkaline/H2O2 bleaching pre-treatment followed by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Extracted CNCs were added as a reinforcing agent into films based on chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose blend (CS/HPMC) enriched with lauroyl arginate ethyl (LAE) to produce a bionanocomposite active film. The size and morphology of CNCs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the effect of CNCs (10% w/w of biopolymer) and LAE (5% w/w of biopolymer) on microstructural, optical, mechanical, water barrier, and antimicrobial properties of the CS/HPMC films were analyzed. CNCs displayed a needle-like morphology with an average length of 500 nm and an average width of 40 nm. Scanning electron microscopy illustrated the structural integrity and compatibility between CS/HPMC/CNCs and the incorporated LAE. The successful incorporation of CNCs and LAE was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mainly due to the formation of hydrogen linkages between the film matrix and incorporated CNCs and LAE. This nanocomposite active film showed improvement in UV-Vis light barrier properties (p < 0.05). The addition of CNCs to CS/HPMC caused a reduction in water vapor permeability, while tensile strength was improved due to the homogeneous distribution of the nanoparticles within the polymer matrix. On the contrary, LAE’s incorporation into CS/HPMC improved the elasticity and also caused antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. Overall, nanocomposite films based on CS/HPMC/CNCs enriched with LAE could represent a suitable green approach for a partial replacement of synthetic plastics for packaging foods sensitive to microbiological decay and the spread of foodborne pathogens. Full article

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Jump to: Research

6 pages, 583 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Food Habits and Knowledge Related with Meat on a Sample of Portuguese Consumers
by Raquel P. F. Guiné, Anabela Gonçalves and Edite T. Lemos
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10987 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
This research was based on a questionnaire applied to a sample of Portuguese consumers. Most participants agreed that the influence of meat consumption on human health depends on the amount consumed, while practically none believed that meat is bad for health. Regarding knowledge, [...] Read more.
This research was based on a questionnaire applied to a sample of Portuguese consumers. Most participants agreed that the influence of meat consumption on human health depends on the amount consumed, while practically none believed that meat is bad for health. Regarding knowledge, it was observed that 33% did not believe that cattle production is harmful to the environment; 51% believed that red meat contributes to an increase in blood cholesterol; 31% thought that red meat is richer in protein than white meat; and 30% did not believe that pork meat is harmful to health. As for the preferences for meat in Portugal, chicken was the most preferred, followed by turkey, and then pork. The least preferred meats are horse, goat and sheep. We concluded that white meat is preferred by the participants who tend to reduce the consumption of red meats. Full article
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6 pages, 1170 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of Organic Acids on a Non-Conventional Starch from Corypha umbraculifera L. to Improve Its Functionality and Resistant Starch Content
by Basheer Aaliya and Kappat Valiyapeediyekkal Sunooj
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11001 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Talipot starch isolated from the stem of talipot palm is an underutilized and non-conventional source of starch with a high yield (76%). Resistant starch (RS) possesses varied physiological benefits by acting as a dietary fiber and reduces the risk of many degenerative diseases. [...] Read more.
Talipot starch isolated from the stem of talipot palm is an underutilized and non-conventional source of starch with a high yield (76%). Resistant starch (RS) possesses varied physiological benefits by acting as a dietary fiber and reduces the risk of many degenerative diseases. The process of starch esterification considerably increases the RS and improves other starch characteristics, such as reducing gelatinization temperature and retrogradation tendency. In the present study, talipot starch was esterified with two organic acids: acetic acid and lactic acid. By introducing the ester group (C=O), the modified starches exhibited a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in amylose content, relative crystallinity, swelling index, gelatinization temperature, and peak viscosity of starch. Lactic acid showed a higher impact on starch depolymerization and RS formation than acetic acid between the organic acids. Esterified talipot starch with a comparatively high yield can be utilized in the preparation of low-calorie foods. Full article
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6 pages, 495 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of the Relationship between the Presence of Vitamin D-Containing Foods in the Diet of Young People and the Development of Allergic Diseases
by Elena Aksonova, Dmitry Torianik, Natalia Otroshko and Sergey Gubsky
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10978 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
A significant part of vitamin D, which is necessary for important vital processes, a person receives with food. Vitamin D affects the proper functioning of the lungs and the immune system, which can be important in the development, severity and course of allergic [...] Read more.
A significant part of vitamin D, which is necessary for important vital processes, a person receives with food. Vitamin D affects the proper functioning of the lungs and the immune system, which can be important in the development, severity and course of allergic diseases (asthma, eczema and food allergies). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the presence of vitamin D-containing foods in the diets of young people and the appearance of allergic diseases symptoms. The study is a cross-sectional descriptive survey of 223 first-year students of the Kharkiv State University of Food Technology and Trade (Ukraine). Using questionnaires, the frequency of consumption and food preferences were assessed in relation to 22 vitamin D-containing foods and for the screening of allergic diseases. The analysis of the results shows that the consumption of foods rich in vitamin D is at a lower level than the respondents’ desire to consume them. It is revealed that the main food source of vitamin D is chicken eggs. This fact speaks in favor of the fact that young people in Ukraine experience a certain lack of vitamin D. The analysis of questionnaires for screening for allergic diseases shows that, depending on the year of the survey, about 69% of the respondents had symptoms of allergic diseases. The survey suggests that foods rich in vitamin D are not among the preferences of young people. As a consequence, there is a definite relationship between the presence of vitamin D deficiency in young people and a high percentage of respondents with allergic diseases symptoms. Full article
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6 pages, 675 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Technological Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Portuguese Goat’s Raw Milk Cheeses
by Beatriz Nunes Silva, Ana Sofia Faria, Vasco Cadavez, José António Teixeira and Ursula Gonzales-Barron
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11101 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
In this work, a total of 97 MRS-grown and 135 M17-grown lactic acid bacteria strains were isolated from 20 goat’s raw milk cheeses, and their antimicrobial, acidifying, and proteolytic activities were determined in vitro. Principal component analyses adjusted to a subset of 84 [...] Read more.
In this work, a total of 97 MRS-grown and 135 M17-grown lactic acid bacteria strains were isolated from 20 goat’s raw milk cheeses, and their antimicrobial, acidifying, and proteolytic activities were determined in vitro. Principal component analyses adjusted to a subset of 84 promising isolates evidenced that, for MRS isolates, antagonism against Staphylococcus aureus correlated well with higher acidification potential, whereas for M17 isolates, the antagonisms against S. aureus and Listeria monocytogenes were more correlated. The outcomes highlighted various strains with pathogen inhibition ability and satisfactory technological properties that may be useful for the development of a customised starter culture. Full article
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6 pages, 223 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Knowledge, and Practice of Home-Based Food Handlers in Hulu Selangor, Malaysia Regarding Food Safety
by Farah Jasmina Mohamad Fauzi and Noor Azira Abdul-Mutalib
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10930 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Food operators have been known as one of the sources of foodborne diseases in many food establishments. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an increase in online food businesses. This study aims to assess the level of food safety knowledge and practice [...] Read more.
Food operators have been known as one of the sources of foodborne diseases in many food establishments. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an increase in online food businesses. This study aims to assess the level of food safety knowledge and practice of home-based food handlers in Hulu Selangor, Malaysia, and their association with the food handlers’ socio-demographic characteristics. Data were collected online among 100 home-based food handlers using a non-experimental quantitative method. Results have shown that the level of home-based food handlers’ knowledge and practice was high, with a mean percentage score (SD) of 97.50% (10.02) and 96.05% (7.92), respectively. The study found that knowledge was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with experience, typhoid injection and attending a food safety course, whereas practice was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with education level, income, and age. Overall, this study also found that level of knowledge was significantly correlated with practice (p < 0.05). Full article
4 pages, 179 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Milk and Milk Products in Ayurveda: A Review
by Devasena Kozhiyott Mana, Arun Mohanan and Ramesh Narve Venkatesha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11068 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 5702
Abstract
Milk and milk products have been used by mankind since earlier days. Ayurveda makes use of dairy products for preventive and curative purposes as diet and in medicinal preparations. However, the exact reasoning behind such specific preparations and their concerned action is yet [...] Read more.
Milk and milk products have been used by mankind since earlier days. Ayurveda makes use of dairy products for preventive and curative purposes as diet and in medicinal preparations. However, the exact reasoning behind such specific preparations and their concerned action is yet to be explored. Dairy products undergo many processes in preparation for use as part of diet as well as medicine. Milk being an emulsion has the ability to incorporate water-soluble and lipid-soluble substances from the drugs. Specific preparatory procedures such as heating and fermentation make drug delivery effective and increase bioavailability, thereby giving the desired therapeutic action. Full article
7 pages, 258 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of the Use of a Selection of Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents in the Extraction of Polar Bioactive Compounds from Orange Peel
by Alberto Tejero, María Eugenia Martín, Daniel López-Malo, Maria José Esteve, Ana Frigola and Jesús Blesa
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11102 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 905
Abstract
The reuse of food chain residues is topical. This revaluation can extract bioactive compounds from these residues. However, extraction involves chemicals that cause environmental damage. In the present work, an experimental design with natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) has been carried out for [...] Read more.
The reuse of food chain residues is topical. This revaluation can extract bioactive compounds from these residues. However, extraction involves chemicals that cause environmental damage. In the present work, an experimental design with natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) has been carried out for extracting bioactive compounds from orange peel residues. NADES have a very low environmental impact. The tests were performed with five different NADES, mixed with 70% water. The results were compared with ethanol–water 50%, v:v, showing that NADES solvents provided better extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The shelf-life of the extracts was also evaluated, based on the above tests, for 4 weeks, finding significant changes from day 15 of storage at 4 °C. Full article
4 pages, 186 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ayurvedic Milk Powder as a Health Drink—An Innovative Approach in Antenatal Health Care—A Research Proposal
by Anuja Ajithakumari Rajendrakurup, Vineeth Paramadam Krishnan Nair, Arun Mohanan and Ramesh Narve Venkatesha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10972 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Ayurvedic preceptors place much emphasis on nutrition, especially during antenatal and postnatal periods, which may reduce the likelihood of medical complications both during and after pregnancy. Classic Ayurvedic texts mention medicated milk as an important part of prenatal care for pregnant women. By [...] Read more.
Ayurvedic preceptors place much emphasis on nutrition, especially during antenatal and postnatal periods, which may reduce the likelihood of medical complications both during and after pregnancy. Classic Ayurvedic texts mention medicated milk as an important part of prenatal care for pregnant women. By evaluating the effects of the herbal drugs contained in these formulations, one can understand the pharmacodynamics of these products. The medicated milk, when converted into milk powder, represents a healthier alternative to malted milk powder. Full article
6 pages, 190 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Ayurvedic View on Food (Ahara)—A Review
by Sreenisha Sukesh Suni, Dhanya Soman Pillai and Vineeth Paramadam Krishnan Nair
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11006 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6648
Abstract
Food plays a crucial role in both health and disease. A healthy life starts with healthy food. One should consume food only depending on one’s digestive fire. In Ayurveda, six ritus (seasons) have been detailed, and specific dietary and lifestyle regimens are also [...] Read more.
Food plays a crucial role in both health and disease. A healthy life starts with healthy food. One should consume food only depending on one’s digestive fire. In Ayurveda, six ritus (seasons) have been detailed, and specific dietary and lifestyle regimens are also well explained. There is a great interconnection between ahara, the gut microbiome and seasons. In Ayurveda, food supports and brings out the three qualities of mind, namely satvika (quality of purity and harmony), rajasika (quality of passion and manipulation) and thamasika (darkness, destruction). The satvik diet appears to be similar to a modern but prudent dietary pattern. Full article
6 pages, 552 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Cricket (Acheta domesticus) Flour Added to Mixture Powder to Obtain a Traditional Beverage (Chucula) on Its Physicochemical Characteristics
by Ariadna Montoro, Luz Indira Sotelo-Díaz, Annamaria Filomena-Ambrosio, Marta Igual, Javier Martínez-Monzó and Purificación García-Segovia
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11008 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 933
Abstract
The aim of this study was to add cricket (Acheta domesticus) flour to dried mixtures of chucula to obtain a mixture with higher protein content without altering the typical properties of the traditional product. An experimental design with three factors (cricket [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to add cricket (Acheta domesticus) flour to dried mixtures of chucula to obtain a mixture with higher protein content without altering the typical properties of the traditional product. An experimental design with three factors (cricket flour, cacao and other flours) was performed. From this, 27 experiments were carried out. The water and protein content, particle size, water solubility and water absorption index, and color of samples were determined. All samples presented water content values less than or equal to 3%, typical of this type of product. Crude protein content increased significantly with increasing cricket flour content. The particle size of the samples with lower cocoa contents were higher, however those with lower cricket flour contents were lower. The water absorption and solubility indices were not affected by the factors in the ranges studied. The sample with lower content of the generic flours presented lower luminosity values, that is, they were darker. The sample with the highest cocoa content in its formulation showed more orange-reddish tones compared to the rest. The addition of cricket flour could be an alternative to increase the protein content in powdered chucula without altering its traditional characteristics. According to results, 7% of cricket flour, 25% of cacao and 68% of general flour was recommended to improve the final product. Full article
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5 pages, 230 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Croatian Traditional Apple Varieties: Why Are They More Resistant to Plant Diseases?
by Ante Lončarić, Tihomir Kovač, Ana-Marija Gotal, Maria Celeiro and Marta Lores
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10917 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 798
Abstract
This study aimed to detect, quantify and compare the amounts of chlorogenic acid, phloridzin and quercetin in Croatian traditional and conventional apple varieties by HPLC-PDA. The results showed that Croatian traditional apple varieties had significantly higher amounts of chlorogenic acid (30.29 ± 0.34 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to detect, quantify and compare the amounts of chlorogenic acid, phloridzin and quercetin in Croatian traditional and conventional apple varieties by HPLC-PDA. The results showed that Croatian traditional apple varieties had significantly higher amounts of chlorogenic acid (30.29 ± 0.34 mg/100 g dw), phloridzin (3.12 ± 0.01 mg/100 g dw) and quercetin (11.68 ± 0.09 mg/100 g dw) detected for varieties Božičnica, Mašanka and Petrovnjača, respectively. The highest contents of the total phenolic acids, dihydrochalcones and flavonols were detected in Božićnica (31.94 ± 0.65 mg/100 g dw), Mašanka (3.52 ± 0.52 mg/100 g dw) and Fuji (19.11 ± 0.56 mg/100 g dw). These results present the beginning of the research on the resistance of Croatian traditional apple varieties to plant diseases. Full article
3 pages, 183 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Panchakola Siddha Yavagu (Medicated Rice Gruel) in Management of Vatarakta (Gouty Arthritis): A Review
by Aiswarya Mohan, Arun Mohanan and Vineeth Paramadam Krishnan Nair
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11009 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2859
Abstract
Yavagu or rice gruels are used as daily food items in Kerala and southern part of India. “Panchakola siddha yavagu” is a medicated rice gruel mentioned in classical Ayurveda book Charaka Samhita, in SutrasthanaApamarga tanduliya” chapter. Additionally, [...] Read more.
Yavagu or rice gruels are used as daily food items in Kerala and southern part of India. “Panchakola siddha yavagu” is a medicated rice gruel mentioned in classical Ayurveda book Charaka Samhita, in SutrasthanaApamarga tanduliya” chapter. Additionally, it is used in inflammatory conditions such as Gout arthritis. It contains drugs such as Pippali (Piper longum), Pippalimoola (Root of Piper nigrum), Nagara (Zingiber officinale), Chavya (Piper chaba) and Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica) along with six parts of water and one part of rice. In the case of Gouty arthritis, from an Ayurvedic point of view, it is caused by improper digestion of food in the body associated with doshas such as vata and rakta. It causes reddish discolouration, debility, looseness and cutting or pulsating types of pain in the knees, ankles, hips, shoulders, fingers and toes. The drugs mentioned in Panchakola Siddha Yavagu, i.e., Shogaol present in dry ginger (Nagara), Plumbagin present in fire plant (Chitraka), Piperine present in Long pepper (Pippali), Long pepper root (Pippali moola), and Wild pepper (Chavya) were proved to have anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, it is understood that consuming rice gruel containing these drugs will help to reduce symptoms such as inflammation, looseness and pain present in joints in conditions such as Gouty arthritis. Full article
6 pages, 280 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Castanea sativa Shells: Is Cosmetic Industry a Prominent Opportunity to Valorize This Agro-Waste?
by Diana Pinto, María de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, Victor de Freitas, Paulo C. Costa, Bruno Sarmento, Cristina Delerue-Matos and Francisca Rodrigues
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11048 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 885
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to recover antioxidants from chestnut shells (CS) through Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), aiming for their reuse as new cosmetic principles. The antioxidant/antiradical properties and inhibitory activities on hyaluronidase and elastase reinforced the potential use of CS extract [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to recover antioxidants from chestnut shells (CS) through Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), aiming for their reuse as new cosmetic principles. The antioxidant/antiradical properties and inhibitory activities on hyaluronidase and elastase reinforced the potential use of CS extract as an effective source of anti-aging ingredients. The in vitro assays confirmed the safety of the CS extract on HaCaT and HFF-1 cells up to 100 µg/mL. Regarding ex vivo permeation studies, two polyphenols, namely ellagic acid and epicatechin permeated the skin after 8 h of testing. This study emphasizes the skin health effects and safety of CS extract as an anti-aging cosmetic ingredient. Full article
6 pages, 886 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Hybrid Mandarin Peel
by Mayra Anticona, Daniel Lopez-Malo, Ana Frigola, Maria Jose Esteve and Jesus Blesa
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11100 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Mandarin cultivars (Citrus reticulata) represent 22% of the total number of citrus fruit crops. Mandarin peels are an abundant source of natural flavonoids and other antioxidants. To determine the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid mandarin peel, 33 samples of [...] Read more.
Mandarin cultivars (Citrus reticulata) represent 22% of the total number of citrus fruit crops. Mandarin peels are an abundant source of natural flavonoids and other antioxidants. To determine the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid mandarin peel, 33 samples of hybrid mandarins (Clemenvilla, Nadorcott and Ortanique), from the province of Valencia (Spain), were selected. Fresh mandarin peel extracts were prepared by ultrasound-assisted extraction (400 W, 80% v/v duty cycle, 40 °C) for 30 min, employing ethanol 50% (v/v) as the solvent in a 1:10 (w/v) solid–liquid ratio. C18 cartridges (200 mg) were employed for the solid phase extraction clean-up process, and an ultra-performance liquid chromatography system, coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, was used to identify, and quantify the polyphenols. Clemenvilla and Ortanique showed the highest antioxidant capacity using DPPH and TEAC, respectively. For these three hybrids, the main polyphenol present in the samples was hesperidin, which was higher in the Nadorcott peel (72 ± 7.0 µg/g). Moreover, narirutin was higher in Ortanique and Nadorcott (33 ± 6.3 and 31.8 ± 6.8 µg/g, respectively), and rutin was higher in Clemenvilla samples (7.3 ± 3.8 µg/g). The results suggest that mandarin peels are an important source of polyphenol compounds with a high antioxidant capacity. Full article
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6 pages, 444 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Subcritical Water Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Vineyard Pruning Residues: Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Bioactive Properties
by Manuela M. Moreira, Olena Dorosh, Sofia Silva, Ana Margarida Silva, Clara Grosso, Elsa F. Vieira, Francisca Rodrigues, Virgínia C. Fernandes, Andreia F. Peixoto, Cristina Freire and Cristina Delerue-Matos
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11103 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
The objective of this work was to optimize subcritical water extraction (SWE) conditions of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from vineyard pruning residues. For that, a central composite design (CCD) was conducted to investigate the influence of temperature (123–307 °C) and time (14–56 [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to optimize subcritical water extraction (SWE) conditions of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from vineyard pruning residues. For that, a central composite design (CCD) was conducted to investigate the influence of temperature (123–307 °C) and time (14–56 min). The optimal extraction conditions were 33 min and 280 °C, revealing a high TPC (229 ± 23 mgGAE/g dw) and antioxidant activity by FRAP and ABTS assays (228 ± 20 and 236 ± 11 mgAAE/g dw). The phenolic composition revealed high amounts of catechin, gallic acid and quercetin. SWE demonstrated to be a powerful extraction technique for polyphenols recovery from vine-canes. Full article
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6 pages, 574 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Exploratory Insights into Consumption and Commercialization of Organic Products during COVID-19 Pandemic
by Ana R. Pires, Cristina A. Costa, Ana P. Moura and Raquel P. F. Guiné
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10994 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1020
Abstract
A questionnaire survey was designed to investigate the consumption habits and commercialization of organic products in Portugal, under COVID-19 restrictions. Results showed that most participants are familiar with organic farming and have consumed organic foods, mostly fruits and vegetables, and less meat or [...] Read more.
A questionnaire survey was designed to investigate the consumption habits and commercialization of organic products in Portugal, under COVID-19 restrictions. Results showed that most participants are familiar with organic farming and have consumed organic foods, mostly fruits and vegetables, and less meat or dairy products. Reasons to consume organic products include environmental concern, helping local producers and eliminating harmful substances such as pesticides from diet. Although the majority have consumed organic foods, there is still a small percentage of consumers who do not, and for those it is because of the high prices of organic compared to conventional food. Full article
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6 pages, 1132 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Correlations between Capsaicin, Dihydrocapsaicin and Phenolic Content in Habanero Chillies
by Joel B. Johnson, Janice S. Mani and Mani Naiker
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11066 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Australia is a minor producer of chilli, with the industry producing around 2500 tonnes of chillies per year. Due to the small size of the industry, there is currently limited research on the typical levels of capsaicinoids in the Australian crop and the [...] Read more.
Australia is a minor producer of chilli, with the industry producing around 2500 tonnes of chillies per year. Due to the small size of the industry, there is currently limited research on the typical levels of capsaicinoids in the Australian crop and the relationship between these constituents and other agronomic and nutritional factors. This study applied a rapid, maceration-based extraction protocol with end-over-end shaking, coupled with a HPLC-DAD method for the analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in 20 Habanero chilli samples from Queensland, Australia. All samples were from the same growing season (2020) but were taken from different within-field locations to ensure that all of the variability within the growing site was sampled. In addition to the capsaicinoid measurements, the total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, while antioxidant activity was measured using the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. The capsaicin concentration of the samples ranged from 1474–3916 mg/kg, while the dihydrocapsaicin content ranged between 638–1757 mg/kg, giving total pungencies of approximately 32,000 to 83,000 Scoville Heat Units. Similarly, the total phenolic content varied from 1000–1608 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g, while the antioxidant activity ranged from 301 to 455 mg Trolox equivalents/100 g. Pearson linear correlation analysis revealed that the capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin contents were strongly positively correlated with one another (R2 = 0.73; p < 0.001), with a mean capsaicin: dihydrocapsaicin ratio of 2.4:1. Furthermore, there was a moderate positive correlation between the total capsaicinoid content and total phenolic content of the samples (R2 = 0.58; p < 0.01), as well as a strong correlation between the total capsaicinoid content and FRAP (R2 = 0.81; p < 0.001). However, dry matter content was not significantly correlated with capsaicinoid content, total phenolic content or antioxidant activity (p > 0.05 for all). These results may be used to inform future breeding programs for high-capsaicin chilli varieties and support further research into the agronomic and genetic factors driving capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content. Full article
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6 pages, 814 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Volatile Compound Fingerprints of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
by Winatta Sakdasri, Buntita Sakulkittiyut, Somkiat Ngamprasertsith and Ruengwit Sawangkeaw
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11026 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed oil consists of many volatile oils dissolved in the fixed oil. In this work, the seed oil samples were obtained from supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) extraction under various pressures (20.0–30.0 MPa) and temperatures (40–60 [...] Read more.
Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed oil consists of many volatile oils dissolved in the fixed oil. In this work, the seed oil samples were obtained from supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) extraction under various pressures (20.0–30.0 MPa) and temperatures (40–60 °C). The volatile compound fingerprints of SCCO2-extracted oils were analyzed by static headspace-gas chromatography (SH-GC-FID) without using any organic solvent. The comparison of volatile compound fingerprints of SCCO2 and n-hexane extracts was compared with the direct analysis of milled seed. Full article
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4 pages, 950 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Response Surface Optimization of Crude Polysaccharides from Grey Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer) Using Pressurized Hot Water Extraction
by Winatta Sakdasri, Panisara Arnutpongchai, Supasuta Phonsavat and Ruengwit Sawangkeaw
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11054 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer) is a popular edible mushroom in Thailand due to its high nutritional and medicinal benefits. This study aims to study the effects of temperature (100–140 °C), pressure (4–7 bar), and extraction time (20–60 min) on [...] Read more.
Grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer) is a popular edible mushroom in Thailand due to its high nutritional and medicinal benefits. This study aims to study the effects of temperature (100–140 °C), pressure (4–7 bar), and extraction time (20–60 min) on the extraction of crude polysaccharides with environmentally friendly pressurized hot water. The extraction conditions were optimized by the maximize yield using response surface method based on a central composite design (CCD). The temperature was the main factor affecting the increase in the extracted yield. The optimum extraction conditions were 140 °C, 10 bar, and 26.79 min, with a corresponding yield of 31.31 ± 2.55%. Under these conditions, the total phenolic content of crude polysaccharides was 401 ± 8.24 mg GAE/g dry mushroom. In addition, the total glucan content was indicated as 34.50 ± 1.79 g/100 g dry mushroom, which was separated as 32.47 ± 1.95 mg/100 g of β-glucans and 2.04 ± 0.98 mg/100 g of α-glucans. Full article
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5 pages, 650 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimization of Polysaccharides Extraction from Spent Coffee Grounds (SCGs) by Pressurized Hot Water Extraction
by Winatta Sakdasri, Kanyagorn Khamseng, Mookanda Wattanavaree, Yaowapa Chandeang and Ruengwit Sawangkeaw
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11053 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 982
Abstract
Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) are a by-product of the food industry which contain a rich source of polysaccharides. This research was to study the extraction of polysaccharides from SCGs by environmentally friendly technic of pressurized hot water. The process optimization was investigated by [...] Read more.
Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) are a by-product of the food industry which contain a rich source of polysaccharides. This research was to study the extraction of polysaccharides from SCGs by environmentally friendly technic of pressurized hot water. The process optimization was investigated by response surface methodology (RSM) to produce the highest extraction yield with a different temperature of 80–120 °C, a pressure of 4–12 bars, and an extracted time of 60–180 min. The pressurized hot water showed an efficient technique to recover polysaccharides from SCG. Full article
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4 pages, 225 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Dietary Habits and Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence in Men and Women: National Health Survey in Serbia
by Irena Ilic, Milena Ilic and Sanja Kocic
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11045 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
This study assessed the relationship between dietary habits and diabetes mellitus prevalence in Serbia. The consumption of dairy products (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.03–1.30; p = 0.017) and fruits (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.19–1.44; p < 0.001) was associated [...] Read more.
This study assessed the relationship between dietary habits and diabetes mellitus prevalence in Serbia. The consumption of dairy products (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.03–1.30; p = 0.017) and fruits (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.19–1.44; p < 0.001) was associated with diabetes mellitus in males, whereas the consumption of margarine still reached statistical significance (OR = 5.33, 95% CI = 1.00–28.72; p = 0.050). The use of margarine (OR = 4.69, 95% CI = 1.35–16.32; p = 0.015) and lard (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.10–5.12; p = 0.027) was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in females. A lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus in females was associated with bread consumption, pertaining to half-white bread (p = 0.027) and integral bread (p = 0.011). Full article
4 pages, 2522 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparison and Consumer’s Preference on Jam and Jelly from “Mastrantonio” Sweet Cherry Fruits
by Valeria Rizzo, Francesca Celano, Pietro Sorci, Salvatore Barbagallo and Giuseppe Muratore
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10990 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1539
Abstract
The Sicilian territory is characterized by many peculiarities of both an environmental and biological nature that result in unique features in the cherry growing along the slopes of volcano Etna. Particular attention is paid to the typical varieties of sweet cherry ‘Donnantonio’ or [...] Read more.
The Sicilian territory is characterized by many peculiarities of both an environmental and biological nature that result in unique features in the cherry growing along the slopes of volcano Etna. Particular attention is paid to the typical varieties of sweet cherry ‘Donnantonio’ or ‘Mastrantonio’ which, since 2011, is specifically included among those recognized in the disciplinary for the use of the “Ciliegia dell’Etna” DOP trademark. The fruit of this cultivar is well known and appreciated by consumers for its specific characteristics: medium-large size, dark red skin, and bright, sweet, crunchy, and very pleasant pulp. Moreover, they are an excellent source of many nutrients and phytochemicals, which contribute to a healthy diet. Jam and jelly were handcrafted produced from ‘Mastrantonio’ sweet cherry; agave syrup was used in both products, which has a much lower glycemic index than common sugar. Therefore, jam was divided in two batches. The first was kept as control (jam1) while to the second half of jam had locust bean gum (LBG) added to it as thickener (jam2). During jelly production, a part was cooked following the traditional recipe (jelly1) whereas, in the other part, an aliquot of lemon juice was added during cooking (jelly1). We decided to apply a discriminating sensory test, a paired-comparison preference test, an analytical method commonly used to identify if there are any perceptible differences between products. Randomized samples were evaluated by 30 judges, who indicated the best thickness between jams (α = 0.05; β = 0.3 pd = 40%) and the highest sweetness between jellies (α = 0.2; β = 0.1 pd = 40%); all participants were chosen among sweet cherry’s producer. Jam with the addition of LBG was statistically recognized as different and selected as the best choice for texture achieved, while no statistical difference was found between tested jellies. Results underlined how the LBG use, although still not very common in traditional recipes, is a good thickener as perceived by consumers, while for jelly, the test’s result highlighted how the aliquot of lemon juices added was not enough to induce a difference in consumers taste. Full article
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7 pages, 4564 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optical Methods to Determine the Gas Atmosphere in Various Modified Atmosphere Packages: Applications and Correlation in Meat Spoilage
by Jasmin Dold, Clarissa Hollmann, Caroline Kehr and Horst-Christian Langowski
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11098 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 681
Abstract
The use of non-invasive optical measurement systems for the quality evaluation of packed food is becoming more important for the reduction of food waste and quality improvement. In this study, the gas atmosphere of packed poultry was monitored using optical measurement systems based [...] Read more.
The use of non-invasive optical measurement systems for the quality evaluation of packed food is becoming more important for the reduction of food waste and quality improvement. In this study, the gas atmosphere of packed poultry was monitored using optical measurement systems based on fluorescence quenching for oxygen determination and mid-infrared (MIR) laser spectroscopy for the detection of carbon dioxide. The gas atmosphere was evaluated continuously over fifteen days of storage, the total viable count was obtained, and optical and olfactory sensory evaluations were simultaneously performed by a trained sensory panel. The results revealed that irregular storage conditions could be detected and that microbiological growth under regular conditions does not lead to a significant change in the headspace atmosphere. Full article
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10 pages, 278 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Update on Sustainable Valorization of Coffee By-Products as Novel Foods within the European Union
by Dirk W. Lachenmeier, Tabata Rajcic de Rezende and Steffen Schwarz
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10969 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2191
Abstract
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as animal feed. [...] Read more.
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as animal feed. The modern, ecologically oriented society attaches great importance to waste reduction, so it makes sense to not dispose of the by-products of coffee production but to bring them into the value chain. The aim of this presentation is to provide an updated overview of novel coffee products in the food sector and their current legal classification in the European Union (EU). Coffee flowers, leaves, cascara, coffee cherry spirit, silver skin, and coffee wood are among the materials considered in this article. Some of these products may have, at least, an indirect history of consumption in Europe (silver skin), while others have already been used as traditional foods in non-EU-member countries (coffee leaves, flowers, cascara, and coffee cherry spirit). Of these, coffee leaf tea and cascara have already been approved by the European Commission. Following a consultation with EU member states, spent coffee grounds were determined as being not novel. For the other products, toxicity and/or safety data need to be gathered to further advance novel food applications. Full article
7 pages, 254 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
New Rural Women’s Power: Sustainable Rural Food Preparation Model Inheritance and Business Model
by Ching-Sung Lee, Yen-Cheng Chen, Pei-Ling Tsui, Cheng-Wei Che and Ming-Chen Chiang
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11031 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Taiwan’s rural areas are currently facing important food problems and the dilemma of human inheritance. Based on the United Nations’ belief that rural women must be empowered; they are a key force in promoting agricultural and rural development, as well as food security [...] Read more.
Taiwan’s rural areas are currently facing important food problems and the dilemma of human inheritance. Based on the United Nations’ belief that rural women must be empowered; they are a key force in promoting agricultural and rural development, as well as food security and nutrition, by harming the environment and helping the poor. Food security and livelihoods and production activities that revitalize production and sustained economic growth have made important contributions to sustainable development. They are also important and active in the implementation of employment policies, social integration, regional and rural development, agriculture and environmental protection. Through the reflection and verification of basic theories and theories, this study conducts research on the value of structural rural food preparation and innovation. This research uses the in-depth focus group interview method and questionnaire survey method to focus on the women’s home economics groups in the Taiwan Farmers Association to analyze the business model of food preparation and inheritance. The results of the study show that there are five dimensions in the business model of agricultural food preparation and inheritance of women’s home economics groups. The contribution of this research is as follows: In response to the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in rural food in Taiwan, this research has constructed an indicator model of rural food preparation and innovation value. It can be used as an important reference for the inheritance and development of Taiwan’s agriculture and food. Full article
6 pages, 692 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of 17 Mediterranean Functional Herbs and Wild Green Extracts from North Aegean, Greece
by Chrysoula Kaloteraki, Kalliopi Almpounioti, Panagiota Potsaki, Panoraia Bousdouni, Aikaterini Kandyliari and Antonios E. Koutelidakis
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11003 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Functional foods are considered beneficial to human health due to their high nutritional values. Currently, there is development in research to identify natural functional food sources high in bioactive compounds, such as antioxidants and polyphenols, as they are shown to contribute towards decreasing [...] Read more.
Functional foods are considered beneficial to human health due to their high nutritional values. Currently, there is development in research to identify natural functional food sources high in bioactive compounds, such as antioxidants and polyphenols, as they are shown to contribute towards decreasing oxidative stress and maintaining well-being in human health. The objective of the present study was to determine the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Mediterranean medicinal natural herbs and wild greens, aiming to create a database of medicinal plants for future potential use as functional food ingredients. A total of seventeen selected herbs and wild greens from Lemnos Island (Greece) were purchased between June and July of 2021. Extracts were prepared with an ultrasound water bath at 70 °C for 60 min. The antioxidant capacity was measured with ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the total polyphenolic content was determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method. The mean phenolic values ranged from 0.18 to 2282.80 mg of gallic acid/g of sample, whereas Hypericum perfoliatum L. and Hypericum perforatum L., Salvia spp., and Sideritis sp. displayed the highest contents (p < 0.05). Melissa officinalis L., Mentha Spicata, and Thymbra capitata L. obtained the highest total antioxidant capacity values greater than 12.20 mmol/L, with an average range of 0.06 to 30.58 mmol of Fe2+/L of extract (p < 0.05). Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, Crataegus azarolus L., and Pancratium Maritimum obtained the lowest contents from both methods. Studies have shown that medicinal plants with total antioxidant values higher than 0.87 mmol/L could be applicable in the fortification of food products (i.e., yogurt). Therefore, this study suggests that most of the above medicinal plants could be a potential source of antioxidants for functional food applications while their use can enhance Mediterranean diet principles. Full article
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3 pages, 580 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prevalence and Antibiogram Profiling of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Escherichia coli in Raw Vegetables, in Malaysia
by Epeng Lee, Son Radu, Nuzul Noorahya Jambari and Noor Azira Abdul-Mutalib
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10960 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 939
Abstract
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance has drawn the public’s attention worldwide. The presence of ESBL E. coli in fresh produce and other food represents a growing problem involving food safety and has become a global food safety issue. This study was aimed to [...] Read more.
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance has drawn the public’s attention worldwide. The presence of ESBL E. coli in fresh produce and other food represents a growing problem involving food safety and has become a global food safety issue. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in raw vegetables (lettuce and bean sprouts) from hypermarkets and wet markets and to establish the antibiogram of the isolates. In this study, a total of 180 samples (95 samples of lettuce and 85 samples of bean sprouts) were collected from hypermarkets and wet markets. The most-probable-number analysis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPN–PCR) was used to detect and quantify the ESBL-producing E. coli in raw vegetable samples. The prevalence rates of ESBL-producing E. coli in lettuce and bean sprouts were 62.11% (59/95) and 63.53% (54/85), respectively, with a microbial load range of <3 to >1100 MPN/g. A total of 15 isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli recovered from the samples were tested with an antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) with different antibiotic classes. All isolates were found to be susceptible to cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and meropenem. A total of nine ESBL-producing E. coli strains showed multidrug resistance. In conclusion, the high prevalence rate of ESBL-producing E. coli in raw vegetables showed that raw vegetables could act as a potential vehicle to transmit ESBL-producing E. coli to the human population. Full article
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4 pages, 986 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Analytical Methods to Determine Regulatory Compliance of Coffee Leaf Tea
by Valerie Segatz, Marc C. Steger, Patrik Blumenthal, Vera Gottstein, Marina Rigling, Steffen Schwarz, Yanyan Zhang and Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10937 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
The leaves of the coffee plant Coffea are traditionally used in several countries worldwide to prepare tea-like beverages using aqueous infusion in hot water. There are currently no tested methods available to check the regulatory compliance of coffee leaf tea according to the [...] Read more.
The leaves of the coffee plant Coffea are traditionally used in several countries worldwide to prepare tea-like beverages using aqueous infusion in hot water. There are currently no tested methods available to check the regulatory compliance of coffee leaf tea according to the European Union (EU) novel food authorization. This study shows that standard ISO methods for tea analysis could be transferred without modifications to coffee leaf tea analysis. The only difference found was a much lower content of some catechins in coffee leaf tea compared to Camellia sinensis tea, but the methods were clearly applicable for use in controlling the EU’s maximum limits for coffee leaf tea. Full article
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6 pages, 430 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Oregano and Rosemary Essential Oil Distillation By-Products
by Elisavet Bouloumpasi, Magdalini Hatzikamari, Athina Lazaridou, Paschalina Chatzopoulou, Costas G. Biliaderis and Maria Irakli
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11020 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1768
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant effect of Greek oregano and rosemary by-products from essential oil distillation on pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The antibacterial effect of raw material of oregano and rosemary before distillation and post distillation, [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant effect of Greek oregano and rosemary by-products from essential oil distillation on pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The antibacterial effect of raw material of oregano and rosemary before distillation and post distillation, the dried residues, was tested against the following bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus cereus strains. Results showed that rosemary distillation by-products were able to inhibit the growth of all Bacillus (B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. cereus) strains and L. monocytogenes while oregano affected the growth of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, even at the minimum concentration. However, it affected B. cereus, at the maximum concentration. The total phenolic content in oregano/rosemary raw material and their by-products was approximately similar; however, antioxidant activity was reduced in oregano solid residue, whereas it was surprisingly increased in the rosemary by-products after distillation. These results suggest the potential use of oregano and rosemary distillation by-products as antimicrobial and bioactive agents. Full article
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6 pages, 711 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sensory Profile of cv. Savvatiano (Vitis vinifera L.) Wines Fermented with the Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeasts in Individual and Mixed Fermentation
by Elisavet Bouloumpasi, Aikaterini Petraina and Aikaterini Karampatea
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11095 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 856
Abstract
The objective of this study was to explore the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, individually or in mixed culture, with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the vinification of must originating from the native white wine grape cultivar Savvatiano (Vitis vinifera L.). Savvatiano is the most [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to explore the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, individually or in mixed culture, with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the vinification of must originating from the native white wine grape cultivar Savvatiano (Vitis vinifera L.). Savvatiano is the most planted grape cultivar in Greece, cultivated predominantly in Central Greece. Grapes were harvested during October 2020, were pressed, and the must after cold settlement was inoculated with a. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, b. Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and c. mixed culture, in sequential inoculation (M. pulcherrima, followed by S. cerevisiae after 7 days). The progress of fermentations was monitored and the finished wines were analyzed for the main wine parameters, as well as sensory attributes by a panel of experts. The results of this study provide useful data in order to further explore the effect of mixed culture use on fermentation of musts originating from native grape varieties with low aromatic intensity. Full article
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6 pages, 518 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Cleaning Procedures on the Concentration of Pesticide Residues on Crisp Fresh-Cut Lettuce (cv. Vera)
by Noel Alonzo, Hugo do Carmo, Ana Paula Paullier, Inés Santos, Brian de Mattos, Magdalena Irazoqui and Lucía Pareja
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11023 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Decontamination procedures are needed for ready-to-eat foods, especially vegetables. In this work, we focused on the effects of four cleaning solutions and ultrasound baths on the amount of pesticide residue left on lettuces. Five pesticides were applied to lettuces grown in controlled conditions. [...] Read more.
Decontamination procedures are needed for ready-to-eat foods, especially vegetables. In this work, we focused on the effects of four cleaning solutions and ultrasound baths on the amount of pesticide residue left on lettuces. Five pesticides were applied to lettuces grown in controlled conditions. The residues were analyzed with an acetate QuEChERS method and a HPLC-MS/MS system. All the tested methods resulted in diminution of residues without significant differences among them. Out of 16 pesticides analyzed on commercial samples, only five were found on seven of the samples, without exceeding the MRLs. Full article
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8 pages, 1199 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Techno-Economic Evaluation of the Production of Protein Hydrolysed from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Using Supercritical Fluids and Conventional Solvent Extraction
by Luis Olivera-Montenegro, Ivan Best, Alejandra Bugarin, Camila Berastein, Hugo Romero-Bonilla, Norma Romani, Giovani Zabot and Alejandro Marzano
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11002 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 954
Abstract
The production of quinoa protein hydrolysate (QPH) using two technologies to extract the oil and separate the phenolic compounds (PC) prior to enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated: (1) Supercritical fluids extraction (SFE), and (2) Conventional solvent extraction (CSE). A economic evaluation and sensitivity study [...] Read more.
The production of quinoa protein hydrolysate (QPH) using two technologies to extract the oil and separate the phenolic compounds (PC) prior to enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated: (1) Supercritical fluids extraction (SFE), and (2) Conventional solvent extraction (CSE). A economic evaluation and sensitivity study was performed using SuperPro Designer® 9.0 software; quinoa grain batches of 1.5 kg (laboratory) and 2500 kg (industrial scale) were considered. The results revealed that SFE allows for higher yields and the separation of PC, however, both processes are economically promising, especially when the QPH and by-products are produced on a large scale and sold at the current market price. Full article
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7 pages, 564 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Study of Commercial Dried Fruits on Labeling Information, Chemical Parameters, Antioxidant Capacity, and Sensory Profile
by Candela Teruel-Andreu, Esther Sendra, Francisca Hernández-García, Leontina Lipan and Marina Cano-Lamadrid
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11052 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 885
Abstract
Manufacturers have been deeply involved in increasing the variety of dried fruits available in the market following consumer demand for healthy foods. It is essential to highlight that there is no daily recommended intake of dried fruits. The aim of the present study [...] Read more.
Manufacturers have been deeply involved in increasing the variety of dried fruits available in the market following consumer demand for healthy foods. It is essential to highlight that there is no daily recommended intake of dried fruits. The aim of the present study was to compare the labeling information, chemical parameters, antioxidant capacity, and sensory profile among: (i) different dried fruits (apple, mango, pineapple, tomato, fig, coconut, banana, and red cranberry) and (ii) different commercial brands for each dried fruit (n = 3). Depending on the fruit, labeling information unevenly adhered to the “clean label trend”. Preservatives were present when water activity could favor microbial spoilage or product deterioration. Among commercial brands, significant differences (p-value < 0.05) in antioxidant capacity, organic acid profile, sugar profile, and sensory attributes (texture, fruity, basic tastes) were found. As to nutritional quality, it is essential to highlight that a high content of sugars (labeling information) was found in all the samples (75% of the samples contained more than 25 g/100 g). On the other hand, a high content of fiber (labeling information) was found (>10 g/100 g) in dried coconut, apple, and tomato samples. Full article
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5 pages, 513 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Technologies for the Co-Extraction of Phenolic Compounds and Proteinaceous Material from Olive-Derived Biomasses
by María del Mar Contreras, Irene Gómez-Cruz, Inmaculada Romero and Eulogio Castro
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10968 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 708
Abstract
The current interest in using olive biophenols to promote functional ingredients and antioxidant additives is increasing. These compounds can be obtained from olive fruit and olive-derived biomasses using different technologies. However, other components can be co-extracted. Therefore, the main objective of this study [...] Read more.
The current interest in using olive biophenols to promote functional ingredients and antioxidant additives is increasing. These compounds can be obtained from olive fruit and olive-derived biomasses using different technologies. However, other components can be co-extracted. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect on protein solubilization of several extraction technologies, which were applied to obtain olive biophenols from olive-derived biomasses. For this purpose, conventional (Soxhlet and water bath) and non-conventional technologies (ultrasound and microwave) were evaluated. The total phenolic content was measured using the Folin and Ciocalteu method and the protein content was measured using the Dumas combustion method. The phenolic profile and the hydroxytyrosol content were also determined. Overall, the highest total phenolic content was obtained using the Soxhlet method, while the microwave-assisted extraction at 100 °C led to the highest protein solubilization (closer to 60%) using water. Full article
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5 pages, 616 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Recovery of Antioxidant Compounds from Exhausted Olive Pomace through Microwave-Assisted Extraction
by Irene Gómez-Cruz, María del Mar Contreras, Inmaculada Romero and Eulogio Castro
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10971 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 714
Abstract
Exhausted olive pomace (EOP) is a waste generated in large quantities each year in the olive oil industry. This biomass contains phenolic compounds with antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. For the extraction of these compounds, the use of a novel and environmentally [...] Read more.
Exhausted olive pomace (EOP) is a waste generated in large quantities each year in the olive oil industry. This biomass contains phenolic compounds with antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. For the extraction of these compounds, the use of a novel and environmentally friendly technique, microwave-assisted extraction using water as extraction solvent, was proposed. A Box–Behnken design of experiments based on the response surface methodology was used to optimise the effect of the factors temperature (40–100 °C), extraction time (4–40 min), and solid loading (2–15%). The response variables were the total phenolic content analysed by Folin–Ciocalteau assay, hydroxytyrosol content by HPLC, and antioxidant activity through FRAP and ABTS assays. The optimal conditions for each response variable were determined. Overall, microwave-assisted extraction is considered a suitable technique for the extraction of bioactive compounds from EOP at short extraction times. In particular, the maximum content of hydroxytyrosol (6 mg/g of EOP) could be obtained at 99.7 °C, 3.9% (w/v) solids, and 34.3 min. Therefore, this extract has the potential to be used as a functional and antioxidant additive. Full article
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5 pages, 1549 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Consumption and Preferences of Dairy Products by Taiwanese and Polish Students
by Katarzyna Świąder, Renata Banach and Fa-Jui Tan
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10984 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1190
Abstract
The consumption of dairy products, especially fermented milk products, to which are attributed many health-promoting properties, seems to be different on the Polish and Taiwanese markets. The aim of the study is to assess consumption and preferences concerning the choice of dairy products [...] Read more.
The consumption of dairy products, especially fermented milk products, to which are attributed many health-promoting properties, seems to be different on the Polish and Taiwanese markets. The aim of the study is to assess consumption and preferences concerning the choice of dairy products by Polish and Taiwanese consumers. The present study was conducted in Taichung, Taiwan, and in Warsaw, Poland. Data were obtained through the PAPI questionnaire, involving 200 respondents aged 19–25 years old. One hundred respondents were students from Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, and another one hundred were students from Department of Human Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences. The results obtained indicate that Poles (39%) were more likely to declare consuming dairy products daily compared to Taiwanese consumers (14%). Among the most frequently consumed dairy products, Polish students mentioned milk (89%), yoghurt (80%) and ripened cheese (69% of respondents). Taiwanese consumers, on the other hand, mentioned milk (95%), yoghurt, especially drinking yoghurt (81%), as well as dairy desserts (70%) and Yakult (69%). Polish students preferred regular fat yoghurt (53%) and low-fat yoghurt (22%), while the preferences of Taiwanese students were quite different, with most people declaring a preference for fat yoghurt (57%) and regular fat yoghurt (22%). The evaluation of dairy product, especially fermented milk products, consumption among consumers showed differences in consumption and preferences of these products between Polish and Taiwanese students. Full article
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7 pages, 1342 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Tyrosinase Inhibition Ability Provided by Hop Tannins: A Mechanistic Investigation
by Jiaman Liu, Yanbiao Chen, Xinxin Zhang, Jie Zheng, Jiaying Wang, Weiying Hu and Bo Teng
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11096 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 964
Abstract
The hop is rich in tannins used as a conventional additive in the beer industry, but other applications are limited. This study investigated the tyrosinase inhibition activity of extracted hop tannins and the associated structure–function activity. The tannins were extracted and subjected to [...] Read more.
The hop is rich in tannins used as a conventional additive in the beer industry, but other applications are limited. This study investigated the tyrosinase inhibition activity of extracted hop tannins and the associated structure–function activity. The tannins were extracted and subjected to a gel permeation chromatography (GPC), a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and an acid-cleavage coupled HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis to obtain the structural information of the tannins. Then, tyrosinase inhibition kinetic assays, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and antioxidant (ICP-OES), circular dichroism (CD) as well as molecular docking analysis were applied to investigate the inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, the intracellular inhibition ability of hop tannins was assessed with B16-F10 cells. The results indicated that hop tannins were composed of (epi)catechin as extensional units and (epi)gallocatechin as terminal units and can be classified as prodelphenidins. The tyrosinase inhibition assays showed the hop tannin had a IC50 = 76.52 ± 6.56 µM, meanwhile it inhibited the tyrosinase through a competitive–noncompetitive mixed way. The tannins were found to bind on the surface of tyrosinase via forming hydrogen bonding and consequently changed the secondary structure of tyrosinase. The fluorescence and antioxidant assay indicated the tannin had both copper ion chelating and antioxidant ability, which may also contribute to the inhibition. The intracellular inhibition analysis showed that activity of tyrosinase was reduced by 66.67% and melanin production was found to be reduced by 34.50% while 10 µM hop tannins were applied. These results indicated that the hops are not only important in the beer industry, but that hop tannins can be also applied as whitening agents in the cosmetic industry. Full article
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6 pages, 255 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Investigation on Coffee Cascara from Dry and Wet Methods: Chemical and Functional Properties
by Paz Cano-Muñoz, Miguel Rebollo-Hernanz, Cheyenne Braojos, Silvia Cañas, Alicia Gil-Ramirez, Yolanda Aguilera, Maria A. Martin-Cabrejas and Vanesa Benitez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10975 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Coffee processing involves the separation of its different structures that are considered by-products. There is a current interest in adding new value to coffee by-products through their conversion into food ingredients. Following a biorefinery approach, coffee by-products can produce phenolic and caffeine-rich extracts [...] Read more.
Coffee processing involves the separation of its different structures that are considered by-products. There is a current interest in adding new value to coffee by-products through their conversion into food ingredients. Following a biorefinery approach, coffee by-products can produce phenolic and caffeine-rich extracts and water-insoluble residues (WIRs) rich in dietary fiber. Consequently, this work aimed to study the flour and the WIR (obtained through a sustainable and optimized aqueous extraction of phenolic compounds) from the main by-product of coffee processing, the coffee cascara, investigating the chemical and functional differences among ingredients obtained from the dry and wet processing methods. Both dry and wet cascaras (in flour and WIR) presented a high dietary fiber content (46–97%), especially outstanding in the WIRs. Soluble dietary fiber was 2.2 to 3.6-fold higher (p < 0.05) in flours than in WIRs. The wet coffee cascara flour exhibited a remarkable antioxidant capacity (2.4 to 4.2-fold higher than the other products), as well as adequate techno-functional and physicochemical properties. All by-products inhibited α-amylase (62–96%) and reduced starch hydrolysis (52–97%), which was associated (r = 0.965, p < 0.05) with the differential total phenolic content found in samples (6.1–40.4 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram). Similarly, coffee cascara-based ingredients showed pancreatic lipase inhibitory properties (54–65%) and reduced the intestinal absorption of cholesterol (50–88%) and bile salts (81–90%) in vitro. In conclusion, both dry and wet coffee cascara exhibit a similar chemical composition and functional properties and could be revalued as new sustainable ingredients (flours and WIRs, and phenolic-rich extracts) following a biorefinery approach. These coffee cascara-based ingredients may exhibit beneficial health properties reducing oxidative stress and glucose and lipid absorption. Full article
6 pages, 1042 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Emotional Response to Different Types of Cakes through Visual Assessment
by Jose Alba-Martínez, Andrea Bononad-Olmo, Luís M. Cunha, Javier Martínez-Monzó and Purificación García-Segovia
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10999 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Thinking of present gastronomic trends is inevitable when talking about innovation in Haute Pastry. Despite the rising demand for new creations, launching a successful product that meets the high expectations of consumers is increasingly complex. For this reason, sensory analysis studies are more [...] Read more.
Thinking of present gastronomic trends is inevitable when talking about innovation in Haute Pastry. Despite the rising demand for new creations, launching a successful product that meets the high expectations of consumers is increasingly complex. For this reason, sensory analysis studies are more and more interested in studying the emotions generated by these products to understand and improve user experiences. The main goal of this work was to conduct a study to analyze the emotional arousal of consumers after the visualization of five special cakes. For data collection, an online questionnaire with EsSense Profile® scale and CATA methodology has been used. EsSense Profile® is a predefined and validated scale that measures emotions generated by food that includes 39 terms. When analyzing the emotions expressed by all the participants, 22 were statistically significant, of which 14 were classified as positive, 6 as neutral, and only 2 were negative. The results obtained support the importance of the emotional profile in understanding consumers’ expectations and behavior. Full article
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5 pages, 944 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimization through Response Surface Methodology of Dynamic Maceration of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves
by Mariana C. Pedrosa, Laíres Lima, Sandrina Heleno, Márcio Carocho, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira and Lillian Barros
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11015 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Bioactive compounds derived from plants are secondary metabolites that can act through various bioactivities, namely as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and hypoglycemic agents. Combined with the pressure generated by consumers for more natural products with beneficial effects on health, these compounds may be [...] Read more.
Bioactive compounds derived from plants are secondary metabolites that can act through various bioactivities, namely as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and hypoglycemic agents. Combined with the pressure generated by consumers for more natural products with beneficial effects on health, these compounds may be suitable candidates to act as preservatives in food products. For this purpose, the extraction process becomes essential for the acquisition of a quality extract with efficiency and with the desired final properties. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to perform the optimization of the extraction yield of olive leaves (Olea europaea L.), by applying response surface methodology (RSM) and employing dynamic maceration as extraction technique. Three factors were analyzed: time (F1), temperature (F2), and solvent (F3), ranging from 5 to 120 min, 25 to 100 °C, and from 0 to 100% ethanol, respectively. The study used the Box Behnken design, relying on 17 individual randomized runs. The response was the dry weight of the extract (Y1), which ranged from 21.1 to 90.5 mg. The optimization studies pointed to the increase of yield with the increase of time and temperature, but inversely by applying higher time and lower temperature values and higher temperature and lower time values. The highest yield of the dry extract was achieved at 120 min (F1), 25 °C (F2), and 87% (F3) of ethanol:water. Future studies will be carried out to analyze the preservative effects of incorporating olive extract in foods, as well as analysis of other response for optimizing the best food preserving extract. Full article
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6 pages, 1385 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preliminary Investigation into the Effect of Some Bakery Improvers in the Rheology of Bread Wheat Dough
by Adriana Skendi, Ioanna Seni, Theodoros Varzakas, Athanasios Alexopoulos and Maria Papageorgiou
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10991 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Wheat flour quality varies largely, affecting the quality of the final baked products. In order to fulfil the consumer’s demand for bakery products with high quality and extended shelf-life, different types of improvers have been used in the bakery industry. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Wheat flour quality varies largely, affecting the quality of the final baked products. In order to fulfil the consumer’s demand for bakery products with high quality and extended shelf-life, different types of improvers have been used in the bakery industry. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different bread improvers on rheological parameters of dough made from all-purpose wheat flour comparing that with strong, soft, extra-soft, and pastry wheat flour. Full article
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7 pages, 543 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Rosehip (Rose Canina) Powder Addition and Figure Height on 3D-Printed Gluten-Free Bread
by Adrián Matas, Marta Igual, Purificación García-Segovia and Javier Martínez-Monzó
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10979 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) food printing is a technique that satisfies the criteria for manufacturing personalized food and for specific consumer groups, both in terms of sensorial and nutritional properties. Rose hips are recognized as valuable food and medicine constituents due to their high-level content [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) food printing is a technique that satisfies the criteria for manufacturing personalized food and for specific consumer groups, both in terms of sensorial and nutritional properties. Rose hips are recognized as valuable food and medicine constituents due to their high-level content of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the printability in terms of dimensional properties (variation in length, width and height) of 3D-printed, rectangular base (7 × 3 cm), gluten free bread doughs containing rosehip powder or rosehip powder encapsulated with maltodextrin. The effect of the addition of rose hips on rheology and the colour of dough plus texture and colour of final product was studied. The addition of rosehip increased both elastic and viscous modulus of dough and changed its colour from white to orange. After printing process, height effect on figure dimension was remarkable in comparison with dough formulation. The addition of rosehip powder in dough and the use of 2 cm of figure height improve the printability in terms of dimensional properties, achieving 3D structures with more stability and resistance to baking. Full article
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6 pages, 494 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Green Extraction of Flavonoids from Orange Peels Using Deep Eutectic Solvents
by Adriana Viñas-Ospino, Clara Gomez-Urios, Anna Penadés-Soler, Ana Frígola, María José Esteve, Daniel López-Malo and Jesús Blesa
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10976 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
The aim of this study was to optimize and compare four different natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) for the extraction of flavonoids in orange peels (Navel cultivar) from Valencia (Spain). Four NADES systems with two components were obtained in their corresponding molar ratios. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to optimize and compare four different natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) for the extraction of flavonoids in orange peels (Navel cultivar) from Valencia (Spain). Four NADES systems with two components were obtained in their corresponding molar ratios. Three independent variables were used for the optimization: solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and the percentage of NADES in water. The results showed the highest extraction was with choline chloride: fructose (NADES-1) with 50% water content, a solid–liquid ratio of 1:25 and extraction time of 23 min. The results demonstrate that the use of NADES is an efficient and ecofriendly alternative to extracted flavonoids from orange peels. Full article
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6 pages, 245 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Using Edible Insects in the Production of Cookies, Biscuits, and Crackers: A Review
by Gamze Nil Yazici and Mehmet Sertac Ozer
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10974 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3450
Abstract
The world’s population is ever-increasing and thus food security is becoming a big problem. To meet protein demand, edible insects could be a sustainable, eco-friendly, economical, and alternative source. However, consumers have some concerns about the sensorial properties of edible insect-based foods. To [...] Read more.
The world’s population is ever-increasing and thus food security is becoming a big problem. To meet protein demand, edible insects could be a sustainable, eco-friendly, economical, and alternative source. However, consumers have some concerns about the sensorial properties of edible insect-based foods. To make them invisible and more familiar to consumers, powder of edible insects could be used together with flours in most commonly consumed bakery products, particularly bread, followed by biscuits, cookies, and crackers. Moreover, the rearing and processing conditions should be enhanced, a marketing strategy should be developed, and education about the health and environmental benefits should be given. Full article
6 pages, 541 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Total and Partial Fat Replacement in Frankfurt-Type Sausages by Gelled Emulsion Elaborated with Peanut Flour and Flax Oil. Effect on Chemical Composition, Physic-Chemical and Sensorial Properties
by Carmen Botella-Martínez, Estrella Sayas-Barberá, José Ángel Pérez-Alvarez, Juana Fernández-López and Manuel Viuda-Martos
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11005 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 803
Abstract
A gelled emulsion (GE) prepared with flax oil and peanut flour was used to replace pork back-fat in Frankfurt-type sausages. Three different formulations were prepared: Control (CS) with 30% pork back fat, and two to achieve 50% and 100% fat substitution by GE [...] Read more.
A gelled emulsion (GE) prepared with flax oil and peanut flour was used to replace pork back-fat in Frankfurt-type sausages. Three different formulations were prepared: Control (CS) with 30% pork back fat, and two to achieve 50% and 100% fat substitution by GE (GE50 and GE100, respectively). This study demonstrated that the use of gelled emulsion elaborated with peanut flour and flax oil may be a promising strategy in the reformulation of healthier meat products due to producing a reduction in fat content and improving the fatty acid profile. Full article
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4 pages, 1121 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Extract of Edible Mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus Affects the Redox Status and Motility of Colorectal and Cervical Cancer Cell Lines
by Milena M. Jovanović, Katarina Virijević, Jelena Grujić, Marko Živanović and Dragana S. Šeklić
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11028 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
Colorectal and cervical cancer are major health problems worldwide, and adjuvant therapy, which uses fungi, is considered valuable in cancer treatment. Herein, we evaluated effects of edible mushroom species Laetiporus sulphureus on the viability, redox status, and motility of two different cancer cell [...] Read more.
Colorectal and cervical cancer are major health problems worldwide, and adjuvant therapy, which uses fungi, is considered valuable in cancer treatment. Herein, we evaluated effects of edible mushroom species Laetiporus sulphureus on the viability, redox status, and motility of two different cancer cell lines. Treatment induced oxidative stress and inhibition of migratory potential in both tested cell lines, showing cell selective activity and affecting HCT-116 and HeLa cells in a different manner. However, the presented effects of this mushroom should not be neglected in future studies, especially detailed studies on drug development. Full article
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4 pages, 830 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Edible Mushrooms Phellinus linteus and Lentinus edodes Methanol Extracts on Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines
by Dragana S. Šeklić, Milena M. Jovanović, Katarina Virijević, Jelena Grujić, Marko Živanović and Snežana D. Marković
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11055 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
An increasing focus in cancer therapy is on the investigation of fungal products with anticancer activity and potential to affect specific targets. Main goal of this study is the analysis of the effects of Phellinus linteus and Lentinus edodes, edible and medicinal mushrooms, [...] Read more.
An increasing focus in cancer therapy is on the investigation of fungal products with anticancer activity and potential to affect specific targets. Main goal of this study is the analysis of the effects of Phellinus linteus and Lentinus edodes, edible and medicinal mushrooms, on the significant migratory/invasive markers in the first steps of cancer metastasis. Both treatments increased antimigratory marker E-cadherin and decreased promigratory/proinvasive proteins N-cadherin and Vimentin. A lowered concentration of proinvasive protein MMP-9 was also observed in treated HCT-116 and SW-480 cells. PL and LE exerted cell selectivity, whereas PL had better activity on SW-480, while LE had a more prominent effect on HCT-116 cells. Full article
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7 pages, 1148 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Characterization of Dietary Fiber Extracts from Corn (Zea mays L.) and Cooked Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Flours and Evaluation of Their Inhibitory Potential against Enzymes Associated with Glucose and Lipids Metabolism In Vitro
by Amanda B. Serna-Perez, Guadalupe Loarca-Piña and Ivan Luzardo-Ocampo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11049 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
This research aimed to characterize dietary fiber (DF)-aqueous extracts from corn (commercial and Northwestern White Population) and common bean (cv. Bayo Madero) flour blends, evaluating their inhibitory effect on enzymes involved in glucose/lipid metabolism in vitro. Insoluble fiber showed the highest content of [...] Read more.
This research aimed to characterize dietary fiber (DF)-aqueous extracts from corn (commercial and Northwestern White Population) and common bean (cv. Bayo Madero) flour blends, evaluating their inhibitory effect on enzymes involved in glucose/lipid metabolism in vitro. Insoluble fiber showed the highest content of total phenolics, chlorogenic and ellagic acids being the main identified phenolics. Soluble fiber displayed the α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitions (20–25%). The results suggested that corn/bean DF is a functional ingredient to potentially alleviate obesity and type II diabetes. Full article
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6 pages, 229 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prospects for the Use of the By-Products of Oil and Wine Production in Bakery and Confectionery Technologies
by Olga Samokhvalova, Svitlana Oliinyk and Natalia Grevtseva
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11027 - 29 Jun 2022
Viewed by 960
Abstract
An influence of 1020% of wheat germ meal (WGM) and 15% of rosehip meal (RM) on the quality indicators and the nutritional value of rye–wheat bread was investigated. It was found that an addition of WGM in the entire range of dosages reduces [...] Read more.
An influence of 1020% of wheat germ meal (WGM) and 15% of rosehip meal (RM) on the quality indicators and the nutritional value of rye–wheat bread was investigated. It was found that an addition of WGM in the entire range of dosages reduces the specific volume of the bread, and an addition of RM, on the contrary, increases this indicator. It is recommended to use 10% WGM with 5% RM to ensure the high quality and maximize the nutritional value of rye–wheat bread. An impact of 1525% of grape seed powder (GSP) on the quality indicators and nutritional value of butter biscuits was studied. It is recommended to add 20% GSP to obtain butter biscuits with improved quality and a high content of biologically active compounds. Full article
13 pages, 2399 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Jackfruit Seed Powder Supplementation Attenuates High-Sugar Diet-Induced Hyperphagia and Hyperglycemia in Mice
by Chayon Goswami, Md. Kamrul Hasan Kazal, Ohi Alam, Romana Jahan Moon, Khadiza Khatun, Moriam Hossan and Rakhi Chacrabati
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10970 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2343
Abstract
High-sugar diets (HSD) are strongly associated with the development of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. Diets that are rich in dietary fiber have been reported to have substantial health benefits. Jackfruit seed powder (JSP) is a good source of dietary fiber and [...] Read more.
High-sugar diets (HSD) are strongly associated with the development of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. Diets that are rich in dietary fiber have been reported to have substantial health benefits. Jackfruit seed powder (JSP) is a good source of dietary fiber and could be a possible candidate to fight against metabolic diseases. JSP supplementation showed a significant reduction in HSD-induced hyperphagia and also in body weight gain. The addition of JSP significantly improved glucose tolerance and reduced LDL cholesterol. Overall, JSP consumption could play a vital role in the management of metabolic disorders caused by HSD. Full article
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7 pages, 687 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of a Potential Functional Yogurt Using Bioactive Compounds Obtained from the By-Product of the Production of Tannat Red Wine
by Victoria Olt, Jessica Báez, Santiago Jorcin, Tomás López, Adriana Fernández and Alejandra Medrano
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10998 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Tannat (Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat) grape pomace, which is mainly composed of peels and seeds, is an abundant by-product of the Uruguayan wine industry. Tannat skin from grape pomace is a sustainable source of bioactive compounds and dietary fiber. In previous studies, [...] Read more.
Tannat (Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat) grape pomace, which is mainly composed of peels and seeds, is an abundant by-product of the Uruguayan wine industry. Tannat skin from grape pomace is a sustainable source of bioactive compounds and dietary fiber. In previous studies, Tannat skin has shown antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory activity, with the potential to prevent the development of chronic diseases. In this work, the encapsulation of bioactive compounds of an ethanolic extract derived from Tannat grape skin by microparticles of whey protein isolate (without and with enzymatic hydrolysis) and inulin (3:1) is studied for its application in yogurt as a potential functional food. Thus, it is proposed to evaluate the release of the bioactive compounds after digestion, for which an in vitro digestive simulation study was carried out simulating the conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Among the most relevant results, the encapsulants showed increased total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05) after in vitro digestive simulation. In addition, the different yogurt formulations showed increased (p < 0.05) TPC and antioxidant capacity after in vitro digestion, probably due to the release of bioactive peptides from milk proteins that are part of the yogurt. In conclusion, the antioxidant capacity shown after in vitro digestive simulation by the yogurts formulated with the spray drying encapsulated Tannat grape skin extract represent potential for its application in functional yogurts. Full article
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6 pages, 587 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Bagasse-Added Gum Confections Are a Source of Bioactive Compounds Exhibiting Prebiotic Effects In Vitro
by Daniela Flores-Zavala, Ivan Luzardo-Ocampo, Francisco J. Olivas-Aguirre, Abraham Wall-Medrano, Guadalupe Loarca-Piña, Juan E. Andrade and Marcela Gaytán-Martínez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10995 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
The high consumption of sugar-added food products by children has stimulated research on formulations using ingredients such as mango bagasse (MB), which deliver health-associated components. This research aimed to characterize, perform a sensory evaluation, and assess the probiotic effect in vitro of MB-added [...] Read more.
The high consumption of sugar-added food products by children has stimulated research on formulations using ingredients such as mango bagasse (MB), which deliver health-associated components. This research aimed to characterize, perform a sensory evaluation, and assess the probiotic effect in vitro of MB-added gum confections (1:4 and 1:5 water:MB). The 1:4 formulation displayed the highest acceptance by 51 children from a primary school in Ciudad Juárez (Mexico). This formulation contained a high fiber content (10.50%) and phenolic compounds (mainly mangiferin and (+)-catechin), and it allowed L. plantarum, L. reuteri, L. helveticus, and L. rhamnosus GG growth. The results suggest that MB-confections are fiber- and polyphenol-rich products with a sensory profile accepted by children and prebiotic effects. Full article
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8 pages, 775 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ohmic Heating as an Emerging Technology for the Improvement of the Techno-Functional Properties of Common Bean Flour
by Italia Lima-Becerra, Balbuena-Alonso María, Fernanda Dorantes-Campuzano, Luis Mojica, Guadalupe Loarca-Piña, Eduardo Morales-Sánchez, Aurea Karina Ramírez-Jiménez and Marcela Gaytán-Martínez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11000 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important food legumes because of its high availability and low cost. It has also been associated with preventing and reducing noncommunicable diseases. Because of this, the application of processing technologies has grown [...] Read more.
The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important food legumes because of its high availability and low cost. It has also been associated with preventing and reducing noncommunicable diseases. Because of this, the application of processing technologies has grown to improve common beans’ nutritional and bioactive profiles. The processing of the raw material directly influences its techno-functional properties. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the advantages of ohmic heating over traditional cooking on common bean flours in regard to their techno-functional characteristics and antinutritional factors. The results of ohmic heating did not show significant differences compared with traditional cooking; however, ohmic heating obtained higher values in foaming capacity and emulsifying. In addition, it did not modify the protein solubility profile and reduced trypsin inhibitors by 25.42 to 57.44%. This suggests that ohmic heating could be an alternative to conventional treatments and reducing processing time, with greater energy efficiency, not presenting nutrient leaching. Full article
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6 pages, 667 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Sun Protection Factor of Commercial Essential Oils
by Filomena Monica Vella, Domenico Cautela and Bruna Laratta
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10992 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
Aromatic plants have been used since antiquity as great potential sources of therapeutics in folk medicine and as preservatives in foods, because they contain many biologically active compounds. Among all, essential oils (EOs) are an important group of secondary metabolites that, even if [...] Read more.
Aromatic plants have been used since antiquity as great potential sources of therapeutics in folk medicine and as preservatives in foods, because they contain many biologically active compounds. Among all, essential oils (EOs) are an important group of secondary metabolites that, even if not essential for plant survival, are significant for their allelopathic effects, either negative or positive, on microbes and the environment. From the chemical point of view, EOs are highly complex mixtures involving from several tens to hundreds of different types of volatile compounds, such as terpenoids, oxygenated terpenes, sesquiterpenes, and hydrocarbons. EOs have been widely used for their virucidal, bactericidal, fungicidal, anticancer, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities, and the biological properties of EOs are strictly linked to their chemical composition. This study was carried out on the following commercial EOs: bergamot (Citrus bergamia), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare dulce), helichrysum (Helicrysum italicum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), lemon (Citrus limon), oregano (Origanum vulgare), palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), star anise (Illicium verum), tangerine (Citrus reticulate), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), turmeric (Curcuma longa), Chinese yin yang (mix of Eucalyptus aetheroleum, Cymbopogon citratus, Caryophylli aetheroleum, Mentha piperita, Pinus sylvestris, Salvia rosmarinus, Lavandula officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Illicium verum, Mentha arvensis, Abies siberica), Japanese yin yang (Mentha arvensis), and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata). The EOs were tested for the in vitro determination of antioxidant activity (DPPH assay) and of the sun protection factor (SPF) by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry. These biological activities allowed us to evaluate their potential application as natural preservatives and active ingredients in foods, beverages, and cosmetics, as well as in galenic preparations. The results show that amongst the seventeen EOs studied, clove showed the highest antioxidant activity, with an EC50 of 0.36 µL/mL, followed by Chinese yin yang (5.35 µL/mL), oregano (11.58 µL/mL), and ylang ylang (12.71 µL/mL). Moreover, higher SPF values were recorded for bergamot (9.74), star anise (9.28), fennel (9.10), bitter orange (8.96), ylang ylang (8.41), and clove (8.26). Overall, clove and ylang ylang EOs resulted the best potential candidates as natural preservatives, as they showed the highest health-promoting values, because at the same time, they provided protection against oxidative stress and fought free radicals that may form after sun radiation exposure. Full article
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7 pages, 1282 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Physicochemical Properties of Microalgae/Whey Protein-Based Edible Films
by Vasiliki G. Kontogianni, Alexandra V. Chatzikonstantinou, Marios Mataragas, Efthymia Kondyli, Haralambos Stamatis and Loulouda Bosnea
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10926 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
In the last decades, edible films based on whey proteins have become promising eco-friendly materials that can be used as carriers for some bioactive substances such as nutrients and antioxidant agents. Spirulina, one of the best-known cyanobacteria, are a rich source of [...] Read more.
In the last decades, edible films based on whey proteins have become promising eco-friendly materials that can be used as carriers for some bioactive substances such as nutrients and antioxidant agents. Spirulina, one of the best-known cyanobacteria, are a rich source of nutritional compounds with beneficial health effects. Edible films from whey protein concentrates (WPC) were developed applying different treatments, such as water-bath heating for 30 min at 75 °C and ultrasound treatment in a common ultrasonic bath for 15 min at 70 °C with the addition of a commercial spirulina powder. WPC-based edible films were prepared with the addition of spirulina in different concentrations. Other edible microalgae such as commercial chlorella and ulva have also been examined for the production of edible films. After production, the films were characterized according to their physicochemical properties (thickness, moisture content, solubility in water, degree of swelling), optical parameters (Fourier transform infrared spectrum), tensile properties, and antioxidant activity. Full article
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6 pages, 855 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mixture Design as a Tool for Optimization of Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Essential Oils
by Bartłomiej Zieniuk and Anna Bętkowska
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11018 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 921
Abstract
The study aimed to use a statistical method of mixture design to optimize the antimicrobial activity of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora), and Lavender (Lavandula hybrida) essential oils against Escherichia coli PCM 2057, Listeria monocytogenes [...] Read more.
The study aimed to use a statistical method of mixture design to optimize the antimicrobial activity of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora), and Lavender (Lavandula hybrida) essential oils against Escherichia coli PCM 2057, Listeria monocytogenes PCM 2191, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa EPSC001. The antimicrobial activity of used essential oils and their mixtures were evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of tested essential oils was determined by the DPPH• and CUPRAC methods, and total phenolic content was measured using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Tea tree essential oil was characterized by the highest total phenolic content (0.59 ± 0.05 mg GAE/g) followed by lavender oil (0.27 ± 0.05 mg GAE/g), and rosewood oil (0.11 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g). The first two oils also had similar antioxidant activity. Furthermore, essential oil from the tea tree exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms, and based on the mixture design approach, the aforementioned volatile oil participated in optimized mixtures in the greatest amount. Full article
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6 pages, 1498 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Brewer’s Spent Grain on Bioactivity, Techno-Functional Properties, and Nutritional Value When Added to a Bread Formulation
by Jessica Báez, Adriana Maite Fernández-Fernández, Federico Briozzo, Sofía Díaz, Agustina Dorgans, Valentina Tajam and Alejandra Medrano
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11024 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
The interesting nutritional value and abundance of brewer’s spent grain (BSG) may be adequate for its use as a sustainable functional ingredient. The aim of the present work was to enhance the BSG bioactive properties, along with studying the BSG bread technological feasibility [...] Read more.
The interesting nutritional value and abundance of brewer’s spent grain (BSG) may be adequate for its use as a sustainable functional ingredient. The aim of the present work was to enhance the BSG bioactive properties, along with studying the BSG bread technological feasibility through rheological properties evaluation. To optimize the release of BSG bioactive compounds, enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using a composite central design, varying the alcalase and cellulase percentage. Multiple regression (MR) and response surface methodology (RSM) were performed, evaluating the total polyphenol content (TPC), ABTS, and ORAC as response variables, showing a positive effect for alcalase % and non-significant effect for cellulase %. Optimal conditions (0.1% alcalase) were used for BSG flour (FBSG) for the development of the functional bread (FBSG bread), substituting 20% w/w wheat flour. The nutritional and bioactive characterization of the breads showed that the FBSG bread presented a higher fiber content (>6%), TPC, and antioxidant activity than the control bread (CB). The breads’ physicochemical characteristics were analyzed by measuring the parameters of volume, color, and texture. Regarding volume, the FBSG bread presented a significant decrease (p < 0.05) (1890.4 ± 6.9 cm3) with respect to CB (2359.5 ± 106.5 cm3), and also presented a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the development of brown/reddish tones in the crumb, which were reflected in the “L” and “a” parameters (53.62 and 6.10, respectively) compared to CB (75.70 and −0.16, respectively). The texture analysis showed that FBSG bread chewiness (6.85 ± 0.13 Kg) and cohesiveness (0.608 ± 0.027) did not present significant differences (p < 0.05) with CB. On the other hand, the FBSG bread parameters of resilience (27.5 ± 2.3), and rubberiness (7.63 ± 0.16 Kg·m·s−2) were increased, while elasticity (89.81 ± 0.067) decreased. In conclusion, a sustainable “high fiber content” and antioxidant bread was obtained presenting suitable rheological properties as that of wheat flour bread. Further studies on the sensory profile and acceptability of the novel food should be addressed to evaluate the consumers’ perception of the rheological parameters. Full article
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7 pages, 889 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
How the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Impacted Food Loss and Waste: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges
by Ana Fernández-Ríos, Jara Laso, Israel Ruiz-Salmón, Daniel Hoehn, Cristina Campos, Jorge Cristóbal, Francisco José Amo-Setién, Rebeca Abajas-Bustillo, Carmen Ortego, María Margallo and Rubén Aldaco
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11021 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 906
Abstract
The present paper aims to review and assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on food loss and waste (FLW), evaluating the environmental, social, nutritional, and economic repercussions, as well as the challenges addressed by the food sector and the recovery strategies. The [...] Read more.
The present paper aims to review and assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on food loss and waste (FLW), evaluating the environmental, social, nutritional, and economic repercussions, as well as the challenges addressed by the food sector and the recovery strategies. The main outcomes reveal that the major challenges reside in mobility restrictions, labor and products shortage along the supply chain, and the management of an important amount of household FLW. Measures such as secondary feeding strategies, alternative distribution channels, and e-commerce stand out in achieving a more sustainable and resilient food system. Full article
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7 pages, 1629 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents as the Main Solvents for the Extraction of Total Polyphenols from Orange Peel
by Clara Gómez-Urios, Adriana Viñas-Ospino, Anna Penadés-Soler, Daniel López-Malo, Ana Frígola, María José Esteve and Jesús Blesa
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11043 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 711
Abstract
The extraction of bioactive compounds is generally carried out using organic solvents, although they are very harmful to the environment. The present study focuses on the extraction of bioactive compounds using natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs), which are novel, green, and low-melting-point solvents. [...] Read more.
The extraction of bioactive compounds is generally carried out using organic solvents, although they are very harmful to the environment. The present study focuses on the extraction of bioactive compounds using natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs), which are novel, green, and low-melting-point solvents. In this work, we seek to optimize the extraction process of total polyphenols from orange peel using four types of NADESs with different water concentrations, solid–liquid ratios, and extraction times. The results show that the best percentage of NADESs were as follows: 10, 30, and 50%; the solid–liquid ratio differs depending on the compound, and the optimal extraction time is generally estimated to be 30 min. Full article
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6 pages, 463 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bioaccessibility and Intestinal Permeability from Andean Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth) Powders Encapsulated with OSA-Modified FHIA-21 Banana Starch
by Victor D. Quintero-Castaño, Mardey Liceth Cuellar-Nuñez, Ivan Luzardo-Ocampo, Jose F. Vasco-Leal, Francisco J. Castellanos-Galeano, Cristina I. Álvarez-Barreto and Rocio Campos-Vega
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10981 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Modified starches for bananas can be used to encapsulate underutilized fruits such as Andean blackberry due to its content of phenolic compounds. This research aimed to assess the bioaccessibility and intestinal permeability of phenolic compounds from Andean blackberry powders encapsulated in octenyl succinic [...] Read more.
Modified starches for bananas can be used to encapsulate underutilized fruits such as Andean blackberry due to its content of phenolic compounds. This research aimed to assess the bioaccessibility and intestinal permeability of phenolic compounds from Andean blackberry powders encapsulated in octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified Gros Michel banana starch. Although low bioaccessibilities were found for total phenolics (up to 6%) during the in vitro digestion, most of them were chlorogenic acid and quercetin, released at high apparent permeability values (5–12 × 10−4 cm/s). OSA-banana starches are suitable encapsulating matrices for blackberry polyphenols, ensuring their targeted release at the small intestine. Full article
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7 pages, 1834 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Image Analysis as a Non-Destructive Approach in Selective Characterization of Promising Indian Chickpea Cultivars
by Ravneet Kaur, Shubhra Shekhar, Praveen Kumar and Kamlesh Prasad
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11013 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
The physical properties of food grains play an important role in optimizing the design parameters for machines and equipment, process automation, and determining the efficiency of the machine during various stages such as harvesting, drying, storage, dehulling, and other unit operations. Thus, the [...] Read more.
The physical properties of food grains play an important role in optimizing the design parameters for machines and equipment, process automation, and determining the efficiency of the machine during various stages such as harvesting, drying, storage, dehulling, and other unit operations. Thus, the present study aimed to characterize the promising chickpea varieties for their physical properties, and the 3D scanned image was employed to study the geometrical variations among different chickpea varieties. The digital image processing approach offers rapid computation of shape and size parameters and validation of data obtained from manual methods by using digital vernier calipers. The dimensional parameters, namely length, breadth, and thickness were examined and were further used to calculate the derived parameters as mean diameters, sphericity, surface area, volume, and aspect ratio. The length of chickpea grains of different varieties lay in the range of 7.42 ± 0.63 to 8.78 ± 0.46 mm, the width varied from 5.33 ± 0.38 to 6.50 ± 0.42 mm, and the thickness ranged from 5.17 ± 0.46 to 6.23 ± 0.45 mm. The sphericity of the grains was found to vary from 75.84 ± 3.03% to 82.89 ± 3.92%. The 3D imaging approach was adopted for the determination of the various physical properties of grains, and the results obtained are precise; thus, this approach may help in the characterization of grains and process automation. It was observed that the hilum portion of the chickpea contributes to less than 5% of the total chickpea volume. Thus, if this portion is removed, it results in a significant improvement in the sphericity of the grains to behave as spheres. Therefore, calculations for physical properties may be carried out considering chickpea grains as spherical objects. During milling, the hilum portion is the first to be broken due to abrasion as it is brittle in nature, and this also results in a decrease in the coefficient of friction. Thousand kernel weight, bulk density, and true density were also examined as they are the important parameters that help in designing their storage bins. Chickpea cultivars were evaluated for their frictional properties, i.e., the angle of repose and the coefficient of static friction. The coefficient of static friction was determined over different common contact material surfaces, and it was found that all the varieties have a maximum coefficient of friction over plyboard, followed by the galvanized iron sheet, and a minimum coefficient of friction on the glass surface. Full article
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6 pages, 274 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Plant Extracts as Potential Bioactive Food Additives
by Beatriz Nunes Silva, Vasco Cadavez, Cristina Caleja, Eliana Pereira, Ricardo C. Calhelha, José Pinela, Marina Kostić, Marina Soković, José António Teixeira, Lillian Barros and Ursula Gonzales-Barron
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11010 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Plant extracts have been proposed as antimicrobial agents and health-promoters to be included in a variety of food products. In this sense, this work aimed to evaluate the bioactivities of infusions, decoctions and hydroethanolic extracts of six aromatic plants, namely, basil, lemon balm, [...] Read more.
Plant extracts have been proposed as antimicrobial agents and health-promoters to be included in a variety of food products. In this sense, this work aimed to evaluate the bioactivities of infusions, decoctions and hydroethanolic extracts of six aromatic plants, namely, basil, lemon balm, lavender, sage, spearmint, and tarragon. The novelty of this study is related to the recent trend to replace chemical additives with more natural, plant-based ones, to meet consumers’ demands. The results highlighted the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of several of these extracts, thus emphasising their capability to prevent food spoilage and promote health benefits. In this sense, our research revealed the potential of some plant extracts as potential food additives. Full article
5 pages, 2674 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Applying a Wet-Type Grinder to Wheat Bran for Developing Breads
by Thi Anh Le, Kazuyoshi Nakamura, Yuya Arai, Katsuyoshi Nishinari and Takao Nagano
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10986 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Despite being rich in dietary fibers, wheat bran is scarcely used as a food source because these dietary fibers have adverse effects on the texture. In this study, bran was atomized using a wet-type grinder (WG) to improve its physicochemical properties. The WG [...] Read more.
Despite being rich in dietary fibers, wheat bran is scarcely used as a food source because these dietary fibers have adverse effects on the texture. In this study, bran was atomized using a wet-type grinder (WG) to improve its physicochemical properties. The WG treatment improved the dispersion ability and viscosity of bran. Bread was then prepared by replacing 5% wheat flour with either WG-treated or WG-untreated bran. The WG-treated bread had a higher specific loaf volume and lower crumb hardness than the WG-untreated bran bread. The analysis of the enzymatic digestion of starch indicated a 20% decrease in rapidly digestible starch in WG-treated bran compared to untreated bran bread. Full article
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7 pages, 927 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Techno-Economic Evaluation of the Production of Oil and Phenolic-Rich Extracts from Mauritia flexuosa L.f. Using Sequential Supercritical and Conventional Solvent Extraction
by Ivan Best, Luis Olivera-Montenegro, Zaina Cartagena-Gonzales, Oscar Arana-Copa and Giovani Zabot
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10988 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
Mauritia flexuosa L.f. is a palm from the Amazon. Pulp and oil are extracted from its fruits, which have a high content of phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. In this study, two extraction processes were compared at an extraction volume of [...] Read more.
Mauritia flexuosa L.f. is a palm from the Amazon. Pulp and oil are extracted from its fruits, which have a high content of phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. In this study, two extraction processes were compared at an extraction volume of 2000 L: (a) conventional solvent extraction (CSE) with ethanol 80% for the recovery of phenolic-rich extracts, (b) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) followed by CSE to obtain oil and phenolic-rich extracts. According to the economic evaluation performed using SuperPro Designer 9.0, SFE+CSE was the most economically feasible process for obtaining bioactive compounds from M. flexuosa on an industrial scale. Full article
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6 pages, 868 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Detection and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Semi-Finished Beer Products Using Molecular Techniques
by Georgios Tsekouras, Paschalitsa Tryfinopoulou and Efstathios Z. Panagou
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11046 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
Beer has been generally recognized as a microbiologically stable beverage. However, deviations in the brewing process may occur due to the activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The growth of LAB during the brewing process implies a competition for nutrients with yeasts, causing [...] Read more.
Beer has been generally recognized as a microbiologically stable beverage. However, deviations in the brewing process may occur due to the activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The growth of LAB during the brewing process implies a competition for nutrients with yeasts, causing decreased ethanol yields. Moreover, quality degradation caused by LAB spoilage can be observed due to the production of off-flavors (high indications of diacetyl and lactic acid), changes in color and excessive turbidity. This study aims at the microbiological investigation of non-pasteurized beer products, before and after filtration, with the main emphasis on the detection and molecular characterization of the biodiversity of LAB. Sampling was performed at selected points in a beer production line on the industrial scale in order to determine the population of Total Viable Counts (TVC), yeasts and LAB. The samples are classified in the “lager” category, fermented using strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus. The sampling points included the pre- and post- filtration step, the buffer line, the filling tank, the packaged but non-pasteurized product and finally, the packaged pasteurized product to confirm the effectiveness of heat treatment. Samples were collected in two different batch productions. The results showed that the population of LAB was relatively low. Specifically, before filtration, levels were 1.52 log CFU/mL and 3.44 log CFU/mL in the first and second batch, respectively. This microbial group was not enumerated (<1.0 log CFU/mL) afterwards in all sampling points. A total of 80 LAB species were initially analyzed by rep-PCR, using the (GTG)5 primer to discriminate the isolates. Representative isolates (20) were selected for further identification using the conserved 16S rRNA region to be sequenced. Three different species were present in both batch productions, namely Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus backii and Lactobacillus harbinensis. Full article
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6 pages, 990 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Environmental Impact of ‘Superfoods’: A Space for Debate and Joint Reflection
by Ana Fernández-Ríos, Jara Laso, María Margallo and Rubén Aldaco
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11022 - 14 Oct 2022
Viewed by 997
Abstract
This paper aims to provide an overview of the environmental impacts of superfoods. For this purpose, a bibliographic search was conducted to find articles developing the life cycle assessment of four of the most popular superfoods (quinoa, chia, spirulina, and kale), as well [...] Read more.
This paper aims to provide an overview of the environmental impacts of superfoods. For this purpose, a bibliographic search was conducted to find articles developing the life cycle assessment of four of the most popular superfoods (quinoa, chia, spirulina, and kale), as well as to identify potential future environmental challenges. The main outcomes reveal that: (1) with the limited information that is currently available, it cannot justifiably be claimed that superfoods present environmental benefits compared to traditional products, and (2) the environmental impacts will increase in the medium-to-long term due to the change of current agricultural systems into intensive commercially oriented systems caused by demand growth. Full article
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9 pages, 769 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preliminary Studies on the Variation in Microbial Succession, Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity during a Spontaneous Fermentation of Mutchayan, a Traditional Fermented Baobab Derived Food
by Ahotondji Mechak Gbaguidi, Flora Josiane Chadare, Sègla Wilfrid Padonou, Comlanvi Oscar Assou and Djidjoho Joseph Hounhouigan
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-10989 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Mutchayan is a traditionally fermented cooked cereal dough mixed with baobab pulp, consumed in Benin. The study evaluated the physico-chemical and microbiological changes of Mutchayan during 0 to 120 h of spontaneous fermentation. An analysis of the studied fermentation process revealed an increase [...] Read more.
Mutchayan is a traditionally fermented cooked cereal dough mixed with baobab pulp, consumed in Benin. The study evaluated the physico-chemical and microbiological changes of Mutchayan during 0 to 120 h of spontaneous fermentation. An analysis of the studied fermentation process revealed an increase in titratable acidity and antioxidant capacity (between 0 and 120 h) and a decrease in ascorbic acid content during the first 24 h of the fermentation. Dry matter content and Brix value decreased from 18.7 to 16.7 g/100 g and 7.6 to 5.0 °Brix, respectively, while pH did not change notably. Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of molds at the beginning of the fermentation, which was inhibited after 36 h, while the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts dominated the process. Full article
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6 pages, 722 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) Extract on the Survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Portuguese Alheira Sausage during Maturation
by Sara Coelho-Fernandes, Gisela Rodrigues, Ana Sofia Faria, Cristina Caleja, Eliana Pereira, José Pinela, Márcio Carocho, Lillian Barros, Vasco Cadavez and Ursula Gonzales-Barron
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2021-11047 - 3 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) extract on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in a Portuguese non-ready-to-eat meat product (alheira sausage). Alheira batter was produced, mixed with 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) extract on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in a Portuguese non-ready-to-eat meat product (alheira sausage). Alheira batter was produced, mixed with 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% of lyophilised sage extract, and stuffed in natural casings. Sausages were then individually inoculated with S. aureus and left to ferment/mature at 10 °C/85% RH for 10 days. Sage extract was found to inactivate S. aureus (p < 0.001) with no significant differences between doses. At the 10th day of maturation, S. aureus decreased in 1.146 log CFU/g (SE = 0.065 log CFU/g) in alheiras mixed with 0.5–1.0% sage extract. Nonetheless, this extract retarded the growth of indigenous lactic acid bacteria during maturation. The higher the dose, the greater the effect (p < 0.001). Full article
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