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Perspective of Dose and Response for Individualized Physical Exercise and Training Prescription

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Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Performance, Neuroscience, Therapy and Health, MSH Medical School Hamburg, University of Applied Sciences and Medical University, Am Kaiserkai 1, 20457 Hamburg, Germany
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German Swimming Federation, Korbacher Straße 93, 34132 Kassel, Germany
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Research Group Neuroprotection, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Leipziger Str. 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
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Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Otto von Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
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Faculty of Human Sciences, MSH Medical School Hamburg, University of Applied Sciences and Medical University, Am Kaiserkai 1, 20457 Hamburg, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030048
Received: 11 June 2020 / Revised: 30 June 2020 / Accepted: 10 July 2020 / Published: 14 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
Physical interventions are used to increase physical (sports) performance and considered as effective low-cost strategies in the fields of healthcare, disease or injury prevention, and medical treatment. In general, a considerable amount of evidence buttress the application of physical interventions in various fields as it has been demonstrated to contribute to the maintenance and recovery of physical performance, cognitive function, and overall state of health. To implement physical interventions effectively, it is essential to provide an appropriate exercise and training prescription. Exercise and training prescription are key for “dose” specification and for the individualization (personalizing) of physical exercise and training, precisely adjusted and controlled like medication. Since the physiological response to physical interventions is demonstrably individual and dependent on many influencing factors, individualization is an emerging approach aiming to maximize the efficiency of an intervention by accounting for the interindividual heterogeneity. The present brief viewpoint article aims to distinguish and to redefine between the terms dose and response in order to improve the understanding of practitioners, the methodology of study protocols, and to relate future findings to the actual biological (interindividual) variability of acute and chronic responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: dose; acute response; chronic response; internal load; external load; exercise and training prescription; exercise is medicine; personalized medicine dose; acute response; chronic response; internal load; external load; exercise and training prescription; exercise is medicine; personalized medicine
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Gronwald, T.; Törpel, A.; Herold, F.; Budde, H. Perspective of Dose and Response for Individualized Physical Exercise and Training Prescription. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5, 48.

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