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Heritage, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 115 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The article analyzes the values associated with using heritage buildings and their correlation with corresponding conservation measures using the travel cost method in the historical center of Bucharest. We highlighted the role of the travel cost method in evaluating benefits generated by cultural heritage and its conservation, identified factors influencing the use of cultural heritage, and made proposals for the conservation of cultural heritage resulting from the method. Our findings are a useful tool for public administrations in making decisions on the management of heritage. This study is significant because it aims to improve the application of the travel cost method by overcoming the problems identified by previous studies, taking into account multiple factors influencing the decision to visit cultural destinations. View this paper
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Article
Heritage Keepers: The Perils in Textile Conservation
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4716-4725; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040260 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1025
Abstract
One of the most frequent professional afflictions in Conservators-Restorers is the onset of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The conservation of textiles is recognizably vulnerable to these problems. However, the assessments of the ergonomic conditions for these workers are rare or even non-existing. The [...] Read more.
One of the most frequent professional afflictions in Conservators-Restorers is the onset of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The conservation of textiles is recognizably vulnerable to these problems. However, the assessments of the ergonomic conditions for these workers are rare or even non-existing. The present study focuses on a group of conservators-restorers of textiles and relies on the use of a Nordic Questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorders coupled with a Quick Exposure Check for the task of consolidation on a horizontal table to determine the severity and exposure levels to WMSDs. All surveyed workers reported numbness, pain or discomfort in the last 12 months for the neck region, while 67% reported the same afflictions for the back, shoulders/arms and hands/wrist. In the same time period, half of the workers used pain relievers in order to maintain their professional activity. For the textile consolidation task, the neck and back areas showed high and very high levels of exposure, respectively, and the results place these workers at a high-risk for WMSDs due to cumulative stress. Mitigation strategies are proposed but these should be paired with professional counseling. Although preliminary, this study is the first of its kind to assess the ergonomic impact of the profession in Portugal and presents a methodology that can be used to perform similar evaluations in other workplaces and/or other specialties in the Conservation and Restoration sphere, both nationally and internationally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Article
A Roadmap for the Sustainable Valorization of Accessible Underwater Cultural Heritage Sites
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4700-4715; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040259 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
This paper presents a roadmap to enable the adoption of the BLUEMED model; an integrated plan developed within the BLUEMED project that promotes underwater cultural heritage (UCH) to both divers and non-divers and aims at sustainable tourism development in coastal areas and islands. [...] Read more.
This paper presents a roadmap to enable the adoption of the BLUEMED model; an integrated plan developed within the BLUEMED project that promotes underwater cultural heritage (UCH) to both divers and non-divers and aims at sustainable tourism development in coastal areas and islands. Through augmented and virtual reality technologies, one can experience wet and dry diving to accessible underwater cultural heritage site(s) (AUCHS), through a physical dive at the sites or a virtual tour at Knowledge Awareness Centers (KACs). The roadmap provides guidelines, so that relevant stakeholders and competent authorities can implement the BLUEMED model and consider the various environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors of the area (locality), to ensure viability in the long-term. The roadmap focuses on the policy and technical parameters, including the cultural and environmental features of the site, the legislative framework, funding issues, the integration of technologies, the prospects for sustainable tourism development in the area, the stakeholder engagement, and the cooperation framework within a top-down or a bottom-up initiative, as well as the establishment and operation of the KACs. Full article
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Article
Development of Predictive Geoarchaeological Models to Locate and Assess the Preservation Potential of Submerged Prehistoric Sites Using Remote Sensing, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis, and GIS
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4678-4699; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040258 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 947
Abstract
Using the Mesolithic site of Tudse Hage in the Great Belt of Denmark, this paper proposes a generic stepwise process to create geoarchaeological models that output seamless morphology maps in a GIS. This was achieved using remote sensing databases and the collection of [...] Read more.
Using the Mesolithic site of Tudse Hage in the Great Belt of Denmark, this paper proposes a generic stepwise process to create geoarchaeological models that output seamless morphology maps in a GIS. This was achieved using remote sensing databases and the collection of marine geophysical data, above and below the seabed. On the basis of these data, key areas, with sediment sequences representative of the postglacial transgression surfaces, were identified. Core samples were taken for palaeoenvironmental analysis and dating that enabled a reconstruction of the relative sea-level changes. Using this information, palaeogeographic coastline maps of the Kongemose, late Kongemose, Ertebølle, and Neolithic periods in the Tudse Hage area were prepared, and potential hotspots for archaeological sites were proposed. Since their inundation, submerged prehistoric archaeological sites have been, and are, dynamic, with anthropogenic and natural processes affecting their stability and preservation. With the advocation of in situ preservation as a means of managing underwater cultural heritage, predicting where sites have survived these processes, and where they can be found, in advance of subsea development or other anthropogenic exploitation, is essential. Future natural threats to sites preserved in situ were determined through the modelling of seabed currents and sediment erosion. Full article
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Article
Characterization of Natural Stone from the Archaeological Site of Pella, Macedonia, Northern Greece
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4665-4677; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040257 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 966
Abstract
The goal of the study was to characterize the limestone that was used extensively in the ancient city of Pella (Macedonia, Greece), the birthplace of Alexander the Great. An on-site examination of the building material was carried out to record the types of [...] Read more.
The goal of the study was to characterize the limestone that was used extensively in the ancient city of Pella (Macedonia, Greece), the birthplace of Alexander the Great. An on-site examination of the building material was carried out to record the types of damage and to select sampling areas. A variation in the nature of the stone and the degree of deterioration, even between the stones that comprise a specific monument structure, was observed, with water absorption and biological colonization being the main factors resulting in the deterioration of the stone. A comprehensive microanalysis and testing scheme was conducted to fully characterize the mineralogical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the stones collected from various areas of the archaeological site. Optical microscopy, XRD and SEM–EDX were used to investigate the chemical composition and the structure of the stone samples. Finally, other properties, such as porosity, specific gravity and water absorption, were measured. Surface alterations, material degradation and biological deterioration were observed in most samples. The results obtained using XRD showed that the dominant mineral phase of the limestone is calcite, with quartz and clay minerals also detected in traces. The microscopic examination of the samples showed that the main natural stone at the archaeological site is a marly limestone. Thermographical measurements showed that the decay of the stones due to ambient temperature variation and corresponding contraction/expansion phenomena may be relatively limited, as the stone exhibited a low thermal diffusivity. Moreover, high porosity values (12.06–21.09%) and low compressive strength (11.3–27.7 MPa) were recorded, indicating the vulnerability of the stone and the need to take conservation measures. Full article
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Article
Augmented Reality Storytelling Submerged. Dry Diving to a World War II Wreck at Ancient Phalasarna, Crete
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4647-4664; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040256 - 11 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Underwater heritage and archaeology is, in general, limited to the few who have permission, and the means to actually dive on location and experience the submarine sites. Dry dive technologies such as Augmented Reality (AR) now offer unprecedented opportunity to change this situation. [...] Read more.
Underwater heritage and archaeology is, in general, limited to the few who have permission, and the means to actually dive on location and experience the submarine sites. Dry dive technologies such as Augmented Reality (AR) now offer unprecedented opportunity to change this situation. This paper explores the use of AR storytelling with regard to a World War II landing craft at Phalasarna, Greece. Tank Landing Craft A6 (TLC) was sunk by German aircraft while evacuating Allied troops from Crete in 1941. Its remains still lie just off the coast in a few metres of water. This project revolves around the development of a 3D–animation to make the site more accessible to those who cannot dive. By visually reconstructing the dramatic event of the craft’s final moments under German attack before it settled to the seabed, as well as the site’s present condition, visitors can experience and learn more about both the vessel itself and the historical context. The Indirect AR simulation contains two main modes: a dry dive reconstruction of the wreck as it looks today with detailed multimodal explanations based on historical and archaeological research, and an animation sequence that reconstructs the actual German attack on the ship. This article presents detailed descriptions of the site’s historical background, of the vessel and the design challenges involved in the production process of the app itself. Feedback provided by visitors who recently tested the AR simulation on location is also reported here. Full article
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Article
Combined Energy-Seismic Retrofit of Existing Historical Masonry Buildings: The Novel “DUO System” Coating System Applied to a Case Study
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4629-4646; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040255 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
The safety of the built heritage of our cities towards environmental factors and seismic actions is a pressing need for designers and researchers. The actual trend is to setup effective solutions to reduce thermal dispersions through the building envelope. Contrarily, combined systems able [...] Read more.
The safety of the built heritage of our cities towards environmental factors and seismic actions is a pressing need for designers and researchers. The actual trend is to setup effective solutions to reduce thermal dispersions through the building envelope. Contrarily, combined systems able to enhance the resistance of constructions to earthquakes, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to increase the energetic efficiency of existing buildings are scarcely diffused on the market and are rarely investigated in the scientific literature. In this framework, the seismic design of the new envelope DUO system for seismic-environmental requalification of existing masonry constructions is illustrated in the present paper with reference to a case study in the Neapolitan area. After the geometrical and mechanical characterization of the investigated building is performed, an FEM model of the masonry construction is setup by the SAP2000 analysis program, which has allowed performing pushover analyses. Based on the non-linear seismic response of the construction, an appropriate upgrading design mainly based on the innovative seismic envelope DUO system has been made. The static non-linear analyses applied to the upgraded FEM model of the building have shown a clear increase in performance in terms of strength, stiffness and ductility, thus confirming the effectiveness of the proposed envelope system. Full article
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Article
Understanding Bunker Architecture Heritage as a Climate Action Tool: Plan Barron in Lisbon as a “Milieu” and as “Common Good” When Dealing with the Rise of the Water Levels
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4609-4628; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040254 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Abandoned on the coast as skeletons, bunkers are the last theatrical gesture in the history of Western military architecture (Virilio, 1975). Technically obsolete, this military territory has fallen into extinction and is now generally forgotten. We present the Plan Barron of [...] Read more.
Abandoned on the coast as skeletons, bunkers are the last theatrical gesture in the history of Western military architecture (Virilio, 1975). Technically obsolete, this military territory has fallen into extinction and is now generally forgotten. We present the Plan Barron of Defense of Lisbon and Setubal case study, a mid-twentieth-century set of bunkers, recently declassified, as a case study to discuss the future of this heritage facing the climate crisis. Can oblivious historical war heritage be an opportunity to fight climate emergencies? We present four theoretical concepts to fundament this environmental positioning: (i) Heritage Management and Climate Governance, (ii) Techno-aesthetic (Simondon, 1992): panopticon territorial cluster; (iii) Military: camouflage as design, and (iv) Civil: inheritance as future potential. The results allow us to look at military architecture in the form of a bunker, as a set of territorial, architectonic, cultural, and social interests. We demonstrate that the counterpoint of its invisibility is a singular naturalized “milieu”, a place where the memory of war can be transformed as a buffer zone that combines characteristics of climate and coastal resilience with cultural and social interest as a “common good”. Full article
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Article
Portrait of an Etruscan Athletic Official: A Multi-Analytical Study of a Painted Terracotta Wall Panel
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4596-4608; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040253 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
The Getty’s Etruscan painted terracotta wall panel, Athletic Official, recently has been speculated to be associated with a Caeretan wall panel depicting a Discobolus based on a shared iconography. To better understand the materials and techniques used to create the Getty panel and [...] Read more.
The Getty’s Etruscan painted terracotta wall panel, Athletic Official, recently has been speculated to be associated with a Caeretan wall panel depicting a Discobolus based on a shared iconography. To better understand the materials and techniques used to create the Getty panel and investigate its relation to extant Etruscan painted terracotta panels, a multi-analytical study was conducted, using broadband visible, IR, and UV imaging, along with scanning MA-XRF, FORS, Raman, SEM-EDS, and XRD analytical techniques. The analytical results together with PCA analysis suggest the clay support of the Getty panel is most similar in composition to that of panels from Cerveteri. A manganese black was identified in the decorative scheme; not commonly employed, this appears to be an important marker for the workshop practice in Cerveteri. Most significantly, the use of MA-XRF scanning allowed for invisible ruling lines on the Athletic Official, presumably laid down at the earliest stages of the creation of the panel, to be visualized. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into Caeretan workshop practice as well as provide a framework for better understanding the design and execution of Etruscan polychromy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polychromy in Ancient Sculpture and Architecture)
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Article
On the Two Working Palettes of Almada Negreiros at DN Building in Lisbon (1939–1940): First Analytical Approach and Insight on the Use of Cd Based Pigments
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4578-4595; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040252 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1116
Abstract
This paper reports the first analytical approach carried out on two working palettes by Portuguese modernist master Almada Negreiros, found in 1991 behind old wood cabinets at the DN building in Lisbon. This is the only known occasion Almada left behind the color [...] Read more.
This paper reports the first analytical approach carried out on two working palettes by Portuguese modernist master Almada Negreiros, found in 1991 behind old wood cabinets at the DN building in Lisbon. This is the only known occasion Almada left behind the color experiments done before starting to paint in the nearby walls and as such, it is a unique opportunity to analyze the materials and painting techniques that were originally used. The analytical setup comprised in loco technical photography in Vis, UVF and NIR; p-OM, spectrophotometry in Vis and h-EDXRF, complemented by OM-Vis, µ-FT-IR and VP-SEM-EDS of painting micro-samples and pigments in powder form. Preliminary results suggested the use of fresco painting technique and revealed some technical details, such as the use of a coarse lime sand finishing mortar mixed with natural vegetable fibers, and the extensive use of cadmium-based pigments that were not commonly used (or even recommended) in an alkaline environment. The Cd pigments were used alone or in mixtures with Fe based pigments in the warm hues and with cobalt and ultramarine blue pigments in some green paint layers. No clear evidence of organic materials that could have been used as binders was detected. Full article
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Article
Supporting Online and On-Site Digital Diverse Travels
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4558-4577; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040251 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
Cultural-heritage research has created a vast amount of information regarding heritage objects and sites. At the same time, recent efforts on the digitization of cultural heritage have provided novel means of documenting tangible cultural resources including digital images, videos, audio testimonies, and 3D [...] Read more.
Cultural-heritage research has created a vast amount of information regarding heritage objects and sites. At the same time, recent efforts on the digitization of cultural heritage have provided novel means of documenting tangible cultural resources including digital images, videos, audio testimonies, and 3D reconstructions. Furthermore, ethnographic research is nowadays combined with advanced capturing technologies such as motion capture to record the intangible dimensions of heritage as these are manifested through human expression in dance, heritage crafts, etc. This amount of information is now available and should be used to create novel forms of experiential access to cultural heritage powered by the web and mobile technologies mixed with novel interaction paradigms such as virtual and augmented reality. In this article, a platform is presented that facilitates a cloud-based web application to support location-based narratives on cultural-heritage resources provided through map-based or story-based representation approaches. At the same time, the platform through the power of modern mobile devices can provide these experiences on the move using location-based and image recognition-based augmented reality to facilitate multiple usage contexts. The platform was implemented to support the goal of the project CuRe, in the context of the “Greece-Germany” bilateral collaboration action. Full article
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Article
An Archaeometric Investigation of Gems and Glass Beads Decorating the Double-Arm Reliquary Cross from Liège, Belgium
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4542-4557; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040250 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 776
Abstract
In 1914, a magnificent reliquary cross dating from the early XIIIth century was discovered in a safe from the Liège Cathedral. This double-arm cross shows a wooden structure, covered by gold-coated copper on the front, and by carved silver plates on the back. [...] Read more.
In 1914, a magnificent reliquary cross dating from the early XIIIth century was discovered in a safe from the Liège Cathedral. This double-arm cross shows a wooden structure, covered by gold-coated copper on the front, and by carved silver plates on the back. Its total length is 34 cm, and it is covered by filigrees, gems, glass beads, and pearls on its front. The reliquary cross was analysed by Raman spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (pXRF) to determine the mineralogical and chemical compositions of gems, glass beads, and metals that have been used to decorate it. The results confirm the identification of twenty-five turquoises from Egypt, one garnet from Sri Lanka, as well as six quartz and one opal whose origin is difficult to certify. Twelve glass beads, showing green, blue, or amber tints, were also identified. Their compositions either correspond to soda lime glasses with natron or to potash–lead glasses similar to those of Central Europe. Moreover, a small polished red cross and a green stone appear to be constituted by nice doublets, composed of coloured glass covered by quartz. The filigrees contain Au and Cu, while carved plates covering the edges and the back of the cross are made of silver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Retrieving Intangibility, Stemming Biodiversity Loss: The Case of Sacred Places in Venda, Northern South Africa
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4524-4541; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040249 - 28 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Sacred sites and landscapes mirror indigenous peoples’ identity, well-being and sense of place. In Venda, northern South Africa, such places are preserved through myths and legends. Following a scoping study, which also involved engagement with indigenous communities, we reveal how human-driven destruction of [...] Read more.
Sacred sites and landscapes mirror indigenous peoples’ identity, well-being and sense of place. In Venda, northern South Africa, such places are preserved through myths and legends. Following a scoping study, which also involved engagement with indigenous communities, we reveal how human-driven destruction of biodiversity contributes towards significant losses of such heritage. Large-scale agriculture, mining and commercial plantations around Thathe forest, Lake Fundudzi and Phiphidi waterfalls are not only destroying these places, but also impoverishing indigenous peoples. This is not sustainable from the perspective of heritage conservation, survival and well-being of indigenous communities. Recognising intangible values expressed through myths and legends is necessary in heritage conservation and in addressing some of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Mapping the Soundscape in Communicative Forms for Cultural Heritage: Between Realism and Symbolism
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4495-4523; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040248 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
The dimension of sound plays a central role as a form of cultural representation. Sound is a means of knowledge and experiential involvement, as it is inextricably linked to place and space, mind and body, cultural context and emotion. This contribution aims to [...] Read more.
The dimension of sound plays a central role as a form of cultural representation. Sound is a means of knowledge and experiential involvement, as it is inextricably linked to place and space, mind and body, cultural context and emotion. This contribution aims to explore how sound design follows different paradigms and methods in the various media. Virtual reality, videogame, cinema and documentary have differently codified rules to provide acoustic verisimilitude to the simulated space, to orient or stimulate the user, to suggest contents or evoke events and to emotionally involve the public. These rules follow artistic principles closer to psychoacoustics than to scientific reproduction of sound in the simulated space. Under what conditions, however, is the scientific simulation of an acoustic space preferable to the more common paradigms of psychoacoustics? How could this be created? Immersive and non-immersive virtual reality for cultural heritage is currently the field of experimentation most open to future developments. Some virtual reality and mixed reality applications will be presented, dedicated to archaeological or historical-artistic contexts, where a fundamental relationship between sound and multisensory interaction has been created. Full article
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Article
Production Technology of Glazed Pottery in Chalcis, Euboea, during the Middle Byzantine Period
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4473-4494; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040247 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
This paper focuses on various categories of glazed pottery, which were in circulation in western Euboea (Greece) during the Middle Byzantine and Late Byzantine periods. The production technology and particularly the surface treatment of Byzantine glazed pottery have been investigated on the basis [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on various categories of glazed pottery, which were in circulation in western Euboea (Greece) during the Middle Byzantine and Late Byzantine periods. The production technology and particularly the surface treatment of Byzantine glazed pottery have been investigated on the basis of 56 ceramic fragments from a rescue excavation in Orionos street in Chalkis, Euboea. This paper focuses on the manufacture of glazed pottery within the local pottery repertoire of Chalkis, while trying to contextualise the pottery typology and to consider the issues of technology. The chemical analysis by non-invasive energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) provided information about the compositional variation of the examined glazed ceramics assemblage. Moreover, sections of the samples were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to determine the microstructure of the samples, as well as the vitrification and the porosity of the ceramic body. Finally, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was applied for qualitative mineralogical analysis indicating presence or absence of high temperature phases and information about firing conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry for Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Implementing Multi-Criteria Analysis in the Selection of AUCHS for the Integration of Digital Technologies into the Tourism Offering: The Case of MeDryDive
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4460-4472; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040246 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Focusing on both physical and virtual accessibility, this paper presents the methodology developed by MeDryDive for the selection of AUCHS (Accessible Underwater Cultural Heritage Sites) in Greece, Italy, Croatia, and Montenegro. MeDryDive is a project that aims at the promotion of AUCHS in [...] Read more.
Focusing on both physical and virtual accessibility, this paper presents the methodology developed by MeDryDive for the selection of AUCHS (Accessible Underwater Cultural Heritage Sites) in Greece, Italy, Croatia, and Montenegro. MeDryDive is a project that aims at the promotion of AUCHS in the Mediterranean as distinctive tourism destinations through personalized dry dive experiences. The candidate sites are assessed in order to be included in the transnational thematic tourism product “Dive in the Past” and promoted through Creative and Cultural Industry (CCI) applications, including a Serious Game, Augmented and Virtual Reality applications, and promotional videos, all developed in the context of the project. The main goal of the methodology is to meet the requirements for both the sustainability of the thematic tourism product and the digital applications’ development. The assessment of AUCHS is based on specific criteria that result from setting weighing factors and classifying indicators as either critical or non-critical. The criteria are categorized into core (feasibility) criteria and complementary (appropriateness) criteria for determining the total level of readiness. This set of criteria enables site selection through an elimination method, identifying the suitable pilot and follow-on sites for the integration of digital technologies into the tourism offering. Full article
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Article
Transfer of Development Rights and Cultural Heritage Preservation: A Case Study at Athens Historic Triangle, Greece
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4439-4459; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040245 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
History and the modern world co-exist in Greece’s landscape. The urban spaces of Greek cities contain structures from ancient history alongside contemporary constructions, but intense urban development from the 1960s onwards, as in the historic center of Athens, has led to imbalances with [...] Read more.
History and the modern world co-exist in Greece’s landscape. The urban spaces of Greek cities contain structures from ancient history alongside contemporary constructions, but intense urban development from the 1960s onwards, as in the historic center of Athens, has led to imbalances with respect to cultural heritage protection. The 1975 Greek Constitution defined the preservation and protection of the cultural environment as a constitutional mandate, and severe restrictions on the exploitation of private properties deemed to be of historical or architectural importance were imposed. Property owners were deprived of their property development rights (DRs), whereas the preservation and conservation of protected constructions became costly, resulting in abandoned buildings and a downgraded urban environment. As the debate over cultural heritage protection and urban regeneration is more topical than ever, the recent legal reintroduction of the transfer of development rights (TDRs) provides new opportunities for property exploitation with respect to cultural heritage protection legislation. Herein is presented a methodological framework on the classification and 3D visualization and representation of DRs and TDRs in relation to the cultural heritage protective framework and its implementation in a selected area of Athens’ historic center. Legal and technical aspects that affect 3D DRs and TDRs are emphasized as key elements in the successful implementation of the TDR process. Full article
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Article
Nondestructive Analysis of Wall Paintings at Ostia Antica
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4421-4438; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040244 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Roman wall paintings at Ostia Antica were studied for the first time in situ in an integrated approach using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) depth profiling, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and visible induced luminescence (VIL) in order to explore the materials used in their [...] Read more.
Roman wall paintings at Ostia Antica were studied for the first time in situ in an integrated approach using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) depth profiling, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and visible induced luminescence (VIL) in order to explore the materials used in their construction and gain insight into the evolution of the Roman painting technique over time. NMR revealed the signatures of covered wall paintings through details of the structure of the top painted mortar layers, and the loss of this information that can be encountered when paintings are detached from the wall for preservation purposes. XRF provided information about the pigment composition of the paintings, and VIL was used to identify Egyptian Blue. Egyptian Blue was only found in the earlier wall paintings studied dating from 1st century B.C.E. to the 1st century C.E. The pigment palette seems to become limited to iron-based pigments in the later paintings, whereas the palette of the earlier paintings appears to be more varied including mercury, lead, and copper-based pigments. Full article
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Urban Morphometrics and the Intangible Uniqueness of Tangible Heritage. An Evidence-Based Generative Design Experiment in Historical Kochi (IN)
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4399-4420; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040243 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Asia is urbanising rapidly. Current urbanisation practices often compromise sustainability, prosperity, and local quality of life while context-sensitive alternatives show very limited impact. A third way is necessary to integrate mass-production, heritage, and human values. As part of UNICITI’s initiative, A Third Way [...] Read more.
Asia is urbanising rapidly. Current urbanisation practices often compromise sustainability, prosperity, and local quality of life while context-sensitive alternatives show very limited impact. A third way is necessary to integrate mass-production, heritage, and human values. As part of UNICITI’s initiative, A Third Way of Building Asian Cities, we propose a scalable and replicable methodology which captures unique morphological traits of urban types (i.e., areas with homogenous urban form) to inform innovative large-scale and context-sensitive practices. We extract urban types from a large set of quantitative descriptors and provide a systematic way to generate figure-grounds aligned with such urban types. The application of the proposed methodology to Kochi (IN) reveals 24 distinct urban types with unique morphological features. Profiles, containing design-relevant values of morphometrics, are then produced for a selection of urban types located in the historical district of Fort Kochi/Mattancherry. Based on these, figure-ground design demonstrations are carried out in three sample sites. Outcomes seem aligned with the urban character of their respective types, while allowing distinct design expressions, suggesting that the proposed approach has potential to inform the design in historical/heritage areas and, more broadly, the search for a Third Way of Building Asian Cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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A Comprehensive and Systematic Diagnostic Campaign for a New Acquisition of Contemporary Art—The Case of Natura Morta by Andreina Rosa (1924–2019) at the International Gallery of Modern Art Ca’ Pesaro, Venice
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4372-4398; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040242 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
A multi-analytical approach has been employed to investigate the painting Natura Morta (1954–1955) by Andreina Rosa (1924–2019) to assess the state of conservation and to understand more about the painting materials and techniques of this artwork, which was recently donated by the painter’s [...] Read more.
A multi-analytical approach has been employed to investigate the painting Natura Morta (1954–1955) by Andreina Rosa (1924–2019) to assess the state of conservation and to understand more about the painting materials and techniques of this artwork, which was recently donated by the painter’s heirs to the International Gallery of Modern Art Ca’ Pesaro (Venice-Italy). A comprehensive and systematic diagnostic campaign was carried out, mainly adopting non-invasive imaging and spectroscopic methods, such as technical photography, optical microscopy, Hyperspectral Imaging Spectroscopy (HIS), fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS), External Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ER-FTIR), and Raman spectroscopies. Microsamples, collected from the edges of the canvas in areas partially detached, were studied by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). By crossing the information gained, it was possible to make inferences about the composition of the groundings and the painted layers, the state of conservation of the artwork, and the presence of degradation phenomena. Hence, the present study may be of interest for conservation purposes as well as for enhancing the artistic activity of Andreina Rosa. The final aim was to provide useful information for the Gallery which recently included this painting in its permanent collection. Full article
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Editorial
Colour Analysis: An Introduction to the Power of Studying Pigments and Dyes in Archaeological and Historical Objects
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4366-4371; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040241 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Nature offers a myriad of colours and the desire to replicate them is intrinsic to human nature [...] Full article
Article
Bordering on Asian Paintings: Dye Analysis of Textile Borders and Mount Elements to Complement Research on Asian Pictorial Art
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4344-4365; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040240 - 13 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
Mount components and textile borders represent important elements of Asian paintings. However, they are often side-lined or not considered an integral part of the original piece, as they may be later additions or may have been replaced during historic conservation or mounting interventions. [...] Read more.
Mount components and textile borders represent important elements of Asian paintings. However, they are often side-lined or not considered an integral part of the original piece, as they may be later additions or may have been replaced during historic conservation or mounting interventions. Nevertheless, evidence is sometimes present that textile borders are contemporaneous to the production of the paintings they frame or, in the case of paintings found in archaeological contexts, to the time of deposition. Even when not contemporaneous with the paintings, the mount textiles are often of significant historic interest in themselves, showing a range of complex textile techniques and materials, and highlighting the re-use of fabrics. In all these cases, the study and reconstruction of the original colours of the borders enable further understanding of the holistic visual impact originally intended for the composition, as well as of the role of colour itself, which was used to emphasise, complement or contrast important pictorial themes or motifs in the paintings. Furthermore, the identification of dyes and dyeing techniques has the potential to support the production date and provenance of the paintings. In this study, the textile borders and some additional mounting elements of six paintings (late 9th–10th century CE) from the Library Cave, Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, China, one rare Korean portrait painting dated 1789 CE, and two Tibetan thangkas (18th century) were investigated with the aim to identify the dyes present. Fibre optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) was used to obtain information non-invasively and, when sampling was possible, high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to obtain molecular identification of the dyestuffs employed in their production. Typical Asian dyes, such as gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon), sappanwood (Biancaea sappan), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), turmeric (Curcuma longa) and pagoda tree flower buds (Sophora japonica), were identified. Some of the dyeing techniques were commensurate with the geographical and temporal provenance assigned to these pieces. Considerations about fading and discolouration of the dyes enabled valuable additional information to be obtained that complements the evidence gleaned from the study of the paintings and informs conservators and curators on best practices in the preservation and display of these precious and delicate artworks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Museum and Heritage)
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Article
An Investigation on a Coptic Embroidered Panel from the 13th Century “Crucifixion with the Twelve Apostles” (Benaki Museum, Athens)
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4335-4343; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040239 - 13 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
The “Crucifixion with the twelve Apostles”, a unique Coptic embroidered panel, was on display at the Benaki Museum (Athens, Greece). The representation of the “Crucifixion” with Christ in the center and six Apostles on either side, standing next to each other in frontal [...] Read more.
The “Crucifixion with the twelve Apostles”, a unique Coptic embroidered panel, was on display at the Benaki Museum (Athens, Greece). The representation of the “Crucifixion” with Christ in the center and six Apostles on either side, standing next to each other in frontal poses, is quite a rare one. This rare iconographic image of the twelve Apostles could be linked to the Ascension or the Pentecost. This unique representation of the Crucifixion with the twelve Apostles, which also involves the Ascension, is a one-of-a-kind compositional formula representing Christ’s Death as a triumph over Death, emphasizing, along with the other factors, its non-Chalcedonic origin. Moreover, the interpretation of an inscription, written in at least three languages embroidered in black silk thread, is a matter which confuses the issue even more. In the present study, we will attempt a comprehensive investigation, a detailed description, and interpretation of this rare iconography, based on written and iconographic evidence traced in the history of art heritage objects. Full article
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Article
Towards Differentiated Energy Renovation Strategies for Heritage-Designated Multifamily Building Stocks
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4318-4334; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040238 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
The historic building stock is not homogeneous, which implies a need for differentiated energy renovation strategies in order to balance energy efficiency requirements and building conservation goals. This paper presents a new method for developing a base for differentiated energy renovation strategies for [...] Read more.
The historic building stock is not homogeneous, which implies a need for differentiated energy renovation strategies in order to balance energy efficiency requirements and building conservation goals. This paper presents a new method for developing a base for differentiated energy renovation strategies for heritage-classified multifamily building stocks. Our suggested method combines different building databases using an extract, transform and load (ETL) technology. The method for this study was tested on the available information for heritage-designated and -classified multifamily buildings in the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden, and in the county of Halland, Sweden. The two cases reflect the heterogeneity of the Swedish Building stock. An important achievement is that the results visualise the relationship, not detectable before, between energy use, energy performance, year of construction and heritage classification within each of the selected building stocks. A specific result is that the energy-saving potential in the older building stock is insignificant in relation to the entire stock. The results contribute to an improved understanding of relationships both within and between the two historic building stocks, which is useful for developing differentiated energy renovation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings)
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Article
Wide-Area Heritage Projects in Lombardy: From a Mono-Sector to a Multi-Sector Approach
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4304-4317; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040237 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 760
Abstract
A public-private partnership (P3) and public-private-people partnership (P4) are amongst the institutional options available when it comes to funding cultural heritage management through the involvement of private players pertaining to the business or third sectors, respectively. In light of the growing relevance of [...] Read more.
A public-private partnership (P3) and public-private-people partnership (P4) are amongst the institutional options available when it comes to funding cultural heritage management through the involvement of private players pertaining to the business or third sectors, respectively. In light of the growing relevance of P4 operations as a means to improve heritage management, this paper aims at analyzing the initiatives developed by the Fondazione Cariplo banking foundation, which can be considered exemplary instances of P4. A total of two projects were selected, which go by the name of Distretti Culturali and AttivAree, respectively, and may serve as highly indicative examples of community involvement and multi-sector-oriented action. To conduct a truly realistic analysis and reliably measure the adequacy of the outcomes obtained, interviews with the parties involved were performed and direct participation in the projects was provided for. Considering, also, that funding has, so far, typically been aimed at interventions on individual buildings, the foundation has managed to develop some true cross-sector programs, and thus further refine the multi-sector approach most likely to prove useful in future community-centered initiatives. Herein, some of the features are isolated; those which we deem most suitable for adoption in the planning of future cultural heritage-related projects. Full article
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Article
On the Thermal Resilience of Venetian Open Spaces
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4286-4303; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040236 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Venice is known for its urban heritage fragility. The city is experiencing an increase in yearly average temperatures affecting outdoor–indoor comfort and average energy expenditure. Owing to existing literature demonstrating how local microclimate depends on urban density, form, and materials, this investigation studies [...] Read more.
Venice is known for its urban heritage fragility. The city is experiencing an increase in yearly average temperatures affecting outdoor–indoor comfort and average energy expenditure. Owing to existing literature demonstrating how local microclimate depends on urban density, form, and materials, this investigation studies the influence of the changing local climate on Venetian vernacular open spaces, known as Campi. Based on the comparison of contemporary weather and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) future predictions for the 2050 scenario, this investigation highlights how Campi’s open spaces and the surrounding buildings, canals, and green public areas contribute to building climate resilience. By employing advanced modelling, the study analyses microclimate and outdoor comfort with respect to users’ perception of Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). The ENVI-met tool is used to simulate the thermal behaviour of two representative Campi: SS. Giovanni e Paolo and S. Polo. Despite significant temperature growths, Venetian urban fabric characteristics seem to play a crucial role in strengthening the climate resilience of open spaces, thus preserving outdoor comfort quality in a warmer future. The analysis shows how the historical matrix of open spaces and buildings cooperate. Thus, this study offers a contribution to how built heritage should be considered in light of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings)
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Article
Diagnostics and Monitoring to Preserve a Hypogeum Site: The Case of the Mithraeum of Marino Laziale (Rome)
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4264-4285; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040235 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Conservation of hypogea and their accessibility by the visitors is a hard question, due to the interaction of different factors such as the intrinsic characteristics of the hypogeal environments and the presence of public. A particular case is represented by the Mithraeum of [...] Read more.
Conservation of hypogea and their accessibility by the visitors is a hard question, due to the interaction of different factors such as the intrinsic characteristics of the hypogeal environments and the presence of public. A particular case is represented by the Mithraeum of Marino Laziale, located a few kilometers away from Rome and accidentally discovered in the 1960s. The uniqueness of the discovery was the presence of a well-preserved painting of the Mithraic scene (II century A.D.) probably due to the oblivion of the place of worship over the centuries as well as the isolation from the outdoor environment. Unfortunately, despite a recent complete restoration and recovery of the archaeological area, which ended in 2015, the area was never open to the visitors and only two years after completing the works it was no longer safe to use. Hence, the need for a new planning of interventions starting from the deep knowledge of this cultural heritage and from the analysis of past incorrect actions to arrive at the opening—without any risk for the archaeological findings and visitors—and management of this site, never exposed to the public. Therefore, since 2018 a diagnostic campaign and microclimate monitoring have been started. The data collected during the two years of investigations have been fundamental to assess the conservation state of the hypogeal environment and the potential risks for the preservation of the three paintings (the Mithraic scene and two dadophores). Long-term monitoring of indoor environmental conditions assumes the role of an essential tool for the planning of preventive conservation strategies but also for the control of the site after its opening to the visitors. Furthermore, the characterization of the microclimate is non-invasive, sufficiently economical and accurate. In this paper, the characterization of surfaces in the Mithraic gallery through optical microscopy, UV fluorescence/imaging techniques, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD and the microclimatic parameters variation in the presence or absence of visitors are used to define the strategies for the opening and fruition of the Mithraeum. The strategies for the sustainable fruition of this unique archaeological site have been defined through a conservation protocol approved by the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and necessary for the site managers and curators of the Municipality of Marino Laziale to finally support its opening. Full article
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Article
Alutiiq Fish Skin Traditions: Connecting Communities in the COVID-19 Era
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4249-4263; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040234 - 06 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
The Alutiiq, Indigenous inhabitants of the coastal regions of Southwest Alaska, created garments made from fish skins, especially salmon, expertly sewn by women from Kodiak Island. Traditionally, Alutiiq education focused on acquiring survival skills: how to navigate the seas in all weathers, hunting, [...] Read more.
The Alutiiq, Indigenous inhabitants of the coastal regions of Southwest Alaska, created garments made from fish skins, especially salmon, expertly sewn by women from Kodiak Island. Traditionally, Alutiiq education focused on acquiring survival skills: how to navigate the seas in all weathers, hunting, fishing and tanning animal skins. Today, many Alutiiq people continue to provide for their families through subsistence fishing, honouring the ocean and navigating difficult times by listening to their collective wisdom. This paper describes the series of fish skin tanning workshops taught by June Pardue, an Alutiiq and Inupiaq artist from Kodiak Island that connected participants in Alaska Native communities during the COVID-19 isolation months. Through an online platform, June passed on expert knowledge of the endangered Arctic fish skin craft, assisting participants in coping with the pandemic crisis by tapping into their knowledge of the natural world, cultural resourcefulness, storytelling abilities and creative skills. Brought into the digital age, the fish skin workshops strengthened connections among Alutiiq and Alaskan craftspeople while establishing new connections with an expanded network of fashion designers, museum curators, conservators and tanners. Finally, the paper highlights how fish skin Indigenous practices address the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) regarding poverty, health and well-being, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, decent work and economic growth, social inequality, responsible consumption and production, climate change and maritime issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage as a Driver of the Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
Human Impact on Antler Conformation in Western Red Deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758)
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4233-4248; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040233 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 989
Abstract
A stray find of red deer antler from Sweden with the braincase was collected due to an apparently pathological deformation, the strongly retarded right antler. Measurements of the complete left antler inspired the analysis of general antler conformation in order to place this [...] Read more.
A stray find of red deer antler from Sweden with the braincase was collected due to an apparently pathological deformation, the strongly retarded right antler. Measurements of the complete left antler inspired the analysis of general antler conformation in order to place this archaeological specimen in a zoological context. This stray find and another prehistoric antler from Sweden as well as three complete prehistoric antlers from Hungary were metrically compared using measurements of over 17,000 trophies of extant red deer from Hungary. The results confirmed that the stray specimen from Sweden and prehistoric antlers from Hungary were similar in that they were stouter (smaller length measurements but greater circumferences) than their 20th century counterparts. Most of their measurements fell within the ±1 standard deviation interval of the means of extant trophies. The pathological lesion on the studied stray specimen directed attention to the role of human selection. Twentieth century record trophies show a significant increase in antler weight and “quality” as defined in the international trophy grading system. While these morphometric observations cannot be taken as a proxy for absolute dating or precise contextual identification for the stray find central to this study, its size and apparent lack of consistent human selection (pathological deformation, “archaic” antler proportions) point to possibly early origins, prior to major human influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zooarchaeology)
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Article
Mural Art Conservation Data Recording (SCIMA): The Graart Project
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4222-4232; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040232 - 04 Nov 2021
Viewed by 813
Abstract
Urban art in Italy is experiencing a remarkable evolution that has quickly modified urban spaces, especially in suburban areas. More and more often, we are witnessing the birth of works of art that have been commissioned by festivals, or institutional projects next to [...] Read more.
Urban art in Italy is experiencing a remarkable evolution that has quickly modified urban spaces, especially in suburban areas. More and more often, we are witnessing the birth of works of art that have been commissioned by festivals, or institutional projects next to spontaneous street artworks. These large projects, often defined as “urban renewal”, when carried out through a well-thought-out design, can become real open-air museums. The proliferation of these creative and legal projects has raised the question of whether street art should be preserved over time. The conservation, or even restoration, of urban art has recently become a controversial topic in scientific debate. In Italy, different associations of researchers are developing new methodologies for preserving street artworks; everyone agrees on the importance of the implementation of good conservation practices. The documentation of the existing condition of a work of art is the first step to start taking care of it. In this article we introduce SCIMA (Scheda Conservativa Informatizzata Mural Art), a digitizing conservation data report that is specific for mural art. The aim of SCIMA was to define the existing condition of the work of art, starting with the socio-cultural and artistic importance, to describe its environment, to define the materials used and its deterioration problems, to suggest conservative interventions. It was born as an analogical tool (sheet) but we are working on digitizing it (database) in order to maintain access to the data recorded for the future. Full article
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Article
Jazz Colors: Pigment Identification in the Gouaches Used by Henri Matisse
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4205-4221; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040231 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Jazz, the illustrated book by Henri Matisse, is a testament to the vitality of the artist in the last decade of his career. The book consists of twenty illustrations reproduced in 370 copies using a stencil-based printing technique and the same Linel [...] Read more.
Jazz, the illustrated book by Henri Matisse, is a testament to the vitality of the artist in the last decade of his career. The book consists of twenty illustrations reproduced in 370 copies using a stencil-based printing technique and the same Linel gouaches the artist had used for the original maquettes. This study reports on the comprehensive analysis carried out to identify the pigments in the gouaches used in Jazz by transmitted and reflectance infrared, Raman, SERS, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies, and describes the lightfastness of these gouaches as evaluated by microfaedometry. This study also highlights the necessity of a multi-analytical approach for comprehensive identification of artist materials and investigates the suitability of portable and non-invasive techniques. The results were consistent across the three copies investigated: a portfolio in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York and two books in the collection of the Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris. In total, 39 distinct colors were characterized, with the magenta, pinks, and blues being the most fugitive. Full article
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