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Infrastructures, Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Road maintenance is a key aspect of road safety. Traffic signs are an important part of the road network, providing information that enhances safety and driver awareness. This paper presents a method for the recognition and geolocation of vertical traffic signs based on artificial intelligence and the use of a low-cost mobile mapping system. The approach developed includes three steps: First, traffic signs are detected and recognized from imagery using a DL architecture with YOLOV3 and ResNet-152. Next, LiDAR point clouds are used to an accurate geolocation. Finally, a WebGIS viewer has been developed based on Potree architecture to visualize the results. The method has been validated on a road in Avila (Spain), demonstrating that the proposed method obtains accurate and reliable results. View this paper
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Article
Role of Sugarcane Juice as a Natural Admixture on Setting Time and Hardened Properties of Cementitious Materials
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100145 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Admixtures are an integral part of modern cementitious materials, as they significantly enhance the rheological, mechanical, and durability properties of the material. Though manufactured admixtures are mainly used in concrete production, they are expensive. Therefore, this research investigated the effect of sugarcane juice [...] Read more.
Admixtures are an integral part of modern cementitious materials, as they significantly enhance the rheological, mechanical, and durability properties of the material. Though manufactured admixtures are mainly used in concrete production, they are expensive. Therefore, this research investigated the effect of sugarcane juice (SCJ), as a natural admixture, on the properties of concrete. Various percentages of SCJs were used to investigate the initial and final setting time, workability, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength of concrete. Furthermore, the effect of different cement-sand ratios (c/s) and water-cement ratios (w/c) on the setting time of different cement mortar mixes was studied. Experimental results have shown that the setting time measured by the Vicat’s apparatus reduces significantly, up to a certain percentage of SCJ in the mortar mixes. Setting time is also reduced as the c/s and w/c ratios are reduced in the mortar mix. From the results, it was found that, based on the c/s ratio, with the addition of 20% SCJ in the mix, the initial setting time of mortar can be reduced to 10% from 79%. In the case of mechanical strength, compared to the control mix (0% SCJ), more than 29% higher compressive strength in concrete was achieved by adding 10% SCJ to the mix. For the splitting strength, this increment was more than 4%. The ANOVA analysis also proved that the higher percentages of SCJ produced a compressive strength that was not statistically different from the control concrete mix. Finally, the research outcome showed that the dosages of SCJ can greatly alter the setting time and mechanical strength of cementitious materials. Full article
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Article
Seepage and Groundwater Numerical Modelling for Managing Waterlogging in the Vicinity of the Trimmu–Sidhnai Link Canal
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100144 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 515
Abstract
The present study focused on the development and application of two computer numerical models, namely, a seepage model developed using SEEP/W software and a groundwater model developed using Visual MODFLOW software. The seepage model was applied to a 38 km length of the [...] Read more.
The present study focused on the development and application of two computer numerical models, namely, a seepage model developed using SEEP/W software and a groundwater model developed using Visual MODFLOW software. The seepage model was applied to a 38 km length of the tail reach of the Trimmu–Sidhnai (T-S) link canal passing through a severely waterlogged area of 32,000 ha, with a water table within 0–1.5 m from the ground surface; this was to quantify the canal seepage under the present condition (without any intervention) and with the interventions of a concrete lining of the complete prism of the T-S link canal and concrete side protection of the T-S link canal, with the canal bed unlined. The groundwater model evaluated the effectiveness of three waterlogging management interventions, which included: (i) the rehabilitation of the 43 existing drainage tube wells, (ii) the rehabilitation of the existing surface drains, and (iii) a combination of the rehabilitation of the 43 existing drainage tube wells and the rehabilitation of the existing surface drains. The seepage modeling revealed that the concrete lining intervention can reduce 50% of the seepage of the T-S link canal, whereas the concrete side protection intervention can reduce only 21% of the canal seepage. The groundwater modeling revealed that the waterlogging management intervention of the rehabilitation of the 43 drainage tube wells and surface drains can lower the groundwater level from 139.2 to 138.3 m (0.9 m drop), resulting in the mitigation of waterlogging in 45% (14,400 ha) of the severely waterlogged area. The present study recommends that complete concrete lining of the T-S link canal has a huge potential to reduce seepage from the canal, and the combination of the rehabilitation of the 43 drainage tube wells and surface drains also offers a great potential for controlling waterlogging. This intervention can also be considered to mitigate waterlogging from the severely waterlogged area. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the concrete lining of the T-S link canal, the rehabilitation of the 43 existing drainage tube wells, and the rehabilitation of the existing surface drains need to be performed for decision-making and selection of the most cost-effective intervention for implementation. A study needs to be conducted for the development and evaluation of economical and socio-technically feasible and acceptable preventive waterlogging management interventions, including the improved management of irrigation systems, improved irrigation management practices at the farm, improved conjunctive management of surface and groundwater, and improved management of drainage systems at the primary, secondary, and tertiary canal command levels. Full article
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Article
A Multidimensional Analysis of Factors Impacting Mobility of Open-Access Multilane Highways
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100143 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Open-access multilane highways have a significant share in the highway network of Pakistan and other developing countries in Asia. These highways have high access density, design inconsistency, and other operational characteristics that differentiate them from partially controlled-access multilane highways. This study identified significant [...] Read more.
Open-access multilane highways have a significant share in the highway network of Pakistan and other developing countries in Asia. These highways have high access density, design inconsistency, and other operational characteristics that differentiate them from partially controlled-access multilane highways. This study identified significant factors affecting the mobility of open-access highways based on road users’ perceptions as well as field observations. An interview-based questionnaire survey from local respondents and an in-service road survey formed the database for the present study. Questionnaire survey results showed that heavy traffic was the most critical mobility influencing factor on open-access multilane highways, followed by road width and condition, whereas the result of multilinear regression revealed that the most significant variable was access density, followed by the flow and pedestrian crossings. However, it was concluded that controlling access density, preventing pedestrian crossings, and improving pavement condition will improve the mobility of open-access multilane highways. Full article
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Article
Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction of a High-Rise Building Resting over a Finned Pile Mat
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100142 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 579
Abstract
High-rise building safety is generally supported by pile-mat systems. They must be sturdy enough to withstand potential lateral loads brought on by earthquakes, wind, dredging, and machine vibrations, in addition to increased axial loads. An innovative piled-mat foundation system is required to deal [...] Read more.
High-rise building safety is generally supported by pile-mat systems. They must be sturdy enough to withstand potential lateral loads brought on by earthquakes, wind, dredging, and machine vibrations, in addition to increased axial loads. An innovative piled-mat foundation system is required to deal with these impacts because standard pile foundation systems only have lateral capacities that are 10% of their axial capacities. This study aims to reduce the damage caused by seismic impacts on high-rise buildings using shear walls supported by piled mats, thereby minimizing vibrations within the structure. Compared with conventional pile systems, the finned-pile foundation is a proven method that can withstand a 65% to 80% higher lateral load; hence, a series of SSI analyses were performed on a 25-story high-rise building, with the shear wall resting on a finned-pile mat (FP-Mat), under a far-field earthquake excitation, using ABAQUS software. The seismic responses were studied by performing a time–history analysis on the FP-Mat, with varying fin-lengths (Lf) of 0.2Lp, 0.4Lp, 0.6Lp, and 0.8Lp, which was compared with an analysis of a conventional piled-mat (RP-Mat). The seismic responses for RP-Mat and FP-Mats were studied with peak-acceleration, maximum horizontal displacement, and inter-story drifts acting as the damage parameters. The provision of FP-Mats significantly reduced the vibrations and seismic effects on the building, and as the fin-length increased, the vibrations and seismic effects reduced further. The drifting bound was also reduced as the fin-length increased. The optimum fin-length for FP-Mats is suggested to be 0.6Lp in terms of seismic performance and construction efficiency. This study helps one understand the seismic behaviors of high-rise buildings resting on finned pile mats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering)
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Article
A Pre-Process Enhanced Digital Image Correlation Approach for Smart Structure Monitoring
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100141 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 602
Abstract
This research provides a practical guideline for Digital Image Correlation (DIC) data variations minimization in structural engineering through simple image processing techniques. The main objective of this research is to investigate the Pixel Averaging (P.A.) effect on the differential strain Diff(εx) [...] Read more.
This research provides a practical guideline for Digital Image Correlation (DIC) data variations minimization in structural engineering through simple image processing techniques. The main objective of this research is to investigate the Pixel Averaging (P.A.) effect on the differential strain Diff(εx) variations. Three concrete arches were tested with three-point bending using the DIC technique for strain measurements. The measured strains are obtained through two virtual horizontal extensometers in the middle of each arch. The Diff(εx) was selected to avoid other 2D-DIC issues, such as the sample-camera out-of-plane movement. Three image cases, namely, one, ten, and twenty averaged images, were used for DIC analysis of each arch. The conditions of each image case are assessed by computing the Diff(εx) variance and the linear least square criterion (R2) between the two extensometers. The second objective is to examine the speckles’ dilation effects on the speckle pattern density and surface component quality utilizing the Image Erode (I.E.) technique. The (P.A.) technique provided consistent differential strain Diff(εx) values with a variance reduction of up to (90%) when averaged images were used. The (R2) has considerably increased (from 0.46, 0.66, 0.91 to 0.90, 0.96, 0.99), respectively, for the three samples. Moreover, the (I.E.) technique provided qualitatively denser speckles with a highly consistent DIC surface component. Full article
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Article
Rational Organization of Urban Parking Using Microsimulation
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100140 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Urbanization, which causes the need for population mobility, leads to an increase in motorization and related problems: the organization of parking spaces in cities, both near work places and recreational spaces, and not far from residential locations. This has a number of consequences. [...] Read more.
Urbanization, which causes the need for population mobility, leads to an increase in motorization and related problems: the organization of parking spaces in cities, both near work places and recreational spaces, and not far from residential locations. This has a number of consequences. Therefore, the occupation of parking spaces near shopping centers and sports and recreation facilities, intended only for customers of these organizations, makes it difficult for direct customers to access services. This forces potential customers to look for a parking space in adjacent areas, often far from the target location. At the same time, the search for a parking space is stretched over time, negatively affecting the environment in the form of emissions and noise. On the other hand, there is a risk of losing a client. In the course of the study, we have analyzed the state of the problem and the directions of research on parking management in cities, and then we have studied the possibilities of using simulation models to find rational options for the organization of access to parking spaces and further using such models in decision support systems (DSS) as an intellectual core. The literature review showed that this is the most adequate option for an intelligent city parking space management system. At the same time, the environmental factor must also be taken into account. Research methods are based on field studies of traffic flows and emissions near parking places, and mathematical and simulation modeling. The proposed system will allow the evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed changes in the organization of access to parking spaces, and, in the future, when implementing the obtained optimal solution, in practice, provide customers with a guaranteed parking space and reduce traffic and emissions. The introduction of such a system guarantees its quick payback, which is associated with the efficiency of use, as well as with the additional effects obtained from its implementation (improving the road situation, reducing vehicle emissions, solving social problems of the population, etc.), which is especially important for medium and small cities with limited budgets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Mobility)
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Article
Dynamic Response Identification of a Triple-Single Bailey Bridge Based on Vehicle Traffic-Induced Vibration Analysis
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100139 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Even though prefabricated steel Bailey bridges have been used for more than 80 years, limited studies of their structural features have been conducted, most of which do not consider their response in operational conditions. This study aimed at determining the modal parameters of [...] Read more.
Even though prefabricated steel Bailey bridges have been used for more than 80 years, limited studies of their structural features have been conducted, most of which do not consider their response in operational conditions. This study aimed at determining the modal parameters of a 30.48 m length Triple-Single (TS) Bailey bridge based on traffic-induced vibrations and comparing them with numerical results. Low-cost improvised accelerometers recorded and logged the actual response time histories, while a three-dimensional (3D) numerical model was developed to carry out the relevant dynamic analyses. The identification of modal parameters was based on the Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) process and the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) method. Numerical analysis results are in accordance with the operational dynamic response of the Triple -Single Bailey bridge, confirming that the numerical model can effectively be used for extended dynamic analysis. In addition, the analysis of raw time histories through the OMA process indicates that the response is affected by the connections’ condition, in particular, the eventual looseness of bolts and pins. At least five eigenfrequencies were estimated and matched with relevant mode shapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering)
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Article
Seismic Performance Analysis of the Elevated RC Tanks under Strong Far- and Near-Fault Ground Motions Considering Fluid–Structure Interaction
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100138 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 520
Abstract
The elevated reinforced concrete tanks assessed in the current work were the subject of a nonlinear sloshing analysis resulting from fluid–container interactions. The primary response quantity of interest was the height of free surface sloshing. To achieve this aim, the effect of the [...] Read more.
The elevated reinforced concrete tanks assessed in the current work were the subject of a nonlinear sloshing analysis resulting from fluid–container interactions. The primary response quantity of interest was the height of free surface sloshing. To achieve this aim, the effect of the liquid contents on the seismic behavior of tanks subjected to various sets of far- and near-fault ground motions were measured. The variables considered in this study included bidirectional loading, the earthquake’s frequency content, water sloshing, and the three-dimensional geometry. The primary goal of this work was to analyze these crucial parameters through a parametric analysis using a finite element method considering the influence of nonlinear fluid–structure interactions under the influence of different ground motions. By contrasting the numerical results obtained by previous studies and those of the current investigation, the applicability of the current simulation in seismic analyses of the elevated reinforced concrete tanks was then examined, and significant conclusions were formed. The findings showed that the nonlinearity of sloshing may significantly affect the seismic performance of the liquid–container interactions and that failing to properly account for it may pose a severe threat to these structures’ ability to perform satisfactorily for a particular class of tanks, particularly under the influence of near-fault events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering)
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Review
(AI) in Infrastructure Projects—Gap Study
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100137 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Infrastructure projects are usually complicated, expensive, long-term mega projects; accordingly, they are the type of projects that most need optimization in the design, construction and operation stages. A great deal of earlier research was carried out to optimize the performance of infrastructure projects [...] Read more.
Infrastructure projects are usually complicated, expensive, long-term mega projects; accordingly, they are the type of projects that most need optimization in the design, construction and operation stages. A great deal of earlier research was carried out to optimize the performance of infrastructure projects using traditional management techniques. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques were implemented in infrastructure projects to improve their performance and efficiency due to their ability to deal with fuzzy, incomplete, inaccurate and distorted data. The aim of this research is to collect, classify, analyze and review all of the available previous research related to implementing AI techniques in infrastructure projects to figure out the gaps in the previous studies and the recent trends in this research area. A total of 159 studies were collected since the beginning of the 1990s until the end of 2021. This database was classified based on publishing date, infrastructure subject and the used AI technique. The results of this study show that implementing AI techniques in infrastructure projects is rapidly increasing. They also indicate that transportation is the first and the most AI-using project and that both artificial neural networks (ANN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are the most implemented techniques in infrastructure projects. Finally, the study presented some opportunities for farther research, especially in natural gas projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence in Infrastructure Geotechnics)
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Article
A Bayesian Pipe Failure Prediction for Optimizing Pipe Renewal Time in Water Distribution Networks
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100136 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 662
Abstract
The sustainable management of the water supply system requires methodologies to monitor, repair, or replace the aging infrastructure, but more importantly, it must be able to assess the condition of the networks and predict their behavior over time. Among other infrastructure systems, the [...] Read more.
The sustainable management of the water supply system requires methodologies to monitor, repair, or replace the aging infrastructure, but more importantly, it must be able to assess the condition of the networks and predict their behavior over time. Among other infrastructure systems, the water distribution network is one of the essential civil infrastructure systems; therefore, the effective maintenance and renewal of the infrastructure’s physical assets are essential. This article aims to determine pipe failure prediction to optimize pipe renewal time. This research methodology investigates the most appropriate parameters for predicting pipe failure in the optimization. In particular, the non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) with the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is presented for Bayesian inference, while maximum likelihood (ML) is applied for frequentist inference as a comparison method. It is concluded that the two estimations are relatively appropriate for predicting failures, but MCMC estimation is closer to the total observed data. Based on life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, the MCMC estimation generates flatter LCC curves and lower LCC values than the ML estimation, which affects the decision making of optimum pipe renewal in water distribution networks. Full article
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Article
Fatigue Performance Analysis of an Existing Orthotropic Steel Deck (OSD) Bridge
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100135 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Orthotropic steel deck (OSD) bridges are lightweight constructions which are convenient, especially for the achievement of long spans. Conversely, due to the stress concentration in correspondence to the numerous and unavoidable welded construction details, this bridge typology is prone to fatigue cracking under [...] Read more.
Orthotropic steel deck (OSD) bridges are lightweight constructions which are convenient, especially for the achievement of long spans. Conversely, due to the stress concentration in correspondence to the numerous and unavoidable welded construction details, this bridge typology is prone to fatigue cracking under the effect of cyclic loading with high-stress amplitudes. Existing OSD bridges are particularly vulnerable to fatigue damage accumulation because of the dated standards adopted at the time of their design and the fact that heavy lorries have increased in travel frequency and weight. In the present paper, a case study of a northern Italian existing highway viaduct, built in the 1990s, is presented and analyzed. The fatigue damage accumulation was carried out according to the fatigue load models for road bridges reported in Eurocode EN 1991-2 and the assessment criteria indicated in EN 1993-1-9. The stress amplitude, in correspondence to the critical details of the bridge, is assessed by means of detailed finite-element calculations carried out with the software MIDAS GEN®. The amplitude and frequency of the travelling weights are assessed based on real traffic monitoring from the highway. Moreover, an automatic “rain-flow” algorithm is implemented, which is able to detect each nominal stress variation above the fatigue limit. In general, the bridge is not fully compliant with today’s standards when considering the entire duration of the prescribed life of the design. Countermeasures, like lane number reductions and lane reshaping, are critically analyzed since their effectiveness is questionable as far as the reduction in heavy traffic is concerned. Other interventions, like the replacement of the pavement in order to improve the stress redistribution upon the connection details below the wheel footprint, and continuous bridge inspections or monitoring, look more promising. Full article
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Article
A Creep Prediction Model for Concrete Made from Pit Sand with Low Silica Content
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100134 - 05 Oct 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Pit sand generally has a lower silica content than sand sourced from rivers or crushed stones. The effect of this sand on the creep of concrete has not yet been fully studied. Understanding the creep of concrete can help to estimate the behaviour [...] Read more.
Pit sand generally has a lower silica content than sand sourced from rivers or crushed stones. The effect of this sand on the creep of concrete has not yet been fully studied. Understanding the creep of concrete can help to estimate the behaviour of structures in the future. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the properties of pit sand with different chemical compositions and grain size distributions on the creep of concrete, and to develop a creep prediction model for concrete made of pit sand with low silica content. This investigation employed laboratory testing to obtain the physical and chemical properties of the sand, and its relationship to the shrinkage and creep of concrete. A concrete creep prediction model is proposed based on the modification of the B3 Model. Modifications were made by proposing a material constant obtained from short creep tests. The creep parameter obtained from the test can be better used to predict the creep of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infrastructures Materials and Constructions)
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Article
Automatic Recognition and Geolocation of Vertical Traffic Signs Based on Artificial Intelligence Using a Low-Cost Mapping Mobile System
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100133 - 04 Oct 2022
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Road maintenance is a key aspect of road safety and resilience. Traffic signs are an important asset of the road network, providing information that enhances safety and driver awareness. This paper presents a method for the recognition and geolocation of vertical traffic signs [...] Read more.
Road maintenance is a key aspect of road safety and resilience. Traffic signs are an important asset of the road network, providing information that enhances safety and driver awareness. This paper presents a method for the recognition and geolocation of vertical traffic signs based on artificial intelligence and the use of a low-cost mobile mapping system. The approach developed includes three steps: First, traffic signals are detected and recognized from imagery using a deep learning architecture with YOLOV3 and ResNet-152. Next, LiDAR point clouds are used to provide metric capabilities and cartographic coordinates. Finally, a WebGIS viewer was developed based on Potree architecture to visualize the results. The experimental results were validated on a regional road in Avila (Spain) demonstrating that the proposed method obtains promising, accurate and reliable results. Full article
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Article
Long-Term Behaviour of Padded Concrete Sleepers on Reduced Ballast Bed Thickness
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100132 - 04 Oct 2022
Viewed by 604
Abstract
The positive effects of under sleeper pads have already been proven by track and laboratory tests worldwide. In Austria, padded concrete sleepers reduce track deterioration by 50 percent and have therefore been used as standard components since 2010. As the pads increase material [...] Read more.
The positive effects of under sleeper pads have already been proven by track and laboratory tests worldwide. In Austria, padded concrete sleepers reduce track deterioration by 50 percent and have therefore been used as standard components since 2010. As the pads increase material costs, many infrastructure managers have discussed the idea of covering costs by reducing the ballast bed thickness. Technically, this approach (less ballast) is feasible, as the pads increase the track elasticity and protect the ballast. Further, pads lead to higher rail deflection and distribution of the load to more sleepers, and the stresses in sleepers are therefore relieved. Here, we compared Austrian test sections with padded and unpadded concrete sleepers and with a difference in the ballast bed thickness: standard thickness of 30 cm against 20 cm below the sleeper. Fractal analyses and standard deviations of the track’s longitudinal level provided information about the sections’ long-term track behaviour over 20 years. We found that the standard solution with 30 cm ballast performed better in the long term compared to 20 cm. Additionally, the test section with padded sleepers on a reduced ballast bed thickness showed a lower maintenance demand than the unpadded concrete sleeper track on a 30 cm ballast bed. Full article
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Article
Bridge Network Seismic Risk Assessment Using ShakeMap/HAZUS with Dynamic Traffic Modeling
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100131 - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Bridge infrastructures are critical nodes in a transportation network. In earthquake-prone areas, seismic performance assessment of infrastructure is essential to identify, retrofit, reconstruct, or, if necessary, demolish the infrastructure systems based on optimal decision-making processes. As one of the crucial components of the [...] Read more.
Bridge infrastructures are critical nodes in a transportation network. In earthquake-prone areas, seismic performance assessment of infrastructure is essential to identify, retrofit, reconstruct, or, if necessary, demolish the infrastructure systems based on optimal decision-making processes. As one of the crucial components of the transportation network, any bridge failure would impede the post-earthquake rescue operation. Not only the failure of such high-risk critical components during an extreme event can lead to significant direct damages, but it also affects the transportation road network. The consequences of these secondary effects can easily lead to congestion and long queues if the performance of the transportation system before or after an event was not analyzed. These indirect losses can be more prominent compared to the actual damage to bridges. This paper brings about seismic performance assessment for the Cyprus transportation network from which the decision-making platform can be modeled and implemented. This study employs a seismic hazard analysis based on generated USGS ShakeMap scenarios for the risk assessment of the transportation network. Furthermore, identification of the resiliency and vulnerability of the transportation road network is carried out by utilizing the graph theory concept at the network level. Moreover, link performance measures, i.e., traffic modeling of the study region is simulated in a dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) simulation environment. Finally, for earthquake loss analysis of the bridges, the HAZUS loss estimation tool is used. The results of our investigations for three different earthquake scenarios have shown that seismic retrofitting of bridges is a cost-effective measure to reduce the structural and operational losses in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilience of Interdependent Urban Systems)
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Article
Environmental Influences on Bridge Deterioration Based on Periodic Inspection Data from Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100130 - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 518
Abstract
In the United States, many people have suffered losses caused by the collapse of deteriorated road bridges and subsequent road closures, and in Japan, bridges built during rapid economic growth are now reaching the end of their planned service period. Under these circumstances, [...] Read more.
In the United States, many people have suffered losses caused by the collapse of deteriorated road bridges and subsequent road closures, and in Japan, bridges built during rapid economic growth are now reaching the end of their planned service period. Under these circumstances, instead of corrective maintenance, regular visual inspections of the bridges are performed once every five years to implement preventative maintenance. In this study, to identify those bridges prone to rapid deterioration, deterioration rates were calculated based on data from two cycles of inspection results, and the environmental factors that impacted these rates were statistically analyzed based on Hayashi’s quantification theory type I. The results clearly show that the bridge deterioration rate is significantly impacted by its specifications (superstructure materials, bridge length, year of construction), but that environmental factors also exert an equivalent impact. Therefore, considering environmental factors that can influence deterioration is expected to aid the development of more efficient and effective bridge maintenance plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Bridge Infrastructures)
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Article
Autogenous Healing in 10-Years Aged Cementitious Composites Using Microfibers and Superabsorbent Polymers
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100129 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Cement-based materials are the most widely used construction materials in the world for infrastructure works. Unfortunately, they come with a high environmental burden due to carbon dioxide emissions and the need for regular maintenance and repairs. Without these, the service life can decrease. [...] Read more.
Cement-based materials are the most widely used construction materials in the world for infrastructure works. Unfortunately, they come with a high environmental burden due to carbon dioxide emissions and the need for regular maintenance and repairs. Without these, the service life can decrease. By using a self-healing approach, the service life can be extended, as well as the durability and sustainability of the building material. As the ability to self-heal depends on the age of the material, so will the potential influence of added materials to promote this healing. However, the effects of reduced healing beyond one year are not ubiquitous in the literature. In this study, specimens were studied after a decade of maturation under different storage conditions to conclude on the self-healing capabilities of the old samples. Cracks can still be partially healed after ten years, mainly due to the formation of calcium carbonate crystals, related to the observed regain in mechanical properties measured by repeated four-point bending tests. The initial addition of superabsorbent polymers to the mixture results in greater healing compared to the reference samples, making it a sustainable option for the future of cement-based composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IOCI 2022 Special Issue Session 4: Materials and Sustainability)
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Review
Sustainable Assessment of Concrete Repairs through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA)
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100128 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
Nowadays, a vast number of concrete structures are approaching the end of their expected service life. The need for maintenance and repair is high due to the continued deterioration of the existing building inventory and infrastructure, resulting in a large need for concrete [...] Read more.
Nowadays, a vast number of concrete structures are approaching the end of their expected service life. The need for maintenance and repair is high due to the continued deterioration of the existing building inventory and infrastructure, resulting in a large need for concrete repair in the near future. Reinforcement corrosion is the most important deterioration mechanism, causing (i) severe concrete damage (cracking along reinforcement and the spalling of the cover concrete) and (ii) loss in steel section. Therefore, appropriate repair techniques for corrosion damage are the main focus of this review paper. With the European transition towards a circular economy and with sustainable development goals in mind, it is also important to consider the environmental impact along with the technical requirements and life cycle cost. In order to improve the sustainability of concrete structures and repairs over their life cycle, life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) should be applied. However, more research efforts are needed in this field for further development and refinement. This literature review tries to adress this need by compiling existing knowledge and gaps in the state-of-the-art. A comprehensive literature survey about concrete repair assessment through LCA and LCCA is performed and showed a high potential for further investigation. Additionally, it was noticed that many differences are present between the studies considering LCA and/or LCCA, namely, the considered (i) structures, (ii) damage causes, (iii) repair techniques, (iv) estimated and expected life spans, (v) LCCA methods, (vi) life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods, etc. Therefore, due to the case specificity, mutual comparison is challenging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Solutions for Concrete Applications)
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Article
Effect of Traffic Lights Countdown Timer and Motorcycle Lanes as an Approach to the Red Box for Motorcycles in Bali Island
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100127 - 26 Sep 2022
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Abstract
The development of red boxes for motorcycles in Indonesia was initially adopted from the advanced stop line (ASL) for bicycles. The bike box concept was adopted for motorcycles in Indonesia. To date, red boxes have been fully implemented in 21 cities in Indonesia. [...] Read more.
The development of red boxes for motorcycles in Indonesia was initially adopted from the advanced stop line (ASL) for bicycles. The bike box concept was adopted for motorcycles in Indonesia. To date, red boxes have been fully implemented in 21 cities in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of traffic light countdown timers and motorcycle lanes as an approach to the red box for motorcycles at signalized intersections. There were four locations studied in Denpasar Bali, i.e., red boxes with countdown timer only (Condition 1), red boxes with motorcycle lane only (Condition 2), red boxes with countdown timer and motorcycle lane (Condition 3), and red boxes without countdown timer and without motorcycle lane (Condition 4). The analysis results based on motorcycle volume data indicate that a countdown timer has a significant effect in increasing motorcycle acceleration when the green light starts, reducing the possibility of motorized vehicles other than motorcycles stopping in the red box area and reducing stop line violations while waiting during a red light. Meanwhile, the presence of a motorcycle lane as an approach lane to enter the red box area has a significant influence on increasing the occupancy of the red box by motorcycles. In addition, the correlation test shows that the countdown timer has a strong correlation with the occupancy of the red box to capacity and to stop line violation. Meanwhile, the level of traffic flow is strongly correlated with the countdown timer and motorcycle lane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Mobility)
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Article
Splitting Tensile Strength of Fly Ash-Modified Sand at Various Saturations and Curing Times
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100126 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Currently, a soil stabilization approach using fly ash as an effective choice for increasing soil stiffness and strength has emerged. With the presence of water, the lime in the fly ash would be separated, generating cementitious materials binding the grains of sand. In [...] Read more.
Currently, a soil stabilization approach using fly ash as an effective choice for increasing soil stiffness and strength has emerged. With the presence of water, the lime in the fly ash would be separated, generating cementitious materials binding the grains of sand. In the present study, the influence of curing time and saturation during specimen preparation on the behavior of fly ash-modified sand was observed by performing a series of splitting tensile strength tests. It was found that the splitting tensile strength increases with fly ash content and curing time and decreases with saturation. The splitting tensile strength produced at 30% saturation was approximately two-fold higher than 100%, particularly at one month of curing time. However, the splitting tensile strength at higher saturations approaches lower, especially at longer curing times. Porewater evaporation accelerates the self-hardening occurring over time during curing. By increasing the fly ash percentage from 5% to 20% in the mixture, the splitting tensile strength increased by up to twenty-fold in the present study. An equation has been proposed as a function of porosity/volumetric fly ash content, curing time, and saturation during the preparation of the specimen. Full article
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Article
Bi-Linear Bond-Slip Modelling for 1-D Tension Stiffening Behavior of a RC Element
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100125 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Cracking is an inherent characteristic of a reinforced-concrete (RC) element subjected to tension or bending. The crack width growth with loading depends on the rebar-concrete bond behavior. RC bridges are designed under strict requirements to ensure their proper long lifetime performance. Limiting the [...] Read more.
Cracking is an inherent characteristic of a reinforced-concrete (RC) element subjected to tension or bending. The crack width growth with loading depends on the rebar-concrete bond behavior. RC bridges are designed under strict requirements to ensure their proper long lifetime performance. Limiting the crack widths improves the performance and safety of bridges that are exposed to harsh climatic and environmental effects and enhances bridge service life-cycle expectancy. This paper presents an extended one-dimensional formulation for analyzing RC elements subjected to tensile loads and solves the one-dimensional tension stiffening problem. The extended bond-slip model analyses the entire range of loading, following cracks growth up to their maximum allowed width, employing a bi-linear bond-slip relationship. The analytical solution refers to the early loading stage where the first bond-slip segment governs the entire element and a closed form solution is obtained, followed by the higher loading stage where two different bond-slip relationships govern two complementary segments of the element. Analytical expressions for the stresses, strains, and displacements in concrete, steel, and interface are developed. Cracking is followed until rebar yielding. Validation of the model with available test results shows good agreement that is superior to the commonly used linear bond-slip model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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