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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 18 articles

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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Participants’ Anthropometry on Muscle Activation Levels While Interacting with the Level of Expertise, Task Type, and Single Muscles
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040088 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2020
Abstract
In this research paper, we implemented a mixed factor design in order to investigate the effect of four anthropometries: height, weight, lower-arm dimensions, and upper-arm dimensions on the muscle activation level of participants when interacting with three types of moderators: experiment expertise, task [...] Read more.
In this research paper, we implemented a mixed factor design in order to investigate the effect of four anthropometries: height, weight, lower-arm dimensions, and upper-arm dimensions on the muscle activation level of participants when interacting with three types of moderators: experiment expertise, task type, and muscle type. The research paper focused on two levels of expertise (novice and expert), two tasks (deck-building and picket installation), and four arm muscles (Brachioradialis (BR), Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (ECU), Flexor Carpi Radialis (FCR), and Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (FCU)), which resulted in 16 (2×2×4) groups. For each of the 16 groups, the data were analyzed in order to investigate the relationship between the four anthropometries and the four muscle activation levels of the participants. Amos software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), along with multiple group structural equation modeling, was used to test a total of 16 direct relationships, as well as the moderation effects in the designed experiment. The results show that the participants’ expertise can moderate the relationship between their height and muscle activation levels, the relationship between their weight and muscle activation levels, and the relationship between their lower arm dimensions and muscle activation levels. Moreover, the findings of this research paper demonstrate that the relationship between the lower arm dimensions and muscle activation levels, and the relationship between weight and muscle activation levels are moderated by the type of muscle used by the participants (i.e., BR, ECU, FCR, and FCU). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
Open AccessCommunication
A Visualization Template for the Graphical Representation of Sport Injury Antecedents and Consequences Models and Data
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040087 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 183
Abstract
A template for visually representing factors affecting and affected by the occurrence of sport injury is presented. The visualization template is designed to facilitate comparison among graphic depictions of models and data pertaining to the antecedents and consequences of sport injury. Innovative aspects [...] Read more.
A template for visually representing factors affecting and affected by the occurrence of sport injury is presented. The visualization template is designed to facilitate comparison among graphic depictions of models and data pertaining to the antecedents and consequences of sport injury. Innovative aspects and limitations of the visualization template are highlighted, and future applications of the visualization template are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReply
A Reply to Contrary to the Conclusions Stated in the Paper, Only Dry Fat-Free Mass Was Different between Groups upon Reanalysis—Comment on: “Intermittent Energy Restriction Attenuates the Loss of Fat-Free Mass in Resistance Trained Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial”
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040086 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 350
Abstract
We would like to thank Dr [...] Full article
Open AccessComment
Contrary to the Conclusions Stated in the Paper, Only Dry Fat-Free Mass Was Different between Groups upon Reanalysis. Comment on: “Intermittent Energy Restriction Attenuates the Loss of Fat-Free Mass in Resistance Trained Individuals. A Randomized Controlled Trial”
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040085 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Campbell and colleagues recently published a randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of diets involving intermittent energy restriction versus continuous energy restriction on changes in body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in resistance-trained adults[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
Open AccessArticle
Does Warm-up Type Matter? A Comparison between Traditional and Functional Inertial Warm-up in Young Soccer Players
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040084 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Functional inertial training, a popular high-intensity training mode, provides high neuromuscular activation, developing proprioception, postural control, power, and sprint time. Aim of the study was to assess the acute effects of two types of warm-up (WU), inertial warm-up (IWU) vs. traditional warm-up (TWU), [...] Read more.
Functional inertial training, a popular high-intensity training mode, provides high neuromuscular activation, developing proprioception, postural control, power, and sprint time. Aim of the study was to assess the acute effects of two types of warm-up (WU), inertial warm-up (IWU) vs. traditional warm-up (TWU), on explosive and reactive strength, sprint, and Change of Directions (COD) in young soccer players. In a randomized cross-over design study, twelve soccer players (aged 13.3 ± 0.7) performed 16 min of IWU and 16 min of TWU. IWU and TWU were spaced two weeks apart. Pre and post intervention tests, aimed at assessing explosive and reactive strength, sprint, and COD ability included: Squat Jump test (SJ), Countermovement Jump test (CMJ), Drop Jump test (DJ), Seven Repetition Hopping test (7R-HOP), 40 m-sprint test (40 m), and Illinois Agility Test (IAT). RM-ANOVA, used to compare differences between IWU and TWU effects (the level of significance set at ρ ≤ 0.05), showed enhanced performance after the IWU compared to the TWU. In addition, the effects of the IWU on performance lasted longer after the IWU than after the TWU. For IAT, the enhanced effects of IWU on performance lasted up to ten minutes after the administration of the IWU. Our results suggest that IWU affects functional changes displaying earlier adaptation in explosive and reactive strength with longer lasting effects compared to TWU and it could be recommended in young soccer athletes as a WU procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessReview
Nutritional Therapy for Athletes with Diabetes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040083 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Diabetes is a worldwide disease also affecting the sports field. The two main forms of diabetes, namely type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), differ in both their pathological and pharmacological characteristics and thus require a distinct nutritional treatment. Diet plays [...] Read more.
Diabetes is a worldwide disease also affecting the sports field. The two main forms of diabetes, namely type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), differ in both their pathological and pharmacological characteristics and thus require a distinct nutritional treatment. Diet plays an important role in the management of athletes with diabetes and is crucial to achieving their best performance. This review aims to investigate the objectives of nutritional therapy before, during and after training, in order to improve the best composition of macronutrients during meals. In this review, we provide a brief overview of recent studies about nutritional approaches to people with diabetes for performance optimization and for the control of diabetes-related complications. Thereafter, we discuss the differences between macronutrients and dietary intake before, during and after training. It can be concluded that each sport has particular characteristics in terms of endurance and power, hence demanding a specific energy expenditure and consequent nutritional adjustments. Therefore, the management of athletes with diabetes must be personalized and supported by medical professionals, including a diabetologist, physiologist and a nutritionist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport Medicine and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Nordic Walking and Free Walking Improve the Quality of Life, Cognitive Function, and Depressive Symptoms in Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040082 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Nordic walking’s (NW) degree of effectiveness regarding health-related parameters in people with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a subject of debate. While NW seems to improve functionality, a clear non-motor benefit has not been demonstrated. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to [...] Read more.
Nordic walking’s (NW) degree of effectiveness regarding health-related parameters in people with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a subject of debate. While NW seems to improve functionality, a clear non-motor benefit has not been demonstrated. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of 9-week NW and free walking (FW) training programs on quality of life, cognitive function, and depressive symptoms in individuals with PD. Thirty-three people with PD, (Hoehn and Yahr 1–4) were randomized into two groups: NW (n = 16) and FW (n = 17). We analyzed quality of life, cognitive function, depressive symptoms, and motor symptoms. Significant improvements were found in the overall, physical, psychological, social participation, and intimacy domains of quality of life, as well as in cognitive function and depressive symptoms for both groups. Only the NW group showed improvement in the autonomy domain. Individuals with PD had a similar enhancement of non-motor symptoms after walking training, with or without poles. However, the NW group showed a more significant improvement in the autonomy domain, strengthening the applied and clinical potential of NW in people with PD. Future studies are needed to determine the efficacy of walking training without poles in subjects with PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Neurodegenerative Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Various Factors May Modulate the Effect of Exercise on Testosterone Levels in Men
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040081 - 07 Nov 2020
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Exercise has been proposed to increase serum testosterone concentrations. The analysis of existing literature demonstrates a large degree of variability in hormonal changes during exercise. In our manuscript, we summarized and reviewed the literature, and concluded that this variability can be explained by [...] Read more.
Exercise has been proposed to increase serum testosterone concentrations. The analysis of existing literature demonstrates a large degree of variability in hormonal changes during exercise. In our manuscript, we summarized and reviewed the literature, and concluded that this variability can be explained by the effect of numerous factors, such as (a) the use of different types of exercise (e.g., endurance vs. resistance); (b) training intensity and/or duration of resting periods; (c) study populations (e.g., young vs. elderly; lean vs. obese; sedentary vs. athletes); and (d) the time point when serum testosterone was measured (e.g., during or immediately after vs. several minutes or hours after the exercise). Although exercise increases plasma testosterone concentrations, this effect depends on many factors, including the aforementioned ones. Future studies should focus on clarifying the metabolic and molecular mechanisms whereby exercise may affect serum testosterone concentrations in the short and long-terms, and furthermore, how this affects downstream mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Athletic Training and Human Performance)
Open AccessArticle
Immunofluorescence Evaluation of Myf5 and MyoD in Masseter Muscle of Unilateral Posterior Crossbite Patients
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040080 - 07 Nov 2020
Viewed by 258
Abstract
A unilateral posterior crossbite is a malocclusion where the low activity of the affected masseter muscle is compensated by the contralateral muscle hypertrophy. It is still unknown if, in the same condition, myogenesis with new fibre formation takes place. Aim: the aim of [...] Read more.
A unilateral posterior crossbite is a malocclusion where the low activity of the affected masseter muscle is compensated by the contralateral muscle hypertrophy. It is still unknown if, in the same condition, myogenesis with new fibre formation takes place. Aim: the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of myogenesis markers, such as Myf5 and MyoD, in masseter muscles of unilateral posterior crossbite patients. Materials and methods: biopsies from fifteen surgical patients with unilateral posterior crossbites have been analysed by immunofluorescence reactions. The results show the expression of Myf5 and MyoD in the contralateral muscle but not in the ipsilateral one. Moreover, statistical analysis shows the higher number of satellite cells in the contralateral side if compared to the ipsilateral one. Conclusions: these results suggest that in contralateral muscle, hyperplastic events take place, as well as hypertrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessArticle
Low Body Fat Does Not Influence Recovery after Muscle-Damaging Lower-Limb Plyometrics in Young Male Team Sport Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040079 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Aim: This study assessed the influence of fat mass to fat-free mass ratio (FM:FFM) on recovery from plyometric exercise. Method: After assessment of body composition, 20 male team sport players (age 20.7 ± 1.1 years; body mass 77.1 ± 11.5 kg) were divided [...] Read more.
Aim: This study assessed the influence of fat mass to fat-free mass ratio (FM:FFM) on recovery from plyometric exercise. Method: After assessment of body composition, 20 male team sport players (age 20.7 ± 1.1 years; body mass 77.1 ± 11.5 kg) were divided into low- (n = 10; 0.11 ± 0.03) and normal- (n = 10; 0.27 ± 0.09) fat groups based on FM:FFM ratio. Thereafter, participants completed measurements of knee extensor torque at 60 and 240°∙s−1, countermovement jump flight time, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and perceived muscle soreness (VAS) before and at 0, 24 and 48 h after 10 × 10 maximal plyometric vertical jumps. Results: Evidence of muscle damage was confirmed by alterations in VAS, peak torque at 60 and 240°∙s−1 and flight time at 0, 24 and 48 h after plyometric exercise (P < 0.05). CK was increased at 0 and 24 h (P < 0.05) but returned to baseline values by 48 h. No time by group effects were observed for any of the dependent variables (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The current findings indicate that while muscle damage was present after plyometric exercise, the magnitude was similar across the two body composition groups. Applied practitioners can allow for a similar recovery time after plyometric exercise in those with low and normal body fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessReview
Fatigability and Cardiorespiratory Impairments in Parkinson’s Disease: Potential Non-Motor Barriers to Activity Performance
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040078 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative condition after Alzheimer’s disease, affecting an estimated 160 per 100,000 people 65 years of age or older. Fatigue is a debilitating non-motor symptom frequently reported in PD, often manifesting prior to disease diagnosis, persisting [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative condition after Alzheimer’s disease, affecting an estimated 160 per 100,000 people 65 years of age or older. Fatigue is a debilitating non-motor symptom frequently reported in PD, often manifesting prior to disease diagnosis, persisting over time, and negatively affecting quality of life. Fatigability, on the other hand, is distinct from fatigue and describes the magnitude or rate of change over time in the performance of activity (i.e., performance fatigability) and sensations regulating the integrity of the performer (i.e., perceived fatigability). While fatigability has been relatively understudied in PD as compared to fatigue, it has been hypothesized that the presence of elevated levels of fatigability in PD results from the interactions of homeostatic, psychological, and central factors. Evidence from exercise studies supports the premise that greater disturbances in metabolic homeostasis may underly elevated levels of fatigability in people with PD when engaging in physical activity. Cardiorespiratory impairments constraining oxygen delivery and utilization may contribute to the metabolic alterations and excessive fatigability experienced in individuals with PD. Cardiorespiratory fitness is often reduced in people with PD, likely due to the combined effects of biological aging and impairments specific to the disease. Decreases in oxygen delivery (e.g., reduced cardiac output and impaired blood pressure responses) and oxygen utilization (e.g., reduced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity) compromise skeletal muscle respiration, forcing increased reliance on anaerobic metabolism. Thus, the assessment of fatigability in people with PD may provide valuable information regarding the functional status of people with PD not obtained with measures of fatigue. Moreover, interventions that target cardiorespiratory fitness may improve fatigability, movement performance, and health outcomes in this patient population. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Physical and Metabolic Changes after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis: A Case Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040077 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 311
Abstract
This case study examined changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), aerobic capacity, and daily physical activity in a patient who had ulcerative colitis and underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery. Body composition, RMR, and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were [...] Read more.
This case study examined changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), aerobic capacity, and daily physical activity in a patient who had ulcerative colitis and underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery. Body composition, RMR, and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were assessed prior to surgery and four, eight, and 16 weeks after IPAA surgery. Daily physical activity data were extracted from a wrist-worn activity tracker preoperatively and 16 months postoperatively. At baseline, total body mass was 95.3 kg; body fat, 11.6%; lean body mass, 81.1 kg; RMR, 2416 kcal/d; and VO2peak, 42.7 mL/kg/min. All values decreased from baseline at four weeks postoperatively, body mass was 85.2 kg (−10.5%); body fat, 10.9% (−6.0%); lean body mass, 73.1 kg (−9.9%); RMR 2210 kcal/d (−8.5%) and VO2peak, 25.5 mL/kg/min (−40.3%). At 16 weeks postoperatively, most parameters were near their baseline levels (within 1–7%), exceptions were VO2peak, which was 20.4% below baseline, and RMR, which increased to nearly 20% above baseline. After the patient had IPAA surgery, his total and lean body masses, RMR, and aerobic capacity were markedly decreased. Daily physical activity decreased postoperatively and likely contributed to the decreased aerobic capacity, which may take longer to recover compared to body composition and RMR parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport Medicine and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Emphasizing Task-Specific Hypertrophy to Enhance Sequential Strength and Power Performance
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040076 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1442
Abstract
While strength is indeed a skill, most discussions have primarily considered structural adaptations rather than ultrastructural augmentation to improve performance. Altering the structural component of the muscle is often the aim of hypertrophic training, yet not all hypertrophy is equal; such alterations are [...] Read more.
While strength is indeed a skill, most discussions have primarily considered structural adaptations rather than ultrastructural augmentation to improve performance. Altering the structural component of the muscle is often the aim of hypertrophic training, yet not all hypertrophy is equal; such alterations are dependent upon how the muscle adapts to the training stimuli and overall training stress. When comparing bodybuilders to strength and power athletes such as powerlifters, weightlifters, and throwers, while muscle size may be similar, the ability to produce force and power is often inequivalent. Thus, performance differences go beyond structural changes and may be due to the muscle’s ultrastructural constituents and training induced adaptations. Relative to potentiating strength and power performances, eliciting specific ultrastructural changes should be a variable of interest during hypertrophic training phases. By focusing on task-specific hypertrophy, it may be possible to achieve an optimal amount of hypertrophy while deemphasizing metabolic and aerobic components that are often associated with high-volume training. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to briefly address different types of hypertrophy and provide directions for practitioners who are aiming to achieve optimal rather than maximal hypertrophy, as it relates to altering ultrastructural muscular components, to potentiate strength and power performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Physiology and Performance)
Open AccessArticle
Muscle Synergies Reliability in the Power Clean Exercise
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040075 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Muscle synergy extraction has been utilized to investigate muscle coordination in human movement, namely in sports. The reliability of the method has been proposed, although it has not been assessed previously during a complex sportive task. Therefore, the aim of the study was [...] Read more.
Muscle synergy extraction has been utilized to investigate muscle coordination in human movement, namely in sports. The reliability of the method has been proposed, although it has not been assessed previously during a complex sportive task. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate intra- and inter-day reliability of a strength training complex task, the power clean, assessing participants’ variability in the task across sets and days. Twelve unexperienced participants performed four sets of power cleans in two test days after strength tests, and muscle synergies were extracted from electromyography (EMG) data of 16 muscles. Three muscle synergies accounted for almost 90% of variance accounted for (VAF) across sets and days. Intra-day VAF, muscle synergy vectors, synergy activation coefficients and individual EMG profiles showed high similarity values. Inter-day muscle synergy vectors had moderate similarity, while the variables regarding temporal activation were still strongly related. The present findings revealed that the muscle synergies extracted during the power clean remained stable across sets and days in unexperienced participants. Thus, the mathematical procedure for the extraction of muscle synergies through nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) may be considered a reliable method to study muscle coordination adaptations from muscle strength programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
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Open AccessEditorial
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Corrective Exercise
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040074 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 472
Abstract
We are glad to introduce the Journal Club of Volume Five, fourth Issue. This edition is focused on relevant studies published in the last few years in the field of corrective exercise, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope [...] Read more.
We are glad to introduce the Journal Club of Volume Five, fourth Issue. This edition is focused on relevant studies published in the last few years in the field of corrective exercise, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share a passion for sport with you, seen also from the scientific point of view. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
Open AccessBrief Report
Bioimpedance Vector References Need to Be Period-Specific for Assessing Body Composition and Cellular Health in Elite Soccer Players: A Brief Report
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040073 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 387
Abstract
Purpose: Bioimpedance data through bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) is used to evaluate cellular function and body fluid content. This study aimed to (i) identify whether BIVA patters differ according to the competitive period and (ii) provide specific references for assessing bioelectric properties at [...] Read more.
Purpose: Bioimpedance data through bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) is used to evaluate cellular function and body fluid content. This study aimed to (i) identify whether BIVA patters differ according to the competitive period and (ii) provide specific references for assessing bioelectric properties at the start of the season in male elite soccer players. Methods: The study included 131 male soccer players (age: 25.1 ± 4.7 yr, height: 183.4 ± 6.1 cm, weight: 79.3 ± 6.6) registered in the first Italian soccer division (Serie A). Bioimpedance analysis was performed just before the start of the competitive season and BIVA was applied. In order to verify the need for period-specific references, bioelectrical values measured at the start of the season were compared to the reference values for the male elite soccer player population. Results: The results of the two-sample Hotelling T2 tests showed that in the bivariate interpretation of the raw bioimpedance parameters (resistance (R) and reactance (Xc)) the bioelectric properties significantly (T2 = 15.3, F = 7.6, p ≤ 0.001, Mahalanobis D = 0.45) differ between the two phases of the competition analyzed. In particular, the mean impedance vector is more displaced to the left into the R-Xc graph at the beginning of the season than in the first half of the championship. Conclusions: For an accurate evaluation of body composition and cellular health, the tolerance ellipses displayed by BIVA approach into the R-Xc graph must be period-specific. This study provides new specific tolerance ellipses (R/H: 246 ± 32.1, Xc/H: 34.3 ± 5.1, r: 0.7) for performing BIVA at the beginning of the competitive season in male elite soccer players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Open AccessArticle
Body Composition Changes over Multiple Academic Years in Female Collegiate Soccer Players
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040072 - 28 Sep 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Body composition plays a key role in overall health and sports performance and its assessment is an important part of many athletic programs. The purpose of this study was to describe longitudinal changes in body composition for collegiate female soccer players in order [...] Read more.
Body composition plays a key role in overall health and sports performance and its assessment is an important part of many athletic programs. The purpose of this study was to describe longitudinal changes in body composition for collegiate female soccer players in order to provide data to inform future training and nutrition interventions for this population. A linear mixed-model (LMM) approach was used to analyze four years of pre- and post-season body composition data, including total mass, fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, and body fat percentage (%BF) for 49 athletes. Athletes gained an average of 0.5 kg FFM during the season (p < 0.05) and increased total mass, FFM, fat mass, and %BF (2.5 kg, 1.1 kg, 1.7 kg, and 1.7%, respectively; p < 0.05) over four years. Freshmen experienced a 1.5 kg gain in total mass pre- to post-season (p < 0.05), while no changes in total mass or body composition were seen in other grade levels. Gains in %BF during the off season between Freshman and Sophomore years represented negative changes in body composition that should be addressed further. These results can help interdisciplinary athlete care teams optimize training programs in this population by understanding what changes are expected over multiple years. Normalizing these changes may also help the promotion of realistic body composition goals and the development of positive training and dietary habits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Physiology and Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation of Myasthenia Gravis. A Systematic Review of the Literature
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040071 - 27 Sep 2020
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Myasthenia gravis is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. This review analyzes the most recent evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of different rehabilitative approaches to the disease. The review was carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting [...] Read more.
Myasthenia gravis is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. This review analyzes the most recent evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of different rehabilitative approaches to the disease. The review was carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 365 articles were found in the main scientific databases. Applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 11 studies were admitted to the final phase of the review. Three different rehabilitative approaches were identified: physical training, respiratory training, and balance training. All rehabilitative modalities contributed to enhancing functional outcomes, reducing fatigue, and improving quality of life, but currently none can be recommended over another for the lack of cross-comparative studies. The included studies showed methodological quality from low to fair. Despite the range of rehabilitative interventions available, there is a lack of high-quality evidence. However, this review suggests that a multidisciplinary rehabilitation approach should be recommended to people with myasthenia gravis, and above all, for those with mild to moderate symptomatology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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