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Horticulturae, Volume 8, Issue 3 (March 2022) – 87 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Salinity is one of the oldest and most serious environmental problems in the world. One strategy to address the growing problem of diffuse soils and water salinization is to grow salt-tolerant crops. In this review, we focus our attention on the most representative halophytes of the Mediterranean region and their potential as new or relatively new horticultural crops, which could expand the range of leafy vegetables on the market, based on their nutritional and nutraceutical properties. The main botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of these species were analyzed and discussed, as well as the potential health risk due to mycotoxigenic fungi. View this paper
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Article
Soilless Tomato Production: Effects of Hemp Fiber and Rock Wool Growing Media on Yield, Secondary Metabolites, Substrate Characteristics and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030272 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
Replacement of rock wool by organic substrates is considered to reduce the environmental impact, e.g., through energy savings during production and waste prevention, caused by hydroponically produced crops. A suitable substrate for plant production is characterized by an optimal composition of air- and [...] Read more.
Replacement of rock wool by organic substrates is considered to reduce the environmental impact, e.g., through energy savings during production and waste prevention, caused by hydroponically produced crops. A suitable substrate for plant production is characterized by an optimal composition of air- and water-filled pores. In our study, we used hemp fibers as an organic alternative to rock wool in order to cultivate tomato plants in hydroponics for 36 weeks. The leaf area, plant length, and yields, as well as the quality of fruits including soluble solid contents, dry weight content, mineral composition, and contents of phenolic compounds caused by both substrates, were similar. Carotenoids were significantly increased in fruits from plants grown in hemp at some measuring dates. Nevertheless, higher emission rates of greenhouse gases such as N2O, CO2, and CH4 caused by hemp fiber compared to those emitted by rock wool during use are rather disadvantageous for the environment. While hemp proved to be a suitable substrate in terms of some physical properties (total pore volume, bulk density), a lower volume of air and easily available water as well as very rapid microbial decomposition and the associated high nitrogen immobilization must be considered as disadvantages. Full article
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Article
Mulching Effect on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Yield in Sweet Potatoes
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030271 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Sweet potatoes have multiple uses as food, feed, and in industrial production. They are characterized by their need for high temperatures for optimal development. This study aimed to analyze the quantitative and qualitative aspects of growing sweet potato cultivars in southwest Romania using [...] Read more.
Sweet potatoes have multiple uses as food, feed, and in industrial production. They are characterized by their need for high temperatures for optimal development. This study aimed to analyze the quantitative and qualitative aspects of growing sweet potato cultivars in southwest Romania using mulching and non-mulching systems. The effects of mulching on the production of tuberous roots and the contents of total soluble substance, vitamin C, starch, total polyphenols, and antioxidant activity (DPPH) were evaluated in three cultivars with white pulp (the ‘Pumpkin’ and ‘Chestnut’ cultivars) and with orange pulp (the ‘Italian’ cultivar). It was found that mulching with polyethylene film improved the production of sweet potatoes, amounting to 41.42 t/ha in the case of the ‘Italian’ cultivar. Moreover, the effect of mulch induced increases in total soluble substance (16.40%) and starch (16.01%) in the ‘Chestnut’ cultivar, in vitamin C (9.23 mg/100 g d.w.) in the ‘Pumpkin’ cultivar, and in antioxidant activity in the ‘Pumpkin’ (2716.55 µmol AsA/g d.w.) and ‘Chestnut’ cultivars (1131.31 µmol AsA/g d.w.), while the polyphenols in the ‘Italian’ cultivar decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Protected Culture)
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Article
Integrative Effects of CO2 Concentration, Illumination Intensity and Air Speed on the Growth, Gas Exchange and Light Use Efficiency of Lettuce Plants Grown under Artificial Lighting
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030270 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 550
Abstract
This study investigates and quantifies the integrative effects of CO2 concentration (500, 1000 and 1500 µmol mol−1), illumination intensity (100, 200 and 300 μmol m−2 s−1) and air speed (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 m s−1) [...] Read more.
This study investigates and quantifies the integrative effects of CO2 concentration (500, 1000 and 1500 µmol mol−1), illumination intensity (100, 200 and 300 μmol m−2 s−1) and air speed (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 m s−1) on the growth, gas exchange and light use efficiency of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) grown under artificial lighting. The results show that lettuce growth and gas exchange are closely related to CO2 concentration and illumination intensity, while air speed enhances CO2 transport during photosynthesis. The most influential two-way interactions were observed between CO2 concentration and illumination intensity on the fresh and dry weights of lettuce shoots with effect sizes of 34% and 32%, respectively, and on the photosynthesis, transpiration and light use efficiency, with effect sizes of 52%, 47% and 41%, respectively. The most significant three-way interaction was observed for the photosynthetic rate, with an effect size of 51%. In general, the fresh and dry weights of lettuce plants increased by 36.2% and 20.1%, respectively, with an increase in CO2 concentration from 500 to 1500 µmol mol−1 and by 48.9% and 58.6%, respectively, with an increase in illumination intensity from 100 to 300 μmol m2 s−1. The photosynthetic rate was found to be positively correlated with CO2 concentration, illumination intensity and air speed. The transpiration rate and stomatal conductance increased by 34.9% and 42.1%, respectively, when the illumination intensity increased from 100 to 300 μmol m−2 s−1. However, as CO2 concentration increased from 500 to 1500 μmol mol−1 and air speed increased from 0.25 to 0.75 m s−1, the transpiration rate decreased by 17.5% and 12.8%, respectively. With the quantified data obtained, we were able to adequately determine how CO2 concentration, illumination intensity and air speed interact with their combined effects on the growth of lettuce plants grown in indoor cultivation systems with artificial lighting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vegetable Production Systems)
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Article
Converting Apple Textural Parameters Obtained from Penetrometers and Their Relationships with Sensory Attributes
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030269 - 20 Mar 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Textural attributes of apple impact consumers’ acceptance of the fruit, and are frequently measured by researchers and industry experts to evaluate the fruit quality at different stages of production and marketing. Various instruments are used to conduct these textural evaluations in research and [...] Read more.
Textural attributes of apple impact consumers’ acceptance of the fruit, and are frequently measured by researchers and industry experts to evaluate the fruit quality at different stages of production and marketing. Various instruments are used to conduct these textural evaluations in research and industry settings. The application of different instruments makes the comparison and integration of results extremely difficult. The main objectives of this study were to compare data obtained from three widely used textural instruments, investigate their relationships with each other and with sensory evaluations, and develop models to convert data among instruments. Three penetrometers were included in the study: (1) Fruit Texture Analyzer (FTA); (2) Mohr Digi-Test-2 (MDT-2); and (3) TA.XTplus Texture Analyzer (TA.XTplus). Eight apple varieties with a range of textural attributes were selected. Eleven sensory judges evaluated three apple slices (1/8 apple) from each variety. The instrumental measurements were conducted on 10 apples per instrument from each variety, with two measurements on each apple. Results of principal component analysis indicated that 95.82% of the variation in the texture data could be explained using only two principal components. Linear and nonlinear regression models were developed to convert data obtained from an instrument to those from other instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Postharvest Biology, Quality, Safety, and Technology)
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Communication
A Preliminary Study for Identifying Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Seed Production in Radish Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030268 - 20 Mar 2022
Viewed by 438
Abstract
The high yield of seeds can reduce the cost of seed production for parental lines, as well as F1 cultivars in radish. The number of seeds per silique and silique length are two important traits among traits determining seed yield, but no [...] Read more.
The high yield of seeds can reduce the cost of seed production for parental lines, as well as F1 cultivars in radish. The number of seeds per silique and silique length are two important traits among traits determining seed yield, but no study has been conducted on their quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in radish. A high-density linkage map was constructed, based on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of the F2 population, derived from two parental lines, significantly differed by the two traits, which were grown in a controlled environment to minimize the environmental effects. Using the map with 848 SNPs, three significant QTLs were identified, two and one of which were associated with the number of seeds per silique and silique length, respectively. Ortholog analysis was conducted with Arabidopsis thaliana genes, related to the number of seeds per silique, and revealed five radish putative candidate genes. These putative candidate genes appear to be related to ovule, embryo sac, embryo, pollen and seed development, as well as a double fertilization process. The method to pollinate the F2 population, as well as preliminary QTLs and SNPs therein, can be helpful for future QTL studies to improve seed production in radish breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Propagation and Seeds)
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Article
Cultivar Differences on Nutraceuticals of Grape Juices and Seeds
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030267 - 20 Mar 2022
Viewed by 524
Abstract
In this study, nutraceutical properties of fruit juice and seeds, which are important for human health, of green (Kabarcik, Cavus), red (red Globe) and black (Honusu, Yildiz, Yediveren and Helvani) skin colored grape cultivars grown in same ecological conditions were investigated. Harvest period, [...] Read more.
In this study, nutraceutical properties of fruit juice and seeds, which are important for human health, of green (Kabarcik, Cavus), red (red Globe) and black (Honusu, Yildiz, Yediveren and Helvani) skin colored grape cultivars grown in same ecological conditions were investigated. Harvest period, number of seeds, cluster form, cluster weight, berry weight, berry color and usage area were determined as morphological parameters. The Folin-Ciocalteu method was used for total phenol content analysis. The total antioxidant status of juices and seeds of grape cultivars have been determined by 2,2–diphenyl−1–picryl-hydrazyl–hydrate (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Seeds of all grape cultivars exhibited higher nutraceuticals than fruit juices. Total phenolic content of seed samples was found to be quite variable in range of 1.90 mg GAE/g (cv. Yildiz)–3.46 mg GAE/g (cv. Honusu) fresh weight base (FW), indicating 2 folds of differences between green and black grape cultivars. Green and black cultivars also showed the lowest and the highest total phenolic content in juices between 1.69 (cv. Yediveren) and 2.45 (cv. Honusu mg GAE/g FW). Seeds and fruit juices of all cultivars analyzed showed high antioxidant capacity and total phenol content. Of all different colored cultivars, black peel-colored cultivars had the highest values and combined better morphological and nutraceutical traits with an excellent berry qualitative profile for cv. Honusu and Helvani. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State-of-the-Art Horticulture in the Balkan Region)
Article
A Preliminary Investigation on the Functional Validation and Interactions of PoWOX Genes in Peony (Paeonia ostii)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030266 - 20 Mar 2022
Viewed by 543
Abstract
As a woody plant, peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) has a long growth cycle and inefficient traditional breeding techniques. There is an urgent need in peony molecular breeding to establish an efficient and stable in vitro regeneration and genetic transformation system, in order [...] Read more.
As a woody plant, peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) has a long growth cycle and inefficient traditional breeding techniques. There is an urgent need in peony molecular breeding to establish an efficient and stable in vitro regeneration and genetic transformation system, in order to overcome the recalcitrant characteristics of peony regeneration and shorten the breeding cycle. The development of plant somatic embryos is an important way to establish an efficient and stable in vitro regeneration and genetic transformation system. Plant-specific WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) family transcription factors play important roles in plant development, from embryogenesis to lateral organ development. Therefore, in this research, four PoWOX genes of “Fengdan” (Paeonia ostii) were cloned from the peony genome and transcriptome data of preliminary peony somatic embryos. The sequence characteristics and evolutionary relationships of the PoWOX genes were analyzed. It was demonstrated that the four PoWOX genes, named PoWOX1, PoWOX4, PoWOX11, and PoWOX13, belonged to three branches of the WOX gene family. Their expression patterns were analyzed at different stages of development and in different tissues of peony seedlings. The expression localization of the PoWOX genes was determined to be the nucleus via subcellular localization assay. Finally, the interaction protein of the PoWOX genes was identified via yeast two-hybrid assay combined with bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. It was shown that PoWOX1 and PoWOX13 proteins could form homodimers by themselves, and PoWOX11 interacted with PoWOX1 and PoWOX13 to form heterodimers. Peony stem cell activity may be regulated from PoWOX1 and PoWOX13 by forming dimers and moving to peony stem cells through plasmodesmata. Additionally, PoWOX11–PoWOX1 and PoWOX11–PoWOX13 may play important regulatory functions in promoting the proliferation of stem cells and maintaining the homeostasis of stem cells in the SAM of peony stems. Exploring the critical genes and regulatory factors in the development of the peony somatic embryo is beneficial not only to understand the molecular and regulatory mechanisms of peony somatic embryo development but also to achieve directed breeding and improvements in efficiency through genetic engineering breeding technology to accelerate the fundamental process of molecular breeding in peony. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics, Genomics, Breeding, and Biotechnology (G2B2))
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Review
Valorization Potential of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Seed: Nutraceutical Quality, Food Properties, Safety Aspects, and Application as a Health-Promoting Ingredient in Foods
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030265 - 19 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1012
Abstract
The tomato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is a crop that is widely cultivated around the world due to its sweet, sour, salty, juicy, and nutritious berries. The processing of tomatoes generates a significant amount of waste in the form [...] Read more.
The tomato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is a crop that is widely cultivated around the world due to its sweet, sour, salty, juicy, and nutritious berries. The processing of tomatoes generates a significant amount of waste in the form of tomato pomace, which includes seeds and skin. Tomato seeds are reservoirs of various nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins. These components make tomato seeds an important ingredient for application in food matrices. This review discusses the functional food properties of tomato seeds and their scope of utilization as major ingredients in the functional food industry. In addition, this review describes the development of tomato seeds as a potential nutritional and nutraceutical ingredient, along with recent updates on research conducted worldwide. This is the first review that demonstrates the nutritional profile of tomato seeds along with its diverse functional food properties and application as a functional food ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agro-Industrial By-Products and Their Bioactive Compounds)
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Article
VIS-NIR Modeling of Hydrangenol and Phyllodulcin Contents in Tea-Hortensia (Hydrangea macrophylla subsp. serrata)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030264 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 666
Abstract
Hyperspectral data are commonly used for the fast and inexpensive quantification of plant constituent estimation and quality control as well as in research and development applications. Based on chemical analysis, different models for dihydroisocoumarins (DHCs), namely hydrangenol (HG) and phyllodulcin (PD), were built [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral data are commonly used for the fast and inexpensive quantification of plant constituent estimation and quality control as well as in research and development applications. Based on chemical analysis, different models for dihydroisocoumarins (DHCs), namely hydrangenol (HG) and phyllodulcin (PD), were built using a partial least squares regression (PLSR). While HG is common in Hydrangea macrophylla, PD only occurs in cultivars of Hydrangea macrophylla subsp. serrata, also known as ‘tea-hortensia’. PD content varies significantly over the course of the growing period. For maximizing yield, a targeted estimation of PD content is needed. Nowadays, DHC contents are determined via UPLC, a time-consuming and a destructive method. In this research article we investigated PLSR-based models for HG and PD using three different spectrometers. Two separate trials were conducted to test for model quality. Measurement conditions, namely fresh or dried leaves and black or white background, did not influence model quality. While highly accurate modeling of HG and PD for single plants was not possible, the determination of the mean content on a larger scale was successful. The results of this study show that hyperspectral modeling as a decision support for farmers is feasible and provides accurate results on a field scale. Full article
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Article
Productivity Analysis and Employment Effects of Marigold Cultivation in Jammu, India
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030263 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 566
Abstract
The present study addresses the potential of marigold cultivation in terms of income and employment effects in the subtropical region of Jammu. Within the field research, we have surveyed 100 marigold farmers from Jammu and Kathua districts of Jammu Region. The region is [...] Read more.
The present study addresses the potential of marigold cultivation in terms of income and employment effects in the subtropical region of Jammu. Within the field research, we have surveyed 100 marigold farmers from Jammu and Kathua districts of Jammu Region. The region is of special interest in terms of economic development due to disproportional unemployment rate and high level of poverty. The study finds that marigold cultivation exhibits strong employment and income linkages. Marigold cultivation generates employment opportunities of 124.84 man-days (MD) in a season in comparison to 85.37 MD of rice and 49.58 MDs of wheat. Hence, marigold farming could create more and better-paid rural employment possibilities for peasants and lead to a substantial reduction of the poverty headcount ratios. Furthermore, the Cobb–Douglas production function-based econometric specification shows that farmyard manure (FYM), fertilizers, plant protection, and machine hours have a statistically significant positive effect on marigold yield. The second source of the growth of marigold cultivation is the replacement of subsistence farming with a focus on wheat and rice by marigold farming. We find that this kind of growth does not endanger food security in Jammu and Kathua districts. On the contrary, the growing level of income of the rural population could enhance market demand and a greater willingness to pay for the local agri-food sector and assure a greater level of food security. Full article
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Article
Relationship between Endogenous Ethylene Production and Firmness during the Ripening and Cold Storage of Raspberry (Rubus idaeus ‘Heritage’) Fruit
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030262 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 626
Abstract
The raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is an important fruit crop; however, its accelerated softening is a critical postharvest problem, even at low temperatures. Its softening has been partially associated with the endogenous production of ethylene from the receptacle during ripening. To understand [...] Read more.
The raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is an important fruit crop; however, its accelerated softening is a critical postharvest problem, even at low temperatures. Its softening has been partially associated with the endogenous production of ethylene from the receptacle during ripening. To understand the relationship between ethylene production and fruit quality at the beginning of the ripening process, the physiological and quality parameters were evaluated during the ripening of the ‘Heritage’ cultivar. Two storage assays, at 0 °C and 10 °C, were carried out with independent groups of fruits attached to their receptacle at the white stage of fruit development. The treatments included fruit treated with ethylene (1000 ppb) and ethylene perception inhibitor 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP, 1600 ppb) and a control treatment. During ripening, the endogenous production of ethylene in whole fruit was negatively correlated with the loss of firmness. During storage at 0 °C, firmness and ethylene production only decreased by the effect of storage time, with a firmness near 1.5 Newtons at 16 days. On the other hand, the storage at 10 °C showed a delay in the firmness loss and lower ethylene production of the fruit treated with 1-MCP, compared to the control and ethylene-treated fruit. In addition, these two last assays showed a firmness close to 1 Newton at 5 days. No significant differences were observed in the total soluble solids content and titratable acidity between the three treatments at the two storage temperatures. The results during ripening and storage at 10 °C indicate that the loss of the fruit’s firmness is positively related to the endogenous ethylene production of the whole fruit from 1 to 5 days of storage. Future assays should be performed to determine the role of ethylene in raspberry ripening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Handling of Horticultural Crops)
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Article
Salt Spray and Surfactants Induced Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Responses in Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Plants
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030261 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 437
Abstract
The growth and aesthetic value of ornamental plant species used near coastlines are negatively influenced by salt spray. The presence of surfactants could enhance salt damage. To analyze the influences of salt spray and surfactants alone and in combination with each other, individual [...] Read more.
The growth and aesthetic value of ornamental plant species used near coastlines are negatively influenced by salt spray. The presence of surfactants could enhance salt damage. To analyze the influences of salt spray and surfactants alone and in combination with each other, individual Callistemon plants were subjected to different treatments for 8 weeks: a solution simulating the composition of seawater (salt spray), a solution containing an anionic surfactant (surfactant), a solution with salt spray and anionic surfactant (salt plus surfactants), and deionized water (control). To study the influence of different climatic conditions, two growing periods, from January to March (I CP) and from May to July (II CP), were established. Salt spray, alone or with surfactant action, influences plants’ growth and aesthetic features in different cycle periods. The percentage of leaf damage significantly increased with salt spray and salt plus surfactants during II CP (~27%). Additionally, the Na+ and Cl contents were enhanced in the leaves in both CPs, but the contents in the roots were only enhanced in the II CP. The gas exchanges were significantly influenced by the treatments, especially during the II CP, when a reduction in net photosynthesis due to salt spray was observed starting from the second week of stress. At the end of the experiment, in both cycle periods, the leaf proline content increased in the salt spray and salt plus surfactants treatments. In both CPs, PCA revealed that the morphological and physiological parameters were directly associated with the control and surfactants treatments, whereas the mineral contents and biochemical parameters were directly correlated with the salt and salt plus surfactants treatments. The additive effect of surfactant stress, compared to salt stress, did not appear to be significant, with the exception of CP II, and for some parameters, the solubilization action of surfactants was favored by higher temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Physiology under Abiotic Stresses)
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Article
Exogenous Melatonin Enhances Cold Resistance by Improving Antioxidant Defense and Cold-Responsive Genes’ Expression in Banana
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030260 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Accumulated evidence has revealed the mitigation effects of exogenous melatonin on cold stress in plants. In this study, to investigate the defensive roles of exogenous melatonin in banana under cold stress, we researched the influences of exogenous melatonin on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, [...] Read more.
Accumulated evidence has revealed the mitigation effects of exogenous melatonin on cold stress in plants. In this study, to investigate the defensive roles of exogenous melatonin in banana under cold stress, we researched the influences of exogenous melatonin on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, antioxidant defense indexes and expression levels of cold-responsive genes in cold-stressed ‘Brazil’ banana seedlings. Results showed that 100 μM of exogenous melatonin achieved the best cold-resistance-promoting effect in banana. Exogenous melatonin treatment significantly increased the electron transfer rate, light harvesting efficiency, total antioxidant capacity, catalase and superoxidase activities and proline and soluble sugar contents and significantly reduced the accumulations of malondialdehyde, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in the leaves of cold-stressed banana. In addition, under cold stress, melatonin significantly induced the expression of low-temperature-responsive genes, such as MaChiI1, MaCSD1C, MaWhy1, MaKIN10, MaADA1 and MaHOS1. It was concluded that the application of exogenous melatonin enhanced antioxidant defense and induced the expression of cold-responsive genes, thereby improving the cold resistance of banana. Our study will provide a basis for the application of exogenous melatonin in improving plant cold resistance. Full article
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Article
The Bioactive Compounds and Fatty Acid Profile of Bitter Apple Seed Oil Obtained in Hot, Arid Environments
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030259 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 518
Abstract
Bitter apple or tumba (Citrullus colocynthis L.) is a prostrate annual herb belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. It is highly tolerant against multiple abiotic stresses like drought, heat, and soil salinity and can easily grow on very marginal soil, even on sand [...] Read more.
Bitter apple or tumba (Citrullus colocynthis L.) is a prostrate annual herb belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. It is highly tolerant against multiple abiotic stresses like drought, heat, and soil salinity and can easily grow on very marginal soil, even on sand dunes in hot, arid regions. Tumba fruit is a fleshy berry 5–10 cm in diameter and of a pale yellow color at ripening. The tumba fruit used in this research was harvested from the ICAR-CIAH, Bikaner research farm. The seeds were separated, and their oil was extracted to analyze its physical characteristics and composition (phytochemical compounds, fatty acid profile, etc.). The seeds of the tumba fruit contained 23–25% golden-yellow-colored oil with a specific gravity of 0.92 g/mL. The extracted oil contained appreciable amounts of phytochemical (bioactive) compounds like phenolics (5.39 mg GAE/100 g), flavonoids (938 mg catechin eq./100 g), carotenoids (79.5 mg/kg), oryzanol (0.066%), and lignans (0.012%), along with 70–122 mg AAE/100 g total antioxidant activity (depending on the determination method). The results of fatty acid profiling carried out by GC-MS/MS demonstrated that tumba seed oil contained about 70% unsaturated fatty acids with more than 51% polyunsaturated fatty acids. It mainly contained linoleic acid (C18:2n6; 50.3%), followed by oleic acid (C18:1n9; 18.0%), stearic acid (C18:0; 15.2%), and palmitic acid (C16:0; 12.4%). Therefore, this oil can be considered as a very good source of essential fatty acids like omega-6 fatty acid (linoleic acid), whereas it contains a lower concentration of omega-3 fatty acids (α-linolenic acid) and hydroxy polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, it also contains some odd chain fatty acids like pentadecanoic and heptadecanoic acid (C15:0 and C17:0, respectively), which have recently been demonstrated to be bioactive compounds in reducing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. The results of this study suggest that tumba seed oil contains several health-promoting bioactive compounds with nutraceutical properties; hence, it can be an excellent dietary source. Full article
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Article
Packaging Design to Protect Hongmeiren Orange Fruit from Mechanical Damage during Simulated and Road Transportation
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030258 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 567
Abstract
Hongmeiren is a high-quality orange fruit but susceptible to mechanical damage. This work proposes a new packaging format (Packaging C), which used the plastic partition boards to separate the folding plastic basket to avoid the fruits from crushing each other, and used a [...] Read more.
Hongmeiren is a high-quality orange fruit but susceptible to mechanical damage. This work proposes a new packaging format (Packaging C), which used the plastic partition boards to separate the folding plastic basket to avoid the fruits from crushing each other, and used a PU foam layer and placed it along the inside of the EPE foam layer to meet the different sizes of fruits. The results show that under both 3 and 10 h of simulated transportation, Packaging C achieved a much lower damage and decay rates than Packaging A (plastic bulk containers), and this was further verified by the road transportation. Besides, Packaging C could avoid dents in the peel of some large fruits compared to the gift packaging (Packaging B). Although the use of inner packaging could increase the use of packaging, it can reduce the waste of cultivation and transportation resources caused by not being able to deliver the fruit to the consumer, as well as environmental pollution caused by fruit decay. Moreover, low temperature (10 °C) and high humidity (90% RH) during transportation could further reduce the damage and packages at the rear position obtained a higher damage rate than at the front position, but no obvious difference was found between stack heights. Full article
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Article
Exogenous Melatonin Protects Lime Plants from Drought Stress-Induced Damage by Maintaining Cell Membrane Structure, Detoxifying ROS and Regulating Antioxidant Systems
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030257 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Lime is an important commercial product in tropical and subtropical regions, where drought stress is becoming one of the most severe environmental challenges in the agricultural sector. Melatonin is an antioxidant molecule that helps plants regulate their development and respond to a variety [...] Read more.
Lime is an important commercial product in tropical and subtropical regions, where drought stress is becoming one of the most severe environmental challenges in the agricultural sector. Melatonin is an antioxidant molecule that helps plants regulate their development and respond to a variety of stresses. In this research, the effects of exogenous melatonin treatments were evaluated at different concentrations (0, 50, 100, and 150 μM) on biochemical aspects and gene expression in two species of lime plants (“Mexican lime” and “Persian lime”) under normal (100% field capacity (FC)) and drought stress conditions (75% and 40% FC). The experiments were factorial and based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replicates. Drought stress caused electrolyte leakage (EL) as well as accumulations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), indicating the occurrence of damage to cellular membranes. In contrast, the melatonin pretreatment at various concentrations reduced the levels of EL, H2O2 and MDA while mitigating the negative effects of drought stress on the two lime species. The application of melatonin (100-μM) significantly increased the level of proline content and activity of antioxidant enzymes in plants under drought stress compared to control plants. According to real-time PCR analysis, drought stress and melatonin treatment enhanced the expression of genes involved in ROS scavenging, proline biosynthesis, and cell redox regulation in both species, as compared to their respective controls. According to these findings, melatonin is able to detoxify ROS and regulate antioxidant systems, thereby protecting lime plants from drought stress-induced damages. Full article
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Article
The Agro-Economic Feasibility of Growing the Medicinal Plant Euphorbia peplus in a Modified Vertical Hydroponic Shipping Container
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030256 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 760
Abstract
Vertical farming is considered as a potential solution to increase yield while decreasing resource use and pesticide impacts compared to conventional agriculture. However, the profitability of cultivating ordinary leafy green crops with low market prices in vertical farming is debated. We studied the [...] Read more.
Vertical farming is considered as a potential solution to increase yield while decreasing resource use and pesticide impacts compared to conventional agriculture. However, the profitability of cultivating ordinary leafy green crops with low market prices in vertical farming is debated. We studied the agronomic feasibility and viability of growing a medicinal plant—Euphorbia peplus—for its ingenol-mebutate content in a modified shipping container farm as an alternative crop cultivation system. The impacts of three hydroponic substrates, three light intensities, three plant localizations and two surface areas on E. peplus yield and cost were tested in several scenarios. The optimization of biomass yield and area surface decreased the cultivation cost, with fresh crop cost per kg ranging from €185 to €59. Three ingenol-mebutate extraction methods were tested. The best extraction yields and cheapest method can both be attributed to ethyl acetate at 120 °C, with a yield of 43.8 mg/kg at a cost of €38 per mg. Modeling of the profitability of a pharmaceutical gel based on ingenol-mebutate showed that economic feasibility was difficult to reach, but some factors could rapidly increase the profitability of this production. Full article
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Article
Resistance Monitoring for Six Insecticides in Vegetable Field-Collected Populations of Spodoptera litura from China
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030255 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), is a notorious and damaging insect pest of horticultural crops in China, the management of which largely relies on chemical agents that are limited by the development of chemical resistance in target populations. As such, resistance monitoring [...] Read more.
The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), is a notorious and damaging insect pest of horticultural crops in China, the management of which largely relies on chemical agents that are limited by the development of chemical resistance in target populations. As such, resistance monitoring of S. litura populations is a necessary part of management strategies of insecticide resistance. In the current work, we monitored resistance to six insecticides in field-collected populations of S. litura sampled from eleven provinces across China in 2021. The results show that S. litura populations developed significant resistance against chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, metaflumizone, and pyridalyl and low levels of resistance to chromafenozide. However, S. litura populations were susceptible or exhibited minimal resistance to tetraniliprole. Possible cross-resistances between chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, metaflumizone, pyridalyl, and chromafenozide were found by pairwise correlation, which also revealed that tetraniliprole lacked cross-resistance with all insecticides tested. Our results suggest suspending the use of chemical agents against which S. litura displayed significant field-evolved resistance, such as chlorantraniliprole, metaflumizone, and pyridalyl, in favor of pesticides against which S. litura was susceptible or exhibited minimal resistance, such as tetraniliprole and chromafenozide, which may help slow the development of insecticide resistance, and in which field management programs aimed at controlling S. litura in China would benefit from the integration of such survey-informed insecticide application strategies. Moreover, the baseline susceptibility confirmed for the six tested insecticides can contribute to design strategies of resistance management for S. litura. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Disease and Pest Management of Vegetables)
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Article
Agronomic Performance of Sweet Orange Genotypes under the Brazilian Humid Subtropical Climate
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030254 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 568
Abstract
The diversification of Citrus spp. orchards, for both scion and rootstock genotypes, is essential to prevent outbreaks of insects and diseases, improve yield and fruit quality, and extend harvesting and industrial juice processing. Furthermore, this enables growers to obtain higher off-season profits. Citrus [...] Read more.
The diversification of Citrus spp. orchards, for both scion and rootstock genotypes, is essential to prevent outbreaks of insects and diseases, improve yield and fruit quality, and extend harvesting and industrial juice processing. Furthermore, this enables growers to obtain higher off-season profits. Citrus plantings were prohibited in most regions of the state of Paraná in the past due to the spread of citrus canker disease. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of distinct early- and mid-season sweet orange cultivars (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck) regarding vegetative growth, fruit quality, and yield under the Brazilian humid subtropical climate in order to select new alternatives of sweet orange for the industrial and fresh fruit markets. The experimental orchard was planted in 2012 with 15 sweet orange cultivars (early-maturing: Bahia Cabula, Diva, Cadenera, Marrs, Midsweet, Paulista, Rubi, and Westin; mid-season maturing: Berna Peret, Jaffa, Khalily White, Fukuhara, Seleta do Rio, Seleta Tardia, and Shamouti) grafted on Rangpur lime (C. limonia (L.) Osbeck). The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replicates and five trees per plot, analyzed between each maturation group. Data were submitted to analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test (p ≤ 0.05). Regarding the early-season cultivars, Diva had the tallest trees with largest canopy diameter and volume, differing from Marrs, which had the smallest trees. Shamouti and Khalily White trees were greatly different from all other mid-season cultivars and produced low fruit load over the evaluated period. The early-season Midsweet scored the highest yield and technological index, similar to the mid-season Berna Peret, producing fruits of high juice quality. These genotypes are more effective under the current situation faced by the citrus industry, as the economic life of orchards has been reduced due huanglongbing (HLB). Altogether, Midsweet and Berna Peret genotypes, previously reported as being less susceptible to citrus canker under the same soil–climate condition, are precocious and exhibit higher agronomic potential to be planted in humid subtropical climates, including Brazil and other similar areas around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology and Management of Fruit Quality in Citrus and Kiwifruits)
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Article
Seasonal Fluctuations of Crop Yield, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fresh or Cooked Borage (Borago officinalis L.), Mallow (Malva sylvestris L.) and Buck’s-Horn Plantain (Plantago coronopus L.) Leaves
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030253 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The interest for wild edible plants as functional food is increasing among consumers in the Mediterranean countries because of their high content of antioxidants. However, a critical point is the seasonality of wild edible species due to their spontaneity and the cultivation results [...] Read more.
The interest for wild edible plants as functional food is increasing among consumers in the Mediterranean countries because of their high content of antioxidants. However, a critical point is the seasonality of wild edible species due to their spontaneity and the cultivation results necessary to satisfy market requests. Moreover, cooking may be necessary for most wild edible species to enhance their palatability. In the present experiment, the crop yield, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) of leaves were determined in three wild edible species (Borago officinalis L., Malva sylvestris L. and Plantago coronopus L.), which were hydroponically cultivated in winter and in spring. Plants were recurrently harvested three times and the leaves were analyzed raw or after boiling in water for different times based on their palatability as evaluated by a hedonic test (2 min for B. officinalis, 2.5 min for M. sylvestris and 8 min for P. coronopus). The total crop yield was promising, especially for P. coronopus, with small differences between winter and spring (9.3 and 13.8 kg m−2, respectively). The boiling treatment caused a loss of TPC and, in some cases, of the AA in B. officinalis and M. sylvestris due to the solubilization of phenolic and other antioxidant compounds in boiling water. Conversely, in P. coronopus, TPC and AA were higher in boiled leaves than in fresh leaves, likely due to the strong binding of phenolic compounds to the cell wall. This binding might lead to the inefficient extraction of these compounds through the boiling treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinals, Herbs, and Specialty Crops)
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Article
Protein Extract of Tobacco Expressing Solanum torvum PP5-Encoding Gene Inhibits Verticillium dahliae Proliferation
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030252 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Verticillium wilt, a soilborne disease caused by Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae), can severely affect the yields of Solanaceae crops. In a previous study, it was observed in Solanum torvum (S. torvum) that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) was induced by [...] Read more.
Verticillium wilt, a soilborne disease caused by Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae), can severely affect the yields of Solanaceae crops. In a previous study, it was observed in Solanum torvum (S. torvum) that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) was induced by V. dahliae infection. To elucidate the function of PP5 more clearly, this study cloned an StPP5 cDNA from S. torvum by PCR. The cDNA contained an ORF of 1458 bp long encoding a putative protein of 485 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 54.63 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.66. StPP5 protein contained a conserved PP domain and showed high similarity to other homologous members of the PP5 family from various plant species. The expression of StPP5 gene was upregulated after V. infection and reached its maximum value at 24 h in leaves. In order to clarify the role of StPP5, four transgenic tobacco plants expressing StPP5 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and identified by PCR. In vitro culture assay showed that the growth of V. dahliae in PDA medium containing proteins extracted from the leaves of transgenic tobacco line P6 was inhibited, whose inhibition rate was 55.1%, higher than the non-transgenic control. These results indicated that StPP5 might be involved in plant defense against V. dahliae infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Engineering and Quality Improvement in Vegetable Crops)
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Article
Effects of Nonthermal Plasma (NTP) on the Growth and Quality of Baby Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. acephala Alef.) Cultivated in an Indoor Hydroponic Growing System
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030251 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 596
Abstract
The aim of this research was to develop an effective protocol for the application of nonthermal plasma (NTP) technology to the hydroponic nutrient solution, and to investigate its effects on the growth and quality of baby leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. acephala [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to develop an effective protocol for the application of nonthermal plasma (NTP) technology to the hydroponic nutrient solution, and to investigate its effects on the growth and quality of baby leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. acephala Alef.) grown in a hydroponic growing system (HGS) specifically designed for indoor home cultivation. Four HGSs were placed in separate growth chambers with temperature of 24 ± 1 °C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%). Lettuce plants were grown for nine days in nutrient solutions treated with NTP for 0 (control) to 120 s every hour. Results of the first experiments showed that the optimal operating time of NTP was 120 s h−1. Fresh leaf biomass was increased by the 60 and 120 s NTP treatments compared to the control. Treating the nutrient solution with NTP also resulted in greater leaf content of total chlorophylls, carotenoids, total phenols, and total antioxidant capacity. NTP also positively influenced chlorophyll a fluorescence in Photosystem I (PSI) and photosynthetic electron transport. These results revealed that the NTP treatment of the nutrient solution could improve the production and quality of hydroponically grown baby leaf lettuce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Farming and Artificial Cultivation)
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Article
Lemongrass Growth, Essential Oil, and Active Substances as Affected by Water Deficit
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030250 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 432
Abstract
Environmental stress has a major influence on the growth and quality of medicinal plants. More than half of the agricultural land worldwide suffers from a lack of water. In this study, we estimated the effect of different irrigation intervals on growth, yield, and [...] Read more.
Environmental stress has a major influence on the growth and quality of medicinal plants. More than half of the agricultural land worldwide suffers from a lack of water. In this study, we estimated the effect of different irrigation intervals on growth, yield, and essential oil content as well as their effect on the main compounds of the essential oil of lemongrass, Cymbopogon citratus. The major objective was to test how much irrigation consumption can be lowered without a significant impact on yield and quality properties. Water deficit led to significant decreases in growth characteristics including the number of tillers as well as fresh and dry herb yield. In addition, the relative leaf greenness decreased under water deficit, especially in plants irrigated every 20 days. In contrast, proline content increased with increasing water deficit, especially in plants irrigated every 15 and 20 days. Essential oil percentage also increased under a water deficit condition, and the highest essential oil percentage was observed in plants irrigated every 15 and 20 days. However, the yield of essential oil per plant significantly decreased due to decreasing the herb yield. GC-MS analysis identified 31 compounds, mainly geranial and neral. Geranial and neral percentage decreased under a water deficit of 10-day irrigation intervals but increased with increasing the water deficit severity at irrigation intervals of 15 and 20 days. These results suggest that the lemongrass plant was sensitive to drought. Nevertheless, the quality represented by essential oil percentage and the main active substances improved with prolonging the irrigation intervals. This study recommends increasing irrigation intervals to 10 days to maintain small decreases in the yield with higher quality. In addition, it is recommended to conduct more studies to improve the growth of lemongrass under water shortage conditions. Full article
Article
Production Methods for High Yielding Plants of Everbearing Strawberry in the Nordic Climate
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030249 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 474
Abstract
Environmental conditions during plant raising determine the yield potential of everbearing strawberries. We studied the effect of three rooting dates in the cultivars ‘Favori’ and ‘Murano’ in a greenhouse with 18 ℃ and 20-h long day and under outdoor conditions in Norway. The [...] Read more.
Environmental conditions during plant raising determine the yield potential of everbearing strawberries. We studied the effect of three rooting dates in the cultivars ‘Favori’ and ‘Murano’ in a greenhouse with 18 ℃ and 20-h long day and under outdoor conditions in Norway. The highest yield of 1.350 g/plant was obtained in ‘Favori’ plants rooted on 1 August and raised outdoors, being at level with ‘Favori’ plants produced in The Netherlands. High yields were mainly related to fruit size and less to fruit number, and determined by a complex three-factor interaction of rooting date, raising environment, and cultivar. The seasonal pattern of fruit flushes and off periods varied significantly between cultivars and treatments. The large first flush of high yielding ‘Favori’ plants was associated with a long off period, while the small first flush in ‘Murano’ resulted in a more even crop distribution. Earliness of ripening and berry harvest was superior in ‘Favori’, which had a larger share of its crop during the first half-season. We conclude that it is possible by choosing the right rooting date and raising environment to produce plants with the same high quality and yield potential under the cool Nordic conditions as those currently produced in Central Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Productivity of Berry Fruits)
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Article
Effect of Seawater Irrigation on the Sugars, Organic Acids, and Volatiles in ‘Reliance’ Grape
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030248 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Ongoing climate change in recent decades exacerbated the decline in agricultural water use, and seawater irrigation could feasibly alleviate the shortage of water resources, which restricts viticulture in some countries. However, studies on the effects of seawater irrigation on grape volatiles are limited. [...] Read more.
Ongoing climate change in recent decades exacerbated the decline in agricultural water use, and seawater irrigation could feasibly alleviate the shortage of water resources, which restricts viticulture in some countries. However, studies on the effects of seawater irrigation on grape volatiles are limited. Herein, ‘Reliance’ grapevines were irrigated with diluted seawater (10% concentrations) in the field since the pea-size berry stage (S1), stage EL 32 (S2), and the pre-veraison period (S3) every seven days. Results showed irrigation with seawater significantly increased the sugar content and decreased the organic acids when compared with the control berries. Seawater irrigation did not induce secondary soil salinization, and it enhanced the volatiles in the fatty acid and isoprene pathways without affecting the amino acid pathway aroma. More terpenes were found in seawater-treated berries, including citronellol, β-myrcene, α-terpineol, and trans-rose oxide. Gene profiling by RT-qPCR analysis revealed that VvLOXA could be the primary gene in C6 volatile biosynthesis altered by the seawater. Moreover, seawater irrigation during the pea-size period had the best effect on fruit quality. This work adds to our understanding of the effect of seawater irrigation on grape aroma quality and provides a sufficient basis for the utilization of seawater in vineyards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture under Constantly Changing Climate Conditions)
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Review
Resistance Management through Brassica Crop–TuMV–Aphid Interactions: Retrospect and Prospects
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030247 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is an important threat to the yield and quality of brassica crops in China, and has brought serious losses to brassica crops in the Far East, including China and the north. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea) are the main mediators of [...] Read more.
Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is an important threat to the yield and quality of brassica crops in China, and has brought serious losses to brassica crops in the Far East, including China and the north. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea) are the main mediators of TuMV transmission in field production, and not only have strong virus transmission ability (small individuals, strong concealment, and strong fecundity), but are also influenced by the environment, making them difficult to control. Till now, there have been few studies on the resistance to aphids in brassica crops, which depended mainly on pesticide control in agriculture production. However, the control effect was temporarily effective, which also brought environmental pollution, pesticide residues in food products, and destroyed the ecological balance. This study reviews the relationship among brassica crop–TuMV, TuMV–aphid, and brassica crop–aphid interactions, and reveals the influence factors (light, temperature, and CO2 concentration) on brassica crop–TuMV–aphid interactions, summarizing the current research status and main scientific problems about brassica crop–TuMV–aphid interactions. It may provide theoretical guidance for opening up new ways of aphid and TuMV management in brassica crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Disease and Pest Management of Vegetables)
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Editorial
Propagation and Postharvest of Fruit Crops
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030246 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 395
Abstract
In fruit crops, plant propagation plays an important role as it allows the number of plants produced to be rapidly multiplied while retaining desirable characteristics from the mother plants and shortening the bearing age of plants [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Propagation and Post-harvest of Fruit Crops)
Article
Comparison of Aroma Trait of the White-Fleshed Peach ‘Hu Jing Mi Lu’ and the Yellow-Fleshed Peach ‘Jin Yuan’ Based on Odor Activity Value and Odor Characteristics
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030245 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 455
Abstract
Peach flesh colors and aromas impact greatly on consumer behaviors and these two traits are closely associated in white- and yellow-fleshed peaches. However, current understanding of their aromas is rather limited and confined to the concentration differences of some volatiles. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
Peach flesh colors and aromas impact greatly on consumer behaviors and these two traits are closely associated in white- and yellow-fleshed peaches. However, current understanding of their aromas is rather limited and confined to the concentration differences of some volatiles. Therefore, this study aims to compare the overall aromas of the white-fleshed peach ‘Hu Jing Mi Lu’ (HJML) and yellow-fleshed peach ‘Jin Yuan’ (JY), two fresh cultivars with intense aromas and industrial influence by applications such as HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis, odor activity value evaluations, and odor note analysis. The significant contributions of 26 odor-active compounds to their aromas were revealed. Among which, 15 compounds showed no concentration differences and contributed to the fruity, floral, sweet, etc., odors in both HJML and JY; (E)-2-nonenal, 1-pentanol, and styrene showed significantly higher concentrations in HJML and conveyed much stronger fusel-like and balsamic odors; likewise, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, octanal, nonanal, and 3,5-octadien-2-one showed significantly higher concentrations in JY and conveyed much stronger banana, citrus-like, and honey odors; besides, benzyl alcohol, 1-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 3-octanone with woody, earthy, mushroom, and lavender odors were exclusively detected in HJML. Overall, apart from the common and stronger specific odors in either the white- or yellow-fleshed peach cultivar, the white-fleshed peach was endowed with a unique aroma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Postharvest Biology, Quality, Safety, and Technology)
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Article
Commercial Potato Cultivars Exhibit Distinct Susceptibility to the Root Lesion Nematode Pratylenchus penetrans
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030244 - 12 Mar 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans is an important plant-parasitic nematode of potato. In this study, the susceptibility of commercial potato cultivars to P. penetrans was assessed. Nematode penetration was evaluated in cultivars Agria, Camel, Kennebec, Laura, Royata, and Stemster at 1, 3, [...] Read more.
The root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans is an important plant-parasitic nematode of potato. In this study, the susceptibility of commercial potato cultivars to P. penetrans was assessed. Nematode penetration was evaluated in cultivars Agria, Camel, Kennebec, Laura, Royata, and Stemster at 1, 3, 7, and 15 days after inoculation (DAI) with 750 nematodes/plant, and an egression assay at 3 DAI with 1000 nematodes/plant. Reproduction assays of cultivars Agata, Agria, Camel, Désirée, Dirosso, Kennebec, Laura, Picasso, Royata, and Stemster were performed in 2 L pots inoculated with four P. penetrans/g soil and quantified at 60 DAI. Tenue or moderate root cell browning to advanced necrotic areas were observed after nematode penetration, and the number of nematodes/g of root gradually increased with time of infection. A lower number of deposited eggs and nematodes were observed within the roots of cultivar Laura in all assays comparatively to other cultivars. The susceptibility index (SI) was significantly lower in cultivar Laura (0.4–0.6), followed by cultivars Camel and Picasso (0.8–0.9). All remaining cultivars showed SI values above 1. Although the potato susceptibility to the nematode varied among cultivars, no differences on the average number or weight of tubers produced by each plant of inoculated versus non-inoculated plants were detected. Our data reveals that these cultivars have a distinct ability to support the reproduction of P. penetrans. Full article
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Article
Platanus hybrida’s Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Power, and Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030243 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 899
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are a threat to public health as they frequently reveal a multidrug-resistant pattern. Researchers all over the world are on an urgent hunt for new treatments to help fight infections before antibiotics become obsolete, and some natural alternatives, such [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are a threat to public health as they frequently reveal a multidrug-resistant pattern. Researchers all over the world are on an urgent hunt for new treatments to help fight infections before antibiotics become obsolete, and some natural alternatives, such as polyphenols, have already exhibited therapeutic properties. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial activity against MRSA of the leaf, fruit, and stem bark extracts of Platanus hybrida. The polyphenols were extracted with a water/ethanol (20:80) mixture and the methodology included HPLC-DAD, DPPH, FRAP, and CuPRAC. To address this issue from a One Health perspective, the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method was performed against nine MRSA strains from three different sources (livestock, wild animals, and humans). Fourteen phenolics were identified and the leaf extract showed the highest phenolic content, followed by the fruit extract. The leaf extract also showed the highest antioxidant capacity while the fruit extract had the lowest antioxidant capacity. Both leaf and fruit extracts inhibited the growth of strains from all sources, while the stem bark extract did not inhibit the growth of human strains. This work highlights the complex chemical composition and the antioxidative and antimicrobial potential of extracts derived from P. hydrida. Full article
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