Using sensors to monitor signals produced by drivers is a way to help better understand how emotions contribute to unsafe driving habits. The need for intuitive machines that can interpret intentional and unintentional signals is imperative for our modern world. However, in complex human–machine work environments, many sensors will not work due to compatibility issues, noise, or practical constraints. This review focuses on practical sensors that have the potential to provide reliable monitoring and meaningful feedback to vehicle operators—such as drivers, train operators, pilots, astronauts—as well as being feasible for implementation and integration with existing work infrastructure. Such an affect-sensitive intelligent vehicle might sound an alarm if signals indicate the driver has become angry or stressed, take control of the vehicle if needed, and collaborate with other vehicles to build a stress map that improves roadway safety. Toward such vehicles, this paper provides a review of emerging sensor technologies for driver monitoring. In our research, we look at sensors used in affect detection. This insight is especially helpful for anyone challenged with accurately understanding affective information, like the autistic population. This paper also includes material on sensors and feedback for drivers from populations that may have special needs.
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