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Horticulturae, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Punicalagin Content and Antifungal Activity of Different Pomegranate (Punica ganatum L.) Genotypes
Horticulturae 2019, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5030052
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
This study investigated the antifungal activity of a number of pomegranate genotypes. Since the main compound of pomegranate extract is punicalagin, an important substance involved in antifungal and antimicrobial activity, we analyzed the contents of punicalagin (α and β) in 21 different pomegranate [...] Read more.
This study investigated the antifungal activity of a number of pomegranate genotypes. Since the main compound of pomegranate extract is punicalagin, an important substance involved in antifungal and antimicrobial activity, we analyzed the contents of punicalagin (α and β) in 21 different pomegranate genotypes. Ellagic acid content, total phenolic content, acidity and pH were also determined. This work allowed us to determine which genotypes of pomegranate can be used to obtain extracts with the highest content of punicalagin, with the goal of developing a green alternative to synthetic pesticides. To improve the extraction system from pomegranate peel fruits, several different solvents were tested. All the pomegranate genotypes tested showed antifungal activity; some genotypes were able to almost completely inhibit the fungus, while others had very low inhibitory activity. Research results also showed that the use of water as a solvent for extraction is very effective, especially when it is combined with ethanol. This is very important for the practical use of the extracts since water is economical and environmentally friendly. The research showed that among the genotypes there is also great variability regarding the chemical parameters. Genotypes with a high phenolic and punicalagin content were significantly correlated with antifungal activity. All the other chemical parameters (pH, titratable acidity and ellagic acid content) were not correlated with antifungal activity. The results obtained indicate that the fruits of some pomegranate genotypes could be used to obtain extracts very rich in punicalagins and that these substances could be used as an alternative to synthetic products to control plant disease and improve the quality of the plant products, avoiding the impact of synthetic chemicals on the environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of LED Lighting and Gibberellic Acid Supplementation on Potted Ornamentals
Horticulturae 2019, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5030051
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 26 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
Use of light emitting diode (LED) technology is beginning to replace traditional lighting in greenhouses. This research focused on the effects of LED lighting and gibberellic acid supplementation on growth and flowering of Dahlia spp. ‘Karma Serena’, Liatris spicata ‘Kobold’, and Lilium asiatic [...] Read more.
Use of light emitting diode (LED) technology is beginning to replace traditional lighting in greenhouses. This research focused on the effects of LED lighting and gibberellic acid supplementation on growth and flowering of Dahlia spp. ‘Karma Serena’, Liatris spicata ‘Kobold’, and Lilium asiatic ‘Yellow Cocotte’. Light treatments, used to extend photoperiod, included LED flowering lamps and halogen lamps that emitted a combination of red + far-red + white, red + white, and broad spectrum from late fall to early spring. Gibberellic acid treatments ranged from 40 to 340 mg L−1 for Asiatic lily ‘Yellow Cocotte’, 50 to 250 for gayfeather ‘Kobold’, and 50 to 150 for dahlia ‘Karma Serena’. Results varied within species in response to light and gibberellic acid. A significant interaction of light with gibberellic acid influenced mean flower number and flowering percentage for dahlia ‘Karma Serena’, while flowering percentage and flower diameter were influenced for Asiatic lily ‘Yellow Cocotte’. Effect of light was most significant on growth and flowering measurements, especially for gayfeather ‘Kobold’ and dahlia ‘Karma Serena’. For gayfeather ‘Kobold’, flowering occurred two weeks earlier under sole LED lighting than under other light treatments and no supplemental light. Although flowering occurred the earliest for dahlia ‘Karma Serena’ under no supplemental light, plants under light treatments had greater height, width, and shoot weight. Significant effects of gibberellic acid on growth and flowering measurements for dahlia ‘Karma Serena’ and Asiatic lily ‘Yellow Cocotte’ were observed for height, width, and flower number. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Selection of Heat Tolerant Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Cultivars Grown in Deep Water Culture and Their Marketability
Horticulturae 2019, 5(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5030050
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
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Abstract
Lettuce is a cool season vegetable often produced in greenhouses and other protective structures to meet market demands. Greenhouses are being increasingly adopted in warm climate zones where excessive heat often leads to physiological disorders of lettuce, such as tipburn and premature bolting. [...] Read more.
Lettuce is a cool season vegetable often produced in greenhouses and other protective structures to meet market demands. Greenhouses are being increasingly adopted in warm climate zones where excessive heat often leads to physiological disorders of lettuce, such as tipburn and premature bolting. Greenhouse lettuce growers in warm climates need cultivar recommendations that can help improve production without ignoring marketability. In the current study, eighteen lettuce cultivars were grown in deep water culture and evaluated for growth, bolting, and tipburn in a greenhouse in Auburn, AL, starting on 30 June and 19 August 2016. Based on the severity of bolting and tipburn, nine cultivars were then selected and evaluated on 17 November 2016 for sensory attributes and marketability by 50 untrained consumer panelists. Cultivars ‘Adriana’, ‘Aerostar’, ‘Monte Carlo’, ‘Nevada’, ‘Parris Island’, ‘Salvius’, ‘Skyphos’, and ‘Sparx’ were selected as having higher heat tolerance than cultivars ‘Bambi’, ‘Buttercrunch’ ‘Coastal Star’, ‘Flashy Trout Back’, ‘Green Forest’, ‘Green Towers’, ‘Jericho’, ‘Magenta’, and ‘Truchas’. Higher crispness, lower bitterness, higher overall texture, and higher overall flavor each correlated to higher marketability, regardless of cultivar, but the strongest predictor of marketability was overall flavor. Overall flavor and overall texture were more strongly correlated to marketability than bitterness and crispness, respectively, suggesting that broader sensory categories may better capture human sensory perceptions of lettuce than narrower categories. Cultivars ‘Aerostar’, ‘Monte Carlo’, ‘Nevada’, ‘Parris Island’, ‘Rex’, ‘Salvius’, and ‘Sparx’ performed well in a hot greenhouse and were preferred by consumers. This step-wise experiment could be an adaptable tool for determining highest performing cultivars under any given production constraint, without ignoring marketability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Knowledge of Hydroponic and Aquaponic Systems)
Open AccessArticle
Applications of Abscisic Acid and Increasing Concentrations of Calcium Affect the Partitioning of Mineral Nutrients between Tomato Leaf and Fruit Tissue
Horticulturae 2019, 5(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5030049
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 23 June 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
This study examined how abscisic acid (ABA) and calcium (Ca) concentrations in nutrient solution affect concentrations of mineral nutrients in tomato leaves and fruit. Tomato plants were grown in a greenhouse at 25/20 °C (day/night) under a 16 h photoperiod. Plants were treated [...] Read more.
This study examined how abscisic acid (ABA) and calcium (Ca) concentrations in nutrient solution affect concentrations of mineral nutrients in tomato leaves and fruit. Tomato plants were grown in a greenhouse at 25/20 °C (day/night) under a 16 h photoperiod. Plants were treated with different concentrations of ABA and Ca. Calcium was applied via the irrigation lines at 60, 90, or 180 mg·L−1. ABA was applied as a combination of foliar sprays and root applications. For foliar ABA applications, treatments consisted of deionized (DI) water control (0.0 mg·L−1 ABA) or 500 mg·L−1 ABA. For ABA root applications, treatments consisted of no ABA control (0.0 mg·L−1 ABA) or 50 mg·L−1 ABA applied via the irrigation lines. Results indicate that mineral nutrient concentrations in tomato leaf and fruit tissue varied in connection with each exogenous application of ABA. Variability in mineral nutrient concentration depended on if ABA was applied to the leaf or root tissue. Additionally, increasing Ca treatment concentrations either decreased or did not change mineral nutrients in tomato and fruit tissue. Thus, tomato plants react to acquiring mineral nutrients in numerous mechanisms and, depending on how the applications of exogenous ABA are applied, can have varying effects on these mechanisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
MALDI-TOF MS-Based Analysis of Seed Proteins from Catalogue Varieties of Solanum lycopersicum/Lycopersicon esculentum
Horticulturae 2019, 5(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5030048
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
Matrix-assisted laser-desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) is a flexible technique for the analysis of protein-containing biological samples. Simple and inexpensive methods have previously been developed for MALDI-TOF MS sample preparation that are able to discriminate between Impatiens species that are [...] Read more.
Matrix-assisted laser-desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) is a flexible technique for the analysis of protein-containing biological samples. Simple and inexpensive methods have previously been developed for MALDI-TOF MS sample preparation that are able to discriminate between Impatiens species that are closely related and also between regional biotypes of the invasive weed Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam) with leaf material and also seed material. The current article investigates whether MALDI-TOF MS, through acid-soluble protein ‘fingerprinting’, can be used to analyze plant seeds that result from intensive commercial plant-breeding activity. As an initial proof-of-concept study, tomato seeds from eleven seed-catalogue varieties (F1 Pink Baby Plum, F1 Fantasio, F1 Lizzano, F1 Sungold, F1 Tumbler, Faworyt, Golden Sunrise, Hundreds and Thousands, Indigo Rose, Moneymaker, and Red Alert), listed as Solanum lycopersicum or under the synonym Lycopersicon esculentum were analyzed using MALDI-TOF MS. Whilst peak-rich and highly-reproducible spectra were obtained, with very high Bruker comparison scores and low MALDI-TOF MS variance, sample-preparation variance, and seed-to-seed variance, the spectral differences between varieties were only slightly greater than the above combined variances, indicating very close similarity between all eleven varieties studied. These results are discussed in comparison with those previously observed with the naturally-evolving invasive species I. glandulifera. Full article
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Horticulturae EISSN 2311-7524 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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