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Fractal Fract., Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 33 articles

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13 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Inverse Problem for a Partial Differential Equation with Gerasimov–Caputo-Type Operator and Degeneration
by Tursun K. Yuldashev and Bakhtiyar J. Kadirkulov
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020058 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2345
Abstract
In the three-dimensional open rectangular domain, the problem of the identification of the redefinition function for a partial differential equation with Gerasimov–Caputo-type fractional operator, degeneration, and integral form condition is considered in the case of the 0<α1 order. A [...] Read more.
In the three-dimensional open rectangular domain, the problem of the identification of the redefinition function for a partial differential equation with Gerasimov–Caputo-type fractional operator, degeneration, and integral form condition is considered in the case of the 0<α1 order. A positive parameter is present in the mixed derivatives. The solution of this fractional differential equation is studied in the class of regular functions. The Fourier series method is used, and a countable system of ordinary fractional differential equations with degeneration is obtained. The presentation for the redefinition function is obtained using a given additional condition. Using the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality and the Bessel inequality, the absolute and uniform convergence of the obtained Fourier series is proven. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematical Physics)
10 pages, 786 KiB  
Article
Solutions of Bernoulli Equations in the Fractional Setting
by Mirko D’Ovidio, Anna Chiara Lai and Paola Loreti
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020057 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1963
Abstract
We present a general series representation formula for the local solution of the Bernoulli equation with Caputo fractional derivatives. We then focus on a generalization of the fractional logistic equation and present some related numerical simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Behavior in Nature 2021)
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9 pages, 778 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation for the Treatment of Nonlinear Predator–Prey Equations by Using the Finite Element Optimization Method
by H. M. Srivastava and M. M. Khader
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020056 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
This article aims to introduce an efficient simulation to obtain the solution for a dynamical–biological system, which is called the Lotka–Volterra system, involving predator–prey equations. The finite element method (FEM) is employed to solve this problem. This technique is based mainly upon the [...] Read more.
This article aims to introduce an efficient simulation to obtain the solution for a dynamical–biological system, which is called the Lotka–Volterra system, involving predator–prey equations. The finite element method (FEM) is employed to solve this problem. This technique is based mainly upon the appropriate conversion of the proposed model to a system of algebraic equations. The resulting system is then constructed as a constrained optimization problem and optimized in order to get the unknown coefficients and, consequently, the solution itself. We call this combination of the two well-known methods the finite element optimization method (FEOM). We compare the obtained results with the solutions obtained by using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method (RK4 method). The residual error function is evaluated, which supports the efficiency and the accuracy of the presented procedure. From the given results, we can say that the presented procedure provides an easy and efficient tool to investigate the solution for such models as those investigated in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Integral Transforms: Theory and Applications)
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13 pages, 10519 KiB  
Article
On the Connectivity Measurement of the Fractal Julia Sets Generated from Polynomial Maps: A Novel Escape-Time Algorithm
by Yang Zhao, Shicun Zhao, Yi Zhang and Da Wang
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020055 - 13 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
In this paper, a novel escape-time algorithm is proposed to calculate the connectivity’s degree of Julia sets generated from polynomial maps. The proposed algorithm contains both quantitative analysis and visual display to measure the connectivity of Julia sets. For the quantitative part, a [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel escape-time algorithm is proposed to calculate the connectivity’s degree of Julia sets generated from polynomial maps. The proposed algorithm contains both quantitative analysis and visual display to measure the connectivity of Julia sets. For the quantitative part, a connectivity criterion method is designed by exploring the distribution rule of the connected regions, with an output value Co in the range of [0,1]. The smaller the Co value outputs, the better the connectivity is. For the visual part, we modify the classical escape-time algorithm by highlighting and separating the initial point of each connected area. Finally, the Julia set is drawn into different brightnesses according to different Co values. The darker the color, the better the connectivity of the Julia set. Numerical results are included to assess the efficiency of the algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Numerical and Computational Methods)
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12 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Some New Harmonically Convex Function Type Generalized Fractional Integral Inequalities
by Rana Safdar Ali, Aiman Mukheimer, Thabet Abdeljawad, Shahid Mubeen, Sabila Ali, Gauhar Rahman and Kottakkaran Sooppy Nisar
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020054 - 7 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2302
Abstract
In this article, we established a new version of generalized fractional Hadamard and Fejér–Hadamard type integral inequalities. A fractional integral operator (FIO) with a non-singular function (multi-index Bessel function) as its kernel and monotone increasing functions is utilized to obtain the new version [...] Read more.
In this article, we established a new version of generalized fractional Hadamard and Fejér–Hadamard type integral inequalities. A fractional integral operator (FIO) with a non-singular function (multi-index Bessel function) as its kernel and monotone increasing functions is utilized to obtain the new version of such fractional inequalities. Our derived results are a generalized form of several proven inequalities already existing in the literature. The proven inequalities are useful for studying the stability and control of corresponding fractional dynamic equations. Full article
20 pages, 587 KiB  
Article
Novel Expressions for the Derivatives of Sixth Kind Chebyshev Polynomials: Spectral Solution of the Non-Linear One-Dimensional Burgers’ Equation
by Waleed Mohamed Abd-Elhameed
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020053 - 6 Jun 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
This paper is concerned with establishing novel expressions that express the derivative of any order of the orthogonal polynomials, namely, Chebyshev polynomials of the sixth kind in terms of Chebyshev polynomials themselves. We will prove that these expressions involve certain terminating hypergeometric functions [...] Read more.
This paper is concerned with establishing novel expressions that express the derivative of any order of the orthogonal polynomials, namely, Chebyshev polynomials of the sixth kind in terms of Chebyshev polynomials themselves. We will prove that these expressions involve certain terminating hypergeometric functions of the type 4F3(1) that can be reduced in some specific cases. The derived expressions along with the linearization formula of Chebyshev polynomials of the sixth kind serve in obtaining a numerical solution of the non-linear one-dimensional Burgers’ equation based on the application of the spectral tau method. Convergence analysis of the proposed double shifted Chebyshev expansion of the sixth kind is investigated. Numerical results are displayed aiming to show the efficiency and applicability of the proposed algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Numerical and Computational Methods)
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11 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Study on the Existence of Solutions for a Class of Nonlinear Neutral Hadamard-Type Fractional Integro-Differential Equation with Infinite Delay
by Kaihong Zhao and Yue Ma
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020052 - 4 Jun 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
The existence of solutions for a class of nonlinear neutral Hadamard-type fractional integro-differential equations with infinite delay is researched in this paper. By constructing an appropriate normed space and utilizing the Banach contraction principle, Krasnoselskii’s fixed point theorem, we obtain some sufficient conditions [...] Read more.
The existence of solutions for a class of nonlinear neutral Hadamard-type fractional integro-differential equations with infinite delay is researched in this paper. By constructing an appropriate normed space and utilizing the Banach contraction principle, Krasnoselskii’s fixed point theorem, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions. Finally, we provide an example to illustrate the validity of our main results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section General Mathematics, Analysis)
11 pages, 556 KiB  
Article
Subdiffusive Reaction Model of Molecular Species in Liquid Layers: Fractional Reaction-Telegraph Approach
by Ashraf M. Tawfik and Mohamed Mokhtar Hefny
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020051 - 3 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
In recent years, different experimental works with molecular simulation techniques have been developed to study the transport of plasma-generated reactive species in liquid layers. Here, we improve the classical transport model that describes the molecular species movement in liquid layers via considering the [...] Read more.
In recent years, different experimental works with molecular simulation techniques have been developed to study the transport of plasma-generated reactive species in liquid layers. Here, we improve the classical transport model that describes the molecular species movement in liquid layers via considering the fractional reaction–telegraph equation. We have considered the fractional equation to describe a non-Brownian motion of molecular species in a liquid layer, which have different diffusivities. The analytical solution of the fractional reaction–telegraph equation, which is defined in terms of the Caputo fractional derivative, is obtained by using the Laplace–Fourier technique. The profiles of species density with the mean square displacement are discussed in each case for different values of the time-fractional order and relaxation time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Dynamics: Theory and Applications)
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16 pages, 910 KiB  
Article
Analytic Solution of the Langevin Differential Equations Dominated by a Multibrot Fractal Set
by Rabha W. Ibrahim and Dumitru Baleanu
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020050 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
We present an analytic solvability of a class of Langevin differential equations (LDEs) in the asset of geometric function theory. The analytic solutions of the LDEs are presented by utilizing a special kind of fractal function in a complex domain, linked with the [...] Read more.
We present an analytic solvability of a class of Langevin differential equations (LDEs) in the asset of geometric function theory. The analytic solutions of the LDEs are presented by utilizing a special kind of fractal function in a complex domain, linked with the subordination theory. The fractal functions are suggested for the multi-parametric coefficients type motorboat fractal set. We obtain different formulas of fractal analytic solutions of LDEs. Moreover, we determine the maximum value of the fractal coefficients to obtain the optimal solution. Through the subordination inequality, we determined the upper boundary determination of a class of fractal functions holding multibrot function ϑ(z)=1+3κz+z3. Full article
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14 pages, 2208 KiB  
Article
Fat Tail in the Phytoplankton Movement Patterns and Swimming Behavior: New Insights into the Prey-Predator Interactions
by Xi Xiao, Caicai Xu, Yan Yu, Junyu He, Ming Li and Carlo Cattani
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020049 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1919
Abstract
Phytoplankton movement patterns and swimming behavior are important and basic topics in aquatic biology. Heavy tail distribution exists in diverse taxa and shows theoretical advantages in environments. The fat tails in the movement patterns and swimming behavior of phytoplankton in response to the [...] Read more.
Phytoplankton movement patterns and swimming behavior are important and basic topics in aquatic biology. Heavy tail distribution exists in diverse taxa and shows theoretical advantages in environments. The fat tails in the movement patterns and swimming behavior of phytoplankton in response to the food supply were studied. The log-normal distribution was used for fitting the probability density values of the movement data of Oxyrrhis marina. Results showed that obvious fat tails exist in the movement patterns of O. marina without and with positive stimulations of food supply. The algal cells tended to show a more chaotic and disorderly movement, with shorter and neat steps after adding the food source. At the same time, the randomness of turning rate, path curvature and swimming speed increased in O. marina cells with food supply. Generally, the responses of phytoplankton movement were stronger when supplied with direct prey cells rather than the cell-free filtrate. The scale-free random movements are considered to benefit the adaption of the entire phytoplankton population to varied environmental conditions. Inferentially, the movement pattern of O. marina should also have the characteristics of long-range dependence, local self-similarity and a system of fractional order. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal Geometry in Geospatial Data Analysis)
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12 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Hadamard-Type Fractional Heat Equations and Ultra-Slow Diffusions
by Alessandro De Gregorio and Roberto Garra
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020048 - 23 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
In this paper, we study diffusion equations involving Hadamard-type time-fractional derivatives related to ultra-slow random models. We start our analysis using the abstract fractional Cauchy problem, replacing the classical time derivative with the Hadamard operator. The stochastic meaning of the introduced abstract differential [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study diffusion equations involving Hadamard-type time-fractional derivatives related to ultra-slow random models. We start our analysis using the abstract fractional Cauchy problem, replacing the classical time derivative with the Hadamard operator. The stochastic meaning of the introduced abstract differential equation is provided, and the application to the particular case of the fractional heat equation is then discussed in detail. The ultra-slow behaviour emerges from the explicit form of the variance of the random process arising from our analysis. Finally, we obtain a particular solution for the nonlinear Hadamard-diffusive equation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional and Anomalous Diffusions on Regular and Irregular Domains)
34 pages, 3351 KiB  
Review
Structure, Fractality, Mechanics and Durability of Calcium Silicate Hydrates
by Shengwen Tang, Yang Wang, Zhicheng Geng, Xiaofei Xu, Wenzhi Yu, Hubao A and Jingtao Chen
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020047 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 6989
Abstract
Cement-based materials are widely utilized in infrastructure. The main product of hydrated products of cement-based materials is calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gels that are considered as the binding phase of cement paste. C-S-H gels in Portland cement paste account for 60–70% of hydrated [...] Read more.
Cement-based materials are widely utilized in infrastructure. The main product of hydrated products of cement-based materials is calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gels that are considered as the binding phase of cement paste. C-S-H gels in Portland cement paste account for 60–70% of hydrated products by volume, which has profound influence on the mechanical properties and durability of cement-based materials. The preparation method of C-S-H gels has been well documented, but the quality of the prepared C-S-H affects experimental results; therefore, this review studies the preparation method of C-S-H under different conditions and materials. The progress related to C-S-H microstructure is explored from the theoretical and computational point of view. The fractality of C-S-H is discussed. An evaluation of the mechanical properties of C-S-H has also been included in this review. Finally, there is a discussion of the durability of C-S-H, with special reference to the carbonization and chloride/sulfate attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal and Fractional in Cement-based Materials)
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11 pages, 4362 KiB  
Article
Design of Fractional-Order Lead Compensator for a Car Suspension System Based on Curve-Fitting Approximation
by Evisa Memlikai, Stavroula Kapoulea, Costas Psychalinos, Jerzy Baranowski, Waldemar Bauer, Andrzej Tutaj and Paweł Piątek
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020046 - 15 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
An alternative procedure for the implementation of fractional-order compensators is presented in this work. The employment of a curve-fitting-based approximation technique for the approximation of the compensator transfer function offers improved accuracy compared to the Oustaloup and Padé methods. As a design example, [...] Read more.
An alternative procedure for the implementation of fractional-order compensators is presented in this work. The employment of a curve-fitting-based approximation technique for the approximation of the compensator transfer function offers improved accuracy compared to the Oustaloup and Padé methods. As a design example, a lead compensator intended for usage in car suspension systems is realized. The open-loop and closed-loop behavior of the system is evaluated by post-layout simulation results obtained using the Cadence IC design suite and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) transistor models provided by the Austria Mikro Systeme 0.35 μm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process. The derived results verify the efficient performance of the introduced implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Calculus in Control and Modelling)
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22 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
On a Five-Parameter Mittag-Leffler Function and the Corresponding Bivariate Fractional Operators
by Mehmet Ali Özarslan and Arran Fernandez
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020045 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Several extensions of the classical Mittag-Leffler function, including multi-parameter and multivariate versions, have been used to define fractional integral and derivative operators. In this paper, we consider a function of one variable with five parameters, a special case of the Fox–Wright function. It [...] Read more.
Several extensions of the classical Mittag-Leffler function, including multi-parameter and multivariate versions, have been used to define fractional integral and derivative operators. In this paper, we consider a function of one variable with five parameters, a special case of the Fox–Wright function. It turns out that the most natural way to define a fractional integral based on this function requires considering it as a function of two variables. This gives rise to a model of bivariate fractional calculus, which is useful in understanding fractional differential equations involving mixed partial derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Calculus and Special Functions with Applications)
12 pages, 1096 KiB  
Article
Elastic Rough Surface Contact and the Root Mean Square Slope of Measured Surfaces over Multiple Scales
by Robert L. Jackson, Yang Xu, Swarna Saha and Kyle D. Schulze
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020044 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
This study investigates the predictions of the real contact area for perfectly elastic rough surfaces using a boundary element method (BEM). Sample surface measurements were used in the BEM to predict the real contact area as a function of load. The surfaces were [...] Read more.
This study investigates the predictions of the real contact area for perfectly elastic rough surfaces using a boundary element method (BEM). Sample surface measurements were used in the BEM to predict the real contact area as a function of load. The surfaces were normalized by the root-mean-square (RMS) slope to evaluate if contact area measurements would collapse onto one master curve. If so, this would confirm that the contact areas of manufactured, real measured surfaces are directly proportional to the root mean square slope and the applied load, which is predicted by fractal diffusion-based rough surface contact theory. The data predicts a complex response that deviates from this behavior. The variation in the RMS slope and the spectrum of the system related to the features in contact are further evaluated to illuminate why this property is seen in some types of surfaces and not others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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28 pages, 1616 KiB  
Article
Sinc Based Inverse Laplace Transforms, Mittag-Leffler Functions and Their Approximation for Fractional Calculus
by Gerd Baumann
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020043 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4032
Abstract
We shall discuss three methods of inverse Laplace transforms. A Sinc-Thiele approximation, a pure Sinc, and a Sinc-Gaussian based method. The two last Sinc related methods are exact methods of inverse Laplace transforms which allow us a numerical approximation using Sinc methods. The [...] Read more.
We shall discuss three methods of inverse Laplace transforms. A Sinc-Thiele approximation, a pure Sinc, and a Sinc-Gaussian based method. The two last Sinc related methods are exact methods of inverse Laplace transforms which allow us a numerical approximation using Sinc methods. The inverse Laplace transform converges exponentially and does not use Bromwich contours for computations. We apply the three methods to Mittag-Leffler functions incorporating one, two, and three parameters. The three parameter Mittag-Leffler function represents Prabhakar’s function. The exact Sinc methods are used to solve fractional differential equations of constant and variable differentiation order. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal Functions and Applications)
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15 pages, 447 KiB  
Article
Fractal Frames of Functions on the Rectangle
by María A. Navascués, Ram Mohapatra and Md. Nasim Akhtar
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020042 - 8 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
In this paper, we define fractal bases and fractal frames of L2(I×J), where I and J are real compact intervals, in order to approximate two-dimensional square-integrable maps whose domain is a rectangle, using the identification of [...] Read more.
In this paper, we define fractal bases and fractal frames of L2(I×J), where I and J are real compact intervals, in order to approximate two-dimensional square-integrable maps whose domain is a rectangle, using the identification of L2(I×J) with the tensor product space L2(I)L2(J). First, we recall the procedure of constructing a fractal perturbation of a continuous or integrable function. Then, we define fractal frames and bases of L2(I×J) composed of product of such fractal functions. We also obtain weaker families as Bessel, Riesz and Schauder sequences for the same space. Additionally, we study some properties of the tensor product of the fractal operators associated with the maps corresponding to each variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal Functions and Applications)
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21 pages, 1002 KiB  
Article
Continuity Result on the Order of a Nonlinear Fractional Pseudo-Parabolic Equation with Caputo Derivative
by Ho Duy Binh, Luc Nguyen Hoang, Dumitru Baleanu and Ho Thi Kim Van
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020041 - 5 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
In this paper, we consider a problem of continuity fractional-order for pseudo-parabolic equations with the fractional derivative of Caputo. Here, we investigate the stability of the problem with respect to derivative parameters and initial data. We also show that [...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider a problem of continuity fractional-order for pseudo-parabolic equations with the fractional derivative of Caputo. Here, we investigate the stability of the problem with respect to derivative parameters and initial data. We also show that uωuω in an appropriate sense as ωω, where ω is the fractional order. Moreover, to test the continuity fractional-order, we present several numerical examples to illustrate this property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Local Fractional Calculus)
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19 pages, 10861 KiB  
Article
Utilizing Fractals for Modeling and 3D Printing of Porous Structures
by AMM Sharif Ullah, Doriana Marilena D’Addona, Yusuke Seto, Shota Yonehara and Akihiko Kubo
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020040 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 12083
Abstract
Porous structures exhibiting randomly sized and distributed pores are required in biomedical applications (producing implants), materials science (developing cermet-based materials with desired properties), engineering applications (objects having controlled mass and energy transfer properties), and smart agriculture (devices for soilless cultivation). In most cases, [...] Read more.
Porous structures exhibiting randomly sized and distributed pores are required in biomedical applications (producing implants), materials science (developing cermet-based materials with desired properties), engineering applications (objects having controlled mass and energy transfer properties), and smart agriculture (devices for soilless cultivation). In most cases, a scaffold-based method is used to design porous structures. This approach fails to produce randomly sized and distributed pores, which is a pressing need as far as the aforementioned application areas are concerned. Thus, more effective porous structure design methods are required. This article presents how to utilize fractal geometry to model porous structures and then print them using 3D printing technology. A mathematical procedure was developed to create stochastic point clouds using the affine maps of a predefined Iterative Function Systems (IFS)-based fractal. In addition, a method is developed to modify a given IFS fractal-generated point cloud. The modification process controls the self-similarity levels of the fractal and ultimately results in a model of porous structure exhibiting randomly sized and distributed pores. The model can be transformed into a 3D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model using voxel-based modeling or other means for digitization and 3D printing. The efficacy of the proposed method is demonstrated by transforming the Sierpinski Carpet (an IFS-based fractal) into 3D-printed porous structures with randomly sized and distributed pores. Other IFS-based fractals than the Sierpinski Carpet can be used to model and fabricate porous structures effectively. This issue remains open for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal and Fractional in Cement-based Materials)
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10 pages, 1473 KiB  
Article
Fractals Parrondo’s Paradox in Alternated Superior Complex System
by Yi Zhang and Da Wang
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020039 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
This work focuses on a kind of fractals Parrondo’s paradoxial phenomenon “deiconnected+diconnected=connected” in an alternated superior complex system [...] Read more.
This work focuses on a kind of fractals Parrondo’s paradoxial phenomenon “deiconnected+diconnected=connected” in an alternated superior complex system zn+1=β(zn2+ci)+(1β)zn,i=1,2. On the one hand, the connectivity variation in superior Julia sets is explored by analyzing the connectivity loci. On the other hand, we graphically investigate the position relation between superior Mandelbrot set and the Connectivity Loci, which results in the conclusion that two totally disconnected superior Julia sets can originate a new, connected, superior Julia set. Moreover, we present some graphical examples obtained by the use of the escape-time algorithm and the derived criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Order Systems and Their Applications)
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16 pages, 3432 KiB  
Article
Generalized Cauchy Process: Difference Iterative Forecasting Model
by Jie Xing, Wanqing Song and Francesco Villecco
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020038 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
The contribution of this article is mainly to develop a new stochastic sequence forecasting model, which is also called the difference iterative forecasting model based on the Generalized Cauchy (GC) process. The GC process is a Long-Range Dependent (LRD) process described by two [...] Read more.
The contribution of this article is mainly to develop a new stochastic sequence forecasting model, which is also called the difference iterative forecasting model based on the Generalized Cauchy (GC) process. The GC process is a Long-Range Dependent (LRD) process described by two independent parameters: Hurst parameter H and fractal dimension D. Compared with the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) with a linear relationship between H and D, the GC process can more flexibly describe various LRD processes. Before building the forecasting model, this article demonstrates the GC process using H and D to describe the LRD and fractal properties of stochastic sequences, respectively. The GC process is taken as the diffusion term to establish a differential iterative forecasting model, where the incremental distribution of the GC process is obtained by statistics. The parameters of the forecasting model are estimated by the box dimension, the rescaled range, and the maximum likelihood methods. Finally, a real wind speed data set is used to verify the performance of the GC difference iterative forecasting model. Full article
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12 pages, 2800 KiB  
Article
Lipschitz Stability in Time for Riemann–Liouville Fractional Differential Equations
by Snezhana Hristova, Stepan Tersian and Radoslava Terzieva
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020037 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
A system of nonlinear fractional differential equations with the Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative is considered. Lipschitz stability in time for the studied equations is defined and studied. This stability is connected with the singularity of the Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative at the initial point. Two [...] Read more.
A system of nonlinear fractional differential equations with the Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative is considered. Lipschitz stability in time for the studied equations is defined and studied. This stability is connected with the singularity of the Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative at the initial point. Two types of derivatives of Lyapunov functions among the studied fractional equations are applied to obtain sufficient conditions for the defined stability property. Some examples illustrate the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Calculus and Its Application to Arbitrary Time Scales)
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19 pages, 1187 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Characterization of Relaxation, Creep, Dissipation, and Hysteresis by Fractional-Order Constitutive Models
by Jun-Sheng Duan, Di-Chen Hu and Yang-Quan Chen
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020036 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
We considered relaxation, creep, dissipation, and hysteresis resulting from a six-parameter fractional constitutive model and its particular cases. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor, as well as their characteristics based on the thermodynamic requirements, were investigated. It was proved that for [...] Read more.
We considered relaxation, creep, dissipation, and hysteresis resulting from a six-parameter fractional constitutive model and its particular cases. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor, as well as their characteristics based on the thermodynamic requirements, were investigated. It was proved that for the fractional Maxwell model, the storage modulus increases monotonically, while the loss modulus has symmetrical peaks for its curve against the logarithmic scale log(ω), and for the fractional Zener model, the storage modulus monotonically increases while the loss modulus and the loss factor have symmetrical peaks for their curves against the logarithmic scale log(ω). The peak values and corresponding stationary points were analytically given. The relaxation modulus and the creep compliance for the six-parameter fractional constitutive model were given in terms of the Mittag–Leffler functions. Finally, the stress–strain hysteresis loops were simulated by making use of the derived creep compliance for the fractional Zener model. These results show that the fractional constitutive models could characterize the relaxation, creep, dissipation, and hysteresis phenomena of viscoelastic bodies, and fractional orders α and β could be used to model real-world physical properties well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal Media and Fractional Viscoelasticity)
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3 pages, 212 KiB  
Editorial
New Challenges Arising in Engineering Problems with Fractional and Integer Order
by Haci Mehmet Baskonus, Luis Manuel Sánchez Ruiz and Armando Ciancio
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020035 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
Mathematical models have been frequently studied in recent decades in order to obtain the deeper properties of real-world problems [...] Full article
12 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Some New Results on F-Contractions in 0-Complete Partial Metric Spaces and 0-Complete Metric-Like Spaces
by Stojan Radenović, Nikola Mirkov and Ljiljana R. Paunović
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020034 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Within this manuscript we generalize the two recently obtained results of O. Popescu and G. Stan, regarding the F-contractions in complete, ordinary metric space to 0-complete partial metric space and 0-complete metric-like space. As Popescu and Stan we use less conditions than D. [...] Read more.
Within this manuscript we generalize the two recently obtained results of O. Popescu and G. Stan, regarding the F-contractions in complete, ordinary metric space to 0-complete partial metric space and 0-complete metric-like space. As Popescu and Stan we use less conditions than D. Wardovski did in his paper from 2012, and we introduce, with the help of one of our lemmas, a new method of proving the results in fixed point theory. Requiring that the function F only be strictly increasing, we obtain for consequence new families of contractive conditions that cannot be found in the existing literature. Note that our results generalize and complement many well-known results in the fixed point theory. Also, at the end of the paper, we have stated an application of our theoretical results for solving fractional differential equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section General Mathematics, Analysis)
17 pages, 2877 KiB  
Article
A New Approach for Dynamic Stochastic Fractal Search with Fuzzy Logic for Parameter Adaptation
by Marylu L. Lagunes, Oscar Castillo, Fevrier Valdez, Jose Soria and Patricia Melin
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020033 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2168
Abstract
Stochastic fractal search (SFS) is a novel method inspired by the process of stochastic growth in nature and the use of the fractal mathematical concept. Considering the chaotic stochastic diffusion property, an improved dynamic stochastic fractal search (DSFS) optimization algorithm is presented. The [...] Read more.
Stochastic fractal search (SFS) is a novel method inspired by the process of stochastic growth in nature and the use of the fractal mathematical concept. Considering the chaotic stochastic diffusion property, an improved dynamic stochastic fractal search (DSFS) optimization algorithm is presented. The DSFS algorithm was tested with benchmark functions, such as the multimodal, hybrid, and composite functions, to evaluate the performance of the algorithm with dynamic parameter adaptation with type-1 and type-2 fuzzy inference models. The main contribution of the article is the utilization of fuzzy logic in the adaptation of the diffusion parameter in a dynamic fashion. This parameter is in charge of creating new fractal particles, and the diversity and iteration are the input information used in the fuzzy system to control the values of diffusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Convergence and Dynamics of Iterative Methods: Chaos and Fractals)
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18 pages, 599 KiB  
Article
A Fractional SAIDR Model in the Frame of Atangana–Baleanu Derivative
by Esmehan Uçar, Sümeyra Uçar, Fırat Evirgen and Necati Özdemir
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020032 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
It is possible to produce mobile phone worms, which are computer viruses with the ability to command the running of cell phones by taking advantage of their flaws, to be transmitted from one device to the other with increasing numbers. In our day, [...] Read more.
It is possible to produce mobile phone worms, which are computer viruses with the ability to command the running of cell phones by taking advantage of their flaws, to be transmitted from one device to the other with increasing numbers. In our day, one of the services to gain currency for circulating these malignant worms is SMS. The distinctions of computers from mobile devices render the existing propagation models of computer worms unable to start operating instantaneously in the mobile network, and this is particularly valid for the SMS framework. The susceptible–affected–infectious–suspended–recovered model with a classical derivative (abbreviated as SAIDR) was coined by Xiao et al., (2017) in order to correctly estimate the spread of worms by means of SMS. This study is the first to implement an Atangana–Baleanu (AB) derivative in association with the fractional SAIDR model, depending upon the SAIDR model. The existence and uniqueness of the drinking model solutions together with the stability analysis are shown through the Banach fixed point theorem. The special solution of the model is investigated using the Laplace transformation and then we present a set of numeric graphics by varying the fractional-order θ with the intention of showing the effectiveness of the fractional derivative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Calculus and Special Functions with Applications)
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14 pages, 4337 KiB  
Article
Image Compression Using Fractal Functions
by Olga Svynchuk, Oleg Barabash, Joanna Nikodem, Roman Kochan and Oleksandr Laptiev
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020031 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2859
Abstract
The rapid growth of geographic information technologies in the field of processing and analysis of spatial data has led to a significant increase in the role of geographic information systems in various fields of human activity. However, solving complex problems requires the use [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of geographic information technologies in the field of processing and analysis of spatial data has led to a significant increase in the role of geographic information systems in various fields of human activity. However, solving complex problems requires the use of large amounts of spatial data, efficient storage of data on on-board recording media and their transmission via communication channels. This leads to the need to create new effective methods of compression and data transmission of remote sensing of the Earth. The possibility of using fractal functions for image processing, which were transmitted via the satellite radio channel of a spacecraft, is considered. The information obtained by such a system is presented in the form of aerospace images that need to be processed and analyzed in order to obtain information about the objects that are displayed. An algorithm for constructing image encoding–decoding using a class of continuous functions that depend on a finite set of parameters and have fractal properties is investigated. The mathematical model used in fractal image compression is called a system of iterative functions. The encoding process is time consuming because it performs a large number of transformations and mathematical calculations. However, due to this, a high degree of image compression is achieved. This class of functions has an interesting property—knowing the initial sets of numbers, we can easily calculate the value of the function, but when the values of the function are known, it is very difficult to return the initial set of values, because there are a huge number of such combinations. Therefore, in order to de-encode the image, it is necessary to know fractal codes that will help to restore the raster image. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal Geometry in Geospatial Data Analysis)
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21 pages, 358 KiB  
Article
Approximate Controllability of Fully Nonlocal Stochastic Delay Control Problems Driven by Hybrid Noises
by Lixu Yan and Yongqiang Fu
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020030 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
In this paper, a class of time-space fractional stochastic delay control problems with fractional noises and Poisson jumps in a bounded domain is considered. The proper function spaces and assumptions are proposed to discuss the existence of mild solutions. In particular, approximate strategy [...] Read more.
In this paper, a class of time-space fractional stochastic delay control problems with fractional noises and Poisson jumps in a bounded domain is considered. The proper function spaces and assumptions are proposed to discuss the existence of mild solutions. In particular, approximate strategy is used to obtain the existence of mild solutions for the problem with linear fractional noises; fixed point theorem is used to achieve the existence of mild solutions for the problem with nonlinear fractional noises. Finally, the approximate controllability of the problems with linear and nonlinear fractional noises is proved by the property of mild solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional and Anomalous Diffusions on Regular and Irregular Domains)
23 pages, 7169 KiB  
Article
Optimal State Control of Fractional Order Differential Systems: The Infinite State Approach
by Jean-Claude Trigeassou and Nezha Maamri
Fractal Fract. 2021, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract5020029 - 5 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Optimal control of fractional order systems is a long established domain of fractional calculus. Nevertheless, it relies on equations expressed in terms of pseudo-state variables which raise fundamental questions. So in order remedy these problems, the authors propose in this paper a new [...] Read more.
Optimal control of fractional order systems is a long established domain of fractional calculus. Nevertheless, it relies on equations expressed in terms of pseudo-state variables which raise fundamental questions. So in order remedy these problems, the authors propose in this paper a new and original approach to fractional optimal control based on a frequency distributed representation of fractional differential equations called the infinite state approach, associated with an original formulation of fractional energy, which is intended to really control the internal system state. In the first step, the fractional calculus of variations is revisited to express appropriate Euler Lagrange equations. Then, the quadratic optimal control of fractional linear systems is formulated. Thanks to a frequency discretization technique, the previous theoretical equations are converted into an equivalent large dimension integer order system which permits the implementation of a feasible optimal solution. A numerical example illustrates the validity of this new approach. Full article
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