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Article

Materials and Techniques of Selected Mural Paintings on the “Gothic Road” around 1400 (Slovakia)

1
Department of Art History, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Department of Sculpture and Art History, Faculty of Arts, University of Seville, 41003 Seville, Spain
3
Chemical-Technological Department, Monuments Board of RS, 81406 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nikolaos Laskaris, Georgios Mastrotheodoros, Maria Kaparou and Artemios Oikonomou
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4105-4125; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040226
Received: 22 August 2021 / Revised: 17 September 2021 / Accepted: 28 October 2021 / Published: 31 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry for Cultural Heritage)
Mural cycles in the churches of Plešivec, Čhyžné, and Štitnik from around 1400 were studied from the material and technical point of view. Stylistically, they show a mixture of Northern and Southern European stylistic currents, which were characteristic for the time around 1400 in East Central Europe. After a precise study in situ, an analysis of extracted samples was conducted by OM, SEM-EDX, and XRD. The plasters used for these murals were all made of lime and sand with different impurities; importantly, they different among each other in terms of their quality and stability. The pigments that were used in these murals were natural and organic: lime white, yellow and red earths, malachite, and azurite were identified, and some pigment degradations were also pointed out. The principal technique is a fresco, but all murals were finished a secco in different proportions, using an organic binder. Painting procedures and modelling were also studied, revealing a strong difference among all three cycles. The painting technique does not always correspond to the style. View Full-Text
Keywords: medieval mural paintings; plasters; pigments; painting techniques; material analysis medieval mural paintings; plasters; pigments; painting techniques; material analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kriznar, A.; Želinská, J. Materials and Techniques of Selected Mural Paintings on the “Gothic Road” around 1400 (Slovakia). Heritage 2021, 4, 4105-4125. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040226

AMA Style

Kriznar A, Želinská J. Materials and Techniques of Selected Mural Paintings on the “Gothic Road” around 1400 (Slovakia). Heritage. 2021; 4(4):4105-4125. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040226

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kriznar, Anabelle, and Jana Želinská. 2021. "Materials and Techniques of Selected Mural Paintings on the “Gothic Road” around 1400 (Slovakia)" Heritage 4, no. 4: 4105-4125. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040226

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