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Safety, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 24 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The USAF Horizontal Impulse Accelerator generates impact acceleration profiles on the only active [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Leading Indicators—A Conceptual IoT-Based Framework to Produce Active Leading Indicators for Construction Safety
Safety 2019, 5(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040086 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
Active leading indicators (ALIs) have the potential to identify safety hazards and prompt immediate actions to prevent incidents. Currently, there is a major gap in research that incorporates a fully automated ALI system because implementation has been hindered by a lack of established [...] Read more.
Active leading indicators (ALIs) have the potential to identify safety hazards and prompt immediate actions to prevent incidents. Currently, there is a major gap in research that incorporates a fully automated ALI system because implementation has been hindered by a lack of established industry thresholds of measurable performance that would trigger an actionable response. Therefore, this paper addresses this gap by presenting a new method that utilizes the Internet of Things (IoT) to collect quantifiable data which can trigger an actionable response in real time based on established thresholds. This novel method integrates the Construction Industry Institute (CII) active leading indicator framework with a prototype IoT-based system. Significantly, the ALI provides the physical–virtual feedback loop, which is an essential aspect of the IoT system because it provides real-time feedback to both the users and systems. This paper also identifies potential inputs to the ALI framework from emerging IoT-enabled systems. A case study was presented to initially validate the IoT-based ALI framework. Bluetooth-enabled heart rate monitors were issued to workers in a hazardous and critical mining construction site. The ALIs that were recorded included heart rate and body temperature. Thresholds were established that alerted the monitoring safety staff when a worker exhibited potentially unsafe conditions. The results of the study demonstrated the feasibility of the system. Additionally, other results included worker resistance; non-disclosing of medical conditions, and limitations for IoT connectivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Challenges of Safety and Community Integration for Vulnerable Individuals
Safety 2019, 5(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040085 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2127
Abstract
Although community inclusion brings a number of advantages for vulnerable individuals, it can also entail a range of challenges, and draws in issues of safety and security. This qualitative psychological study, therefore, aimed to explore the challenges being faced by two groups of [...] Read more.
Although community inclusion brings a number of advantages for vulnerable individuals, it can also entail a range of challenges, and draws in issues of safety and security. This qualitative psychological study, therefore, aimed to explore the challenges being faced by two groups of vulnerable individuals: those with intellectual disabilities and dementia, and how these could be addressed in order to establish a community that is safe and welcoming for all. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with a range of community stakeholders—for instance, local businesses, residents, and individuals with intellectual disabilities, dementia and their carers—and data was thematically analysed to explore the issue of inclusion and participation particularly in relation to stigma and prejudice, self-worth, social isolation and feeling safe. As well as highlighting practical issues regarding inclusion and support, the work emphasised the psychological dimension, linking to a multi-faceted conception of community participation. While significant work is already addressing issues of risk and safety for vulnerable populations (such as “Keep Safe” schemes), the work described here leads to an alternative conceptualization, tied to notions of kindness in communities with a view to crafting communities capable of safely welcoming a wider variety of marginalized groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Safety and Security) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Is Sexual Assault a Problem in Greek Prisons? Initial Evidence from a Greek Male Prison
Safety 2019, 5(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040084 - 28 Nov 2019
Viewed by 2152
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the problem of inmate sexual victimization in a Greek male prison. A total of 400 individuals were approached in the largest Greek male prison and 50 individuals participated. The questionnaire examined sociodemographic, offence-related information, sexual victimization during incarceration, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the problem of inmate sexual victimization in a Greek male prison. A total of 400 individuals were approached in the largest Greek male prison and 50 individuals participated. The questionnaire examined sociodemographic, offence-related information, sexual victimization during incarceration, experiences of witnessing the sexual coercion of other inmates, and history of sexual victimization. Thirteen (26.0%) participants reported sexual victimization by an inmate, including either “only non-penetrative” or “only penetrative ones” or “both penetrative and non-penetrative” ones. The victimized participants also performed worse in child sexual victimization and self-esteem scores as compared with the non-victimized ones. Vulnerable groups identified in the current study could receive further attention in future studies and policy initiatives. Large-scale surveys could be designed to extend our knowledge on this neglected area of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Safety and Security) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Detection of the Species of Origin for Pork, Chicken and Beef in Meat Food Products by Real-Time PCR
Safety 2019, 5(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040083 - 15 Nov 2019
Viewed by 2372
Abstract
Processed food products of animal origin raise questions related to industrial safety and human health protection. This paper aimed to optimize and validate a real-time, sensitive, and accurate PCR method for the detection and quantification of meat species in selected processed meat products: [...] Read more.
Processed food products of animal origin raise questions related to industrial safety and human health protection. This paper aimed to optimize and validate a real-time, sensitive, and accurate PCR method for the detection and quantification of meat species in selected processed meat products: chicken sausages, beef bologna, and pork bologna. A common detection limit of 8 DNA copies was established for each sample, corresponding to 0.1% for beef and pork and 0.2% for chicken. For the limit of quantification, dilutions of 20 copies of DNA for the bovine and pig species and 50 copies of DNA for the chicken species were performed. Specificity and selectivity tests in six replicates each showed no extraneous meat species, in line with the label. Repeatability was assessed in six replicates, both quantitatively and qualitatively, by the same analyst, on the same day, and with the same equipment. The results showed that beef bologna contained 84.49% beef meat, pork bologna 92.8% pork meat, and chicken sausages 95.14% chicken meat. The reproducibility results obtained by two analysts, on different days, for each sample were very similar. The real-time PCR technique can be used as a tool in internal and public safety control to improve industrial safety and human health protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Decision-Making Processes Underlying Pedestrian Behaviors at Signalized Crossings: Part 2. Do Pedestrians Show Cultural Herding Behavior?
Safety 2019, 5(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040082 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
Followership is generally defined as a strategy that evolved to solve social coordination problems, and particularly those involved in group movement. Followership behavior is particularly interesting in the context of road-crossing behavior because it involves other principles such as risk-taking and evaluating the [...] Read more.
Followership is generally defined as a strategy that evolved to solve social coordination problems, and particularly those involved in group movement. Followership behavior is particularly interesting in the context of road-crossing behavior because it involves other principles such as risk-taking and evaluating the value of social information. This study sought to identify the cognitive mechanisms underlying decision-making by pedestrians who follow another person across the road at the green or at the red light in two different countries (France and Japan). We used agent-based modelling to simulate the road-crossing behaviors of pedestrians. This study showed that modelling is a reliable means to test different hypotheses and find the processes underlying decision-making when crossing the road. We found that two processes suffice to simulate pedestrian behaviors: personal motivation and imitation. Importantly, the study revealed differences between the two nationalities and between sexes in the decision to follow and cross at the green and at the red light. Japanese pedestrians showed a greater mimetic behavior at the red light but the process takes into account both the number of crossing and waiting pedestrians, contrary to French citizens. Finally, the simulations are revealed to be similar to observations, not only for the departure latencies but also for the number of crossing pedestrians and the rates of illegal crossings. The conclusion suggests new solutions for safety in transportation research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Training Competences in Industrial Risk Prevention with Lego® Serious Play®: A Case Study
Safety 2019, 5(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040081 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2479
Abstract
This paper proposes the use of the Lego® Serious Play® (LSP) methodology as a facilitating tool for the introduction of competences for Industrial Risk Prevention by engineering students from the industrial branch (electrical, electronic, mechanical and technological engineering), presenting the results [...] Read more.
This paper proposes the use of the Lego® Serious Play® (LSP) methodology as a facilitating tool for the introduction of competences for Industrial Risk Prevention by engineering students from the industrial branch (electrical, electronic, mechanical and technological engineering), presenting the results obtained in the Universities of Cadiz and Seville in the academic years 2017–2019. Current Spanish legislation does not reserve any special legal attribution, nor does it require specific competence in occupational risk prevention for the regulated profession of a technical industrial engineer (Order CIN 351:2009), and only does so in a generic way for that of an industrial engineer (Order CIN 311:2009). However, these universities consider the training in occupational health and safety for these future graduates as an essential objective in order to develop them for their careers in the industry. The approach is based on a series of challenges proposed (risk assessments, safety inspections, accident investigations and fire protection measures, among others), thanks to the use of “gamification” dynamics with Lego® Serious Play®. In order to carry the training out, a set of specific variables (industrial sector, legal and regulatory framework, business organization and production system), and transversal ones (leadership, teamwork, critical thinking and communication), are incorporated. Through group models, it is possible to identify dangerous situations, establish causes, share and discuss alternative proposals and analyze the economic, environmental and organizational impact of the technical solutions studied, as well as take the appropriate decisions, in a creative, stimulating, inclusive and innovative context. In this way, the theoretical knowledge which is acquired is applied to improve safety and health at work and foster the prevention of occupational risks, promoting the commitment, effort, motivation and proactive participation of the student teams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety New Challenges for Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Safety Issues in the Seismic Design of Secondary Frameless Glass Structures
Safety 2019, 5(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040080 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Glass is largely used in buildings, in the form of an innovative and versatile material. Both for novel and existing constructions, secondary glass systems are frequently realized to interact with primary components of different materials. In most cases, the structural challenge deriving from [...] Read more.
Glass is largely used in buildings, in the form of an innovative and versatile material. Both for novel and existing constructions, secondary glass systems are frequently realized to interact with primary components of different materials. In most cases, the structural challenge deriving from the intrinsic brittleness and vulnerability of glass is efficiently controlled via laminated (LG) multi-layer sections. However, further potential risks for people should be properly minimized, like for example, in the presence of extreme loads. This is the case of seismic regions, where dedicated calculation methods are required to accommodate displacement and resistance demands, but design specifications are rarely provided by existing standards for earthquake resistant buildings. Even more attention is needed for frameless glass systems in which the bracing members (i.e., continuous frames, cable-nets, etc.) are reduced to a minimum, in favour of metal point connections (i.e., bolts and mechanical fixings, friction clamps, etc.). This paper aims at discussing the current design requirements for the seismic performance assessment of these relatively simple but challenging structural solutions, with careful consideration for the Italian scenario, where a practical support for design can be found in the CNR-DT 210/2013 technical document. Based on a case-study system, major issues, open questions and uncertainties or critical aspects for the seismic analysis and design of secondary frameless glass assemblies are thus emphasized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Decision-Making Processes Underlying Pedestrian Behaviors at Signalized Crossing: Part 1. The First to Step off the Kerb
Safety 2019, 5(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040079 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2424
Abstract
Pedestrians are ideal subjects for the study of decision-making, due to the inter-individual variation in risk taking. Many studies have attempted to understand which environmental factors influence the number of times pedestrians broke the rules at road-crossings, very few focused on the decision-making [...] Read more.
Pedestrians are ideal subjects for the study of decision-making, due to the inter-individual variation in risk taking. Many studies have attempted to understand which environmental factors influence the number of times pedestrians broke the rules at road-crossings, very few focused on the decision-making process of pedestrians according to the different conditions of these variables, that is to say their perception and interpretation of the information they receive. We used survival analyses and modeling to highlight the decision-making process of pedestrians crossing the road at signalized crossings in France and in Japan. For the first pedestrians to step off the kerb, we showed that the probability to cross the road follows three different processes: one at the red signal, one just before the pedestrian signal turns green, and one after the signal has turned green. Globally, the decision of the first pedestrian to cross, whether he or she does so at the green or at the red signal, is influenced by their country of residence. We identify the use of cognitive processes such as risk sensitivity and temporal discounting, and propose new concepts based on the results of this study to decrease the incidence of rule-breaking by pedestrians. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Various Clothing Variations on Firefighter Mobility: A Pilot Study
Safety 2019, 5(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040078 - 31 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2402
Abstract
Firefighter clothing is known to restrict movement and increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. The aim of this study was to investigate differences between clothing variations and firefighter mobility. Data were collected from eight firefighters using a randomized counterbalanced, repeated measures, design. Three [...] Read more.
Firefighter clothing is known to restrict movement and increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. The aim of this study was to investigate differences between clothing variations and firefighter mobility. Data were collected from eight firefighters using a randomized counterbalanced, repeated measures, design. Three different clothing variants (V1–V3) in addition to current station wear (S) were trialed. Combinations of S and V1 (SV1) and V2 (SV2) were also trialed. Outcome measures included: standing reach height; the Functional Movement Screen [FMS]; vertical jump; a visual analogue scale [VAS] for the FMS, vertical jump, step ups and crawl; and a mannequin sketch to mark areas of discomfort. V3 was preferred over S in all tasks and performed better both objectively (FMS and vertical jump) and subjectively (VAS scores). While V1 was typically associated with poorer performance, the impacts of V1 and V2 when compared to each other and S varied depending on the tasks performed. This variation was greater when V1 or V2 were worn with S (SV1 and SV2). Areas of discomfort across all variations was the knees, followed by the thighs. Clothing that has the least impact on, or improves, mobility (especially around the lower limbs) may help reduce firefighter injury and limit subjective discomfort. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Accident Rate as a Measure of Safety Assessment in Polish Civil Engineering
Safety 2019, 5(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040077 - 30 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2455
Abstract
Civil engineering is characterised by high volatility with respect to working conditions, which are the source of many threats to worker life and health and contribute to high accident rates. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and evaluate the phenomenon of [...] Read more.
Civil engineering is characterised by high volatility with respect to working conditions, which are the source of many threats to worker life and health and contribute to high accident rates. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and evaluate the phenomenon of accidents in Polish civil engineering and define the direction of changes that should occur in the safety area. The studies included in this research covered the years 2004–2018. The following indicators were used to assess the accident rates: (1) The total number of persons injured in workplace accidents and this total divided into fatal, severe, and minor accidents; (2) indicators of frequency of accidents in total and this total divided into minor, severe, and fatal accidents; (3) and an indicator of the severity of accidents. From the analysis of statistical data for the years 200–2018, the changes in accident rate parameters demonstrate the continuous improvement of workplace safety in the Polish civil engineering sector. From the analysed data from the 15 years, a clear decrease in the value of the applied indicators is apparent, including both the number of people involved in accidents and the frequency and severity of accidents. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Safety of Machinery: Significant Differences in Two Widely Used International Standards for the Design of Safety-Related Control Systems
Safety 2019, 5(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040076 - 29 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2678
Abstract
Industrial machines are known to possess many hazards. There are many laws, regulations, standards and practices that aim at ensuring that machines are safe for different workers performing various tasks including operation and maintenance. Safeguards protect workers by stopping hazardous motion when actuated. [...] Read more.
Industrial machines are known to possess many hazards. There are many laws, regulations, standards and practices that aim at ensuring that machines are safe for different workers performing various tasks including operation and maintenance. Safeguards protect workers by stopping hazardous motion when actuated. Those safeguards are integrated into machinery using two widely used international standards for functional safety. However, these standards have some significant differences although they are both based on similar principles. This paper explores those differences and their potential impacts. Subjectivity in the specification and design of safety systems, based on the differences, can lead to different levels of reliability in the safety systems even when considering the same hazard zone of machinery based on which standard is used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety New Challenges for Industry)
Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of Plain English Interpretations of the Seven Elements of the Risk Management Process
Safety 2019, 5(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040075 - 29 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2402
Abstract
A fundamental problem with risk management standards and other associated guiding documents is that the definitions and descriptors of the seven elements of the risk management process within these documents are commonly at odds with each other and are difficult to understand. An [...] Read more.
A fundamental problem with risk management standards and other associated guiding documents is that the definitions and descriptors of the seven elements of the risk management process within these documents are commonly at odds with each other and are difficult to understand. An implication is that personnel within and across organisations interpret the process in different ways. This has led to some companies developing their own interpretations of the elements in their risk/work health and safety (WHS) management systems and thereby exacerbating the problem. A standard set of definitions, terminology and language are vital for addressing WHS issues efficiently and effectively to result in better outcomes. This study aimed to develop a set of plain English interpretations (PEI) for each of the seven elements of the risk management process. These seven elements sit between the scant and technical definitions contained in standards (primary and secondary) and the voluminous guidance in the handbooks and codes of practice. The Delphi-technique was used with 20 risk-experts to evaluate, over two iterations a set of draft PEIs—developed by the researchers. These were finally reviewed for readability and understandability by 24 operators/workers. The implications for these new PEIs is that they could be considered for future standards and guidance documents by the ISO Working Group Risk Management Standard and similar committees and used by organisations for their risk/WHS management systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety New Challenges for Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Integration of Safety in IFMIF-DONES Design
Safety 2019, 5(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040074 - 25 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2562
Abstract
The IFMIF-DONES (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility-DEMO Oriented NEutron Source) facility is being designed with the general objective of providing irradiation of representative samples of power fusion machine materials under prototypical conditions. A linear accelerator will deliver deuterons at high intensity to circulating [...] Read more.
The IFMIF-DONES (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility-DEMO Oriented NEutron Source) facility is being designed with the general objective of providing irradiation of representative samples of power fusion machine materials under prototypical conditions. A linear accelerator will deliver deuterons at high intensity to circulating lithium in a loop, which will produce neutrons capable of obtaining the required damage conditions. As a result of this process, radionuclides will be produced as a by-product, which is characterized by several degrees of mobility. Shielding and radiation protection measures will be required in the facility. IFMIF-DONES will be classified as a first class radioactive facility according to national regulations, with Spain being the European candidate to site the facility. Several aspects of the main safety instructions affecting the facility’s design are explained and discussed in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of All-Terrain Vehicle Crash Location on Emergency Medical Services Time Intervals
Safety 2019, 5(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040073 - 25 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Over 100,000 all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries are evaluated in U.S. emergency departments each year. In this study, we analyzed the time intervals for emergency medical services (EMS) providers responding to ATV crashes in different location types. Data from the Iowa State Trauma Registry [...] Read more.
Over 100,000 all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries are evaluated in U.S. emergency departments each year. In this study, we analyzed the time intervals for emergency medical services (EMS) providers responding to ATV crashes in different location types. Data from the Iowa State Trauma Registry and a statewide ATV crash/injury database was matched with Iowa EMS Registry records from 2004–2014. Ground ambulance responses to 270 ATV crashes were identified, and response characteristics and time intervals were analyzed. Off-road crashes had a longer median patient access interval (p < 0.001) and total on scene interval (p = 0.002) than roadway crashes. Crashes in remote locations had a longer median patient access interval (p < 0.001) and total on scene interval (p < 0.001), but also a longer median on scene with patient interval (p = 0.004) than crashes in accessible locations. Fifteen percent of remote patient access times were >6 min as compared to 3% of accessible crashes (p = 0.0004). There were no differences in en route to scene or en route to hospital time. Comparisons by location type showed no differences in injury severity score or number of total procedures performed. We concluded that responding EMS providers had an increased length of time to get to the patient after arriving on scene for off-road and remote ATV crashes relative to roadway and accessible location crashes, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review on Measuring Affect with Practical Sensors to Monitor Driver Behavior
Safety 2019, 5(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040072 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2516
Abstract
Using sensors to monitor signals produced by drivers is a way to help better understand how emotions contribute to unsafe driving habits. The need for intuitive machines that can interpret intentional and unintentional signals is imperative for our modern world. However, in complex [...] Read more.
Using sensors to monitor signals produced by drivers is a way to help better understand how emotions contribute to unsafe driving habits. The need for intuitive machines that can interpret intentional and unintentional signals is imperative for our modern world. However, in complex human–machine work environments, many sensors will not work due to compatibility issues, noise, or practical constraints. This review focuses on practical sensors that have the potential to provide reliable monitoring and meaningful feedback to vehicle operators—such as drivers, train operators, pilots, astronauts—as well as being feasible for implementation and integration with existing work infrastructure. Such an affect-sensitive intelligent vehicle might sound an alarm if signals indicate the driver has become angry or stressed, take control of the vehicle if needed, and collaborate with other vehicles to build a stress map that improves roadway safety. Toward such vehicles, this paper provides a review of emerging sensor technologies for driver monitoring. In our research, we look at sensors used in affect detection. This insight is especially helpful for anyone challenged with accurately understanding affective information, like the autistic population. This paper also includes material on sensors and feedback for drivers from populations that may have special needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Driver Behaviour)
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Open AccessArticle
ATD Biodynamics During Lateral Impact for USAF Neck Injury Criteria
Safety 2019, 5(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040071 - 22 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2458
Abstract
Research was conducted involving a series of lateral impact tests on a horizontal sled facility by scientists at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The purpose of the research was to conduct an assessment of the biodynamic response of an anthropomorphic test device [...] Read more.
Research was conducted involving a series of lateral impact tests on a horizontal sled facility by scientists at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The purpose of the research was to conduct an assessment of the biodynamic response of an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to support the development of AFRL neck injury criteria. Impacts were completed using a 50th male Hybrid III aerospace ATD due to this ATD being used by the USAF to qualify and evaluate ejection systems. A test matrix was developed to assess ATD response as a function of various seat configurations which were an approximation of the seat configurations used by the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) for previously conducted lateral impact tests of PMHS subjects (post-mortem human subjects). The specially fabricated seat configurations were a rigid seat fixture with a 5-point harness and a padded rigid seat with a 3-point harness. The input acceleration pulses were trapezoidal in shape and varied in peak magnitude from 8.5 to 17 G. The rigid and padded seat configurations both generated fairly linear ATD responses across the input acceleration range. The ATD’s response with the padded seat and the 3-point restraint was greater than the ATD’s response with the rigid seat and the 5-point restraint with the upper neck. The My torque showed the greatest increase from the rigid seat configuration to the padded seat configuration. This highlights the importance of a proper restraint and the importance of controlling the motion of the torso since it could reduce the loads and torques of the unrestrained head and neck, resulting in a lower probability of injury. The lateral impact program with the ATD provided critical impact data to fill data gaps that support the development of the ATD-to-human transfer functions for AFRL’s Multi-Axial Neck Injury Criteria (MANIC) for lateral impact or MANICy calculation. The program also highlighted gaps in human and PMHS head response data in identical lateral impact configurations that would not only improve the current MANICy transfer function but would allow the investigation of the efficacy of using the 6F-MANICy to replace the current MANICy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Injury Biomechanics)
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Open AccessArticle
Driving Behaviour in Depression: Findings from a Driving Simulator Study
Safety 2019, 5(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040070 - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2494
Abstract
Depression is characterized by mental, emotional and executive dysfunction. Among its symptoms, sleep disturbance and anxiety are very common. The effects of depression and its treatment may have an impact on driving behaviour. In order to evaluate driving performance in depression, 13 patients [...] Read more.
Depression is characterized by mental, emotional and executive dysfunction. Among its symptoms, sleep disturbance and anxiety are very common. The effects of depression and its treatment may have an impact on driving behaviour. In order to evaluate driving performance in depression, 13 patients and 18 healthy controls completed questionnaires and scales and were tested in a driving simulator. Driving simulator data included lateral position (LP), speed and distance from the preceding vehicle. History of collisions was associated with depression, body mass index (BMI) and next-day consequences of sleep disturbance. Aggressive driving was associated with fatigue and sleep disturbances. Concerning driving simulator data, a reduced ability to maintain constant vehicle velocity was positively correlated to BMI and insomnia. An LP towards the middle of the road was associated with anxiety. On the other hand, an LP towards the shoulder was associated with depression and next-day consequences of sleep disturbance, while a positive correlation was found between distance from the preceding vehicle and use of drugs with potential hypnotic effects; both these findings show that patients suffering from depression seem to realize the effects of certain symptoms on their driving ability and thus drive in a more defensive way than controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Safety and Security) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
How Cognitive Biases Influence the Data Verification of Safety Indicators: A Case Study in Rail
Safety 2019, 5(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040069 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
The field of safety and incident prevention is becoming more and more data based. Data can help support decision making for a more productive and safer work environment, but only if the data can be, is and should be trusted. Especially with the [...] Read more.
The field of safety and incident prevention is becoming more and more data based. Data can help support decision making for a more productive and safer work environment, but only if the data can be, is and should be trusted. Especially with the advance of more data collection of varying quality, checking and judging the data is an increasingly complex task. Within such tasks, cognitive biases are likely to occur, causing analysists to overestimate the quality of the data and safety experts to base their decisions on data of insufficient quality. Cognitive biases describe generic error tendencies of persons, that arise because people tend to automatically rely on their fast information processing and decision making, rather than their slow, more effortful system. This article describes five biases that were identified in the verification of a safety indicator related to train driving. Suggestions are also given on how to formalize the verification process. If decision makers want correct conclusions, safety experts need good quality data. To make sure insufficient quality data is not used for decision making, a solid verification process needs to be put in place that matches the strengths and limits of human cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety New Challenges for Industry)
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Open AccessCommunication
Foundation Pit Collapse on 8 June 2019 in Nanning, China: A Brief Report
Safety 2019, 5(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040068 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2507
Abstract
This short communication reports on the recent incident of a foundation pit collapse at a construction site on 8 June 2019 in Nanning City of Guangxi Province, China. There were no injuries or casualties reported for this incident. This report presents the incident [...] Read more.
This short communication reports on the recent incident of a foundation pit collapse at a construction site on 8 June 2019 in Nanning City of Guangxi Province, China. There were no injuries or casualties reported for this incident. This report presents the incident background, management measures taken after the incident, and a brief discussion of the causes of the incident. Some mitigation measures are suggested to prevent similar incidents in the future based on the preliminary analysis. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Synchronized Humanitarian, Military and Commercial Logistics: An Evolving Synergistic Partnership
Safety 2019, 5(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040067 - 05 Oct 2019
Viewed by 4131
Abstract
The increasing complexity and often transboundary scope of complex emergencies are exceeding the capacity of humanitarian logistics systems. The military plays a growing role in supplementing and even leading humanitarian assistance and disaster relief logistics. However, issues relating to military involvement such as [...] Read more.
The increasing complexity and often transboundary scope of complex emergencies are exceeding the capacity of humanitarian logistics systems. The military plays a growing role in supplementing and even leading humanitarian assistance and disaster relief logistics. However, issues relating to military involvement such as sovereignty and cost have refocused the conversation onto capabilities and capacities of commercial logistics providers, who have not been fully engaged and integrated into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery activities. The commercial sector is part of the larger supply chain management system that includes contracting, procurement, storage, and transportation of food, water, medicine, and other supplies, as well as human resources, and necessary machinery and equipment. Military and commercial logistics share many of these elements and tasks daily. The most effective and efficient response combines key elements from humanitarian, military, and commercial logistics systems. Such trilateral cooperation represents the next step in an evolving partnership paradigm that is truly synergistic. We present a Synchronized Disaster Relief Model, as well as multiple examples of how military, commercial, and humanitarian supply chains each bring unique capabilities to disaster relief operations, and how these three supply chains can complement each other in a synergistic manner, through synchronized action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disaster Risk Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Observing Patterns of River Usage
Safety 2019, 5(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040066 - 04 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2783
Abstract
Rivers are a leading location for drowning, yet little is known about people’s usage of these waterways. This pilot study aimed to test the use of direct observations to calculate river usage. Direct observations were conducted at regular intervals within defined zones at [...] Read more.
Rivers are a leading location for drowning, yet little is known about people’s usage of these waterways. This pilot study aimed to test the use of direct observations to calculate river usage. Direct observations were conducted at regular intervals within defined zones at four river drowning locations in Australia (including weekends and the Australia Day national public holiday). Data recorded were date and time of observation; total people (including males, females, children, and adults); and number of people on, in, and beside the water. Univariate analysis with mean (SD) and range was conducted. Interrater reliability for observations was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (one-way random-effects, average measures model), with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Across 149 time points, 309 observations resulted in 13,326 river interactions observed by multiple observers. There was an average of 39 people (M = 39.4, SD = 29.4, range = 0–137) per observation, 44 people (M = 44.2, SD = 32.7, range = 0–37) on an average weekend, and 97 people (M = 96.8, SD = 58.1, range = 20–190) on Australia Day. More females (M = 20.6, SD = 16.0, range = 0–83) than males (M = 18.3, SD = 14.5, range = 0–68) were observed. More people were observed in the water (M = 20.6, SD = 20.4, range = 0–84) than beside or on the water. Interrater reliability was excellent, consistently above 0.900 for all variables collected (apart from the variable of beside the river). Despite males accounting for 80% of river drowning fatalities, more females were observed than males. Increased visitation on the Australia Day public holiday may be linked to increased drowning risk. This study detailed a simple approach to data collection, exploring exposure within a defined zone at river locations. River usage is dynamic, with people’s movement in and out of the water changing their risk exposure. Observational-based data collection for drowning, particularly for rivers, is an important yet highly neglected area of research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can Complexity-Thinking Methods Contribute to Improving Occupational Safety in Industry 4.0? A Review of Safety Analysis Methods and Their Concepts
Safety 2019, 5(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040065 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
With the introduction of Industry 4.0, occupational health and safety finds itself confronted with new types of hazards. Many Industry 4.0 innovations involve increased machine intelligence. These properties make socio-technical work in Industry 4.0 applications inherently more complex. At the same time, system [...] Read more.
With the introduction of Industry 4.0, occupational health and safety finds itself confronted with new types of hazards. Many Industry 4.0 innovations involve increased machine intelligence. These properties make socio-technical work in Industry 4.0 applications inherently more complex. At the same time, system failure can become more opaque to its users. This paper reviews and assesses safety analysis methods as the breakdown of interaction coupling in socio-technical systems on the one hand, and the degree of failure tractability on the other hand; the latter being used as a proxy for complexity. Previous literature confirms that traditional health and safety risk assessment methods are unable or are ‘ill-equipped’ to deal with these system properties. This paper studies the need to introduce new paradigms and safety methods related to complexity thinking with theories borrowed from the study of complex adaptive systems, all to assess the arena of abruptly changing hazards introduced by Industry 4.0. At the same time, this review makes clear that there is no one-solution-fits-all method. Occupational health and safety (OHS) covers many different hazard types and will need a combination of old, new and yet-to-be-developed safety assessment methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety New Challenges for Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
The Use of UAVs for Performing Safety-Related Tasks at Post-Disaster and Non-Critical Construction Sites
Safety 2019, 5(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040064 - 27 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2715
Abstract
Thanks to the wide diffusion of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), geomatics solutions have actively contributed to the field of safety enhancement and disaster risk reduction, supporting rapid mapping and documentation activities of the damages that have occurred to heritage buildings after natural disasters [...] Read more.
Thanks to the wide diffusion of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), geomatics solutions have actively contributed to the field of safety enhancement and disaster risk reduction, supporting rapid mapping and documentation activities of the damages that have occurred to heritage buildings after natural disasters (such as earthquakes) where, in this scenario it is even more important to plan and execute disaster assessment and response operations in safe conditions. In fact, the planning and execution of technical countermeasures in a seismic emergency response involve higher risks for the safety of the operators as compared with responses related to the activities performed at non-critical construction sites. After an analysis of the state of the art, this study aims to underline the possibilities offered by the use of UAVs for performing safety-related tasks, both at post-disaster and non-critical construction sites. First, a survey has been conducted concerning the main user expectations and characteristics that an ideal UAV platform should have in order to perform safety-related tasks at construction sites that are created following the initial emergency phases. The answers that were obtained have been compared with similar studies retrieved from the literature validating previously conducted research. The legislative context is also considered, as it is an important factor that influences the applicability of these platforms and technology. Along with a method for assessing and mitigating the intrinsic risk of using an UAV, the results of a survey submitted to experts in the field of safety at construction sites is also discussed, intending to identify requirements of the ideal platform and the related user expectations. The results are reported, together with a summary of considerations on the use of these strategies in the analyzed contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disaster Risk Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Number of Agricultural Fatal Injuries Prevented by Agricultural Engineering Developments in the United States
Safety 2019, 5(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040063 - 25 Sep 2019
Viewed by 2604
Abstract
Agriculture has been consistently marked as one of the deadliest industries by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). While this statistic is widely used in promoting agricultural safety and health, it does not paint a complete picture on the current status [...] Read more.
Agriculture has been consistently marked as one of the deadliest industries by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). While this statistic is widely used in promoting agricultural safety and health, it does not paint a complete picture on the current status of agricultural safety and the advances that have been made in the last century. For example, even with a stagnant rate of injury, the BLS has reported that fatal incidents decreased from a high of 855 incidents in 1993 to a low of 500 incidents in 2013. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact that agricultural engineering developments had on reducing fatal injuries. Agricultural engineering developments are defined as any agricultural improvement that results in a direct reduction in the amount of labor needed. This study uses existing federal agricultural statistical, injury and demographic data to calculate the impact that engineering, in contrast to yield improvements and safety enhancements, contributed to a reduction in the number of fatal incidents. The study found that engineering developments could have contributed to the reduction in the number of fatal injuries by about 170 incidents from 1992 to 2015. This represents 63% of the total reduction in the number of fatal injuries. In conclusion, agricultural engineering developments play a substantial role in reducing the number of fatal incidents by removing and reducing labor exposure to hazardous environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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