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Open AccessArticle

Leading Indicators—A Conceptual IoT-Based Framework to Produce Active Leading Indicators for Construction Safety

M. E. Rinker, Sr. School of Construction Management, University of Florida, 344 Rinker Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
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Safety 2019, 5(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040086
Received: 8 September 2019 / Revised: 8 November 2019 / Accepted: 11 December 2019 / Published: 16 December 2019
Active leading indicators (ALIs) have the potential to identify safety hazards and prompt immediate actions to prevent incidents. Currently, there is a major gap in research that incorporates a fully automated ALI system because implementation has been hindered by a lack of established industry thresholds of measurable performance that would trigger an actionable response. Therefore, this paper addresses this gap by presenting a new method that utilizes the Internet of Things (IoT) to collect quantifiable data which can trigger an actionable response in real time based on established thresholds. This novel method integrates the Construction Industry Institute (CII) active leading indicator framework with a prototype IoT-based system. Significantly, the ALI provides the physical–virtual feedback loop, which is an essential aspect of the IoT system because it provides real-time feedback to both the users and systems. This paper also identifies potential inputs to the ALI framework from emerging IoT-enabled systems. A case study was presented to initially validate the IoT-based ALI framework. Bluetooth-enabled heart rate monitors were issued to workers in a hazardous and critical mining construction site. The ALIs that were recorded included heart rate and body temperature. Thresholds were established that alerted the monitoring safety staff when a worker exhibited potentially unsafe conditions. The results of the study demonstrated the feasibility of the system. Additionally, other results included worker resistance; non-disclosing of medical conditions, and limitations for IoT connectivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: active leading indicators; leading indicators; construction safety; Internet of Things; safety management; Incident of Concern (IOC) active leading indicators; leading indicators; construction safety; Internet of Things; safety management; Incident of Concern (IOC)
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Costin, A.; Wehle, A.; Adibfar, A. Leading Indicators—A Conceptual IoT-Based Framework to Produce Active Leading Indicators for Construction Safety. Safety 2019, 5, 86.

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