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Open AccessArticle

Does Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Reduce Trunk Disease in Grapevine Rootstocks?

1
Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3187 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
2
Agriculture and Agri-Foods Canada—Summerland Research and Development Centre, 4200 Hwy 97S, Summerland, BC V0H 1Z0, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Horticulturae 2019, 5(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5030061
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 28 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horticultural Crop Microbiomes)
Ilyonectria is a weak pathogen known for causing black foot disease in young vines, infecting roots and vascular tissues at the basal end of the rootstock and restricting the movement of water and nutrients. This negatively impacts vine establishment during transplant into the vineyard. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are symbiotic fungi that associate with most plants and have been shown to mitigate the infection and effect of pathogens. This greenhouse study was designed to determine if the mycorrhizal fungi could mitigate Ilyonectria infection and whether this was dependent on inoculation timing. ‘Riparia gloire’ grapevine rootstocks (Vitis riparia) were infected with Ilyonectria either after AM fungi, at the same time as AM fungi, or to roots that were not inoculated by AM fungi. We measured the abundance using specific markers for both the pathogen and AM fungi. Colonization by AM fungi did not suppress Ilyonectria, but instead increased the abundance of Ilyonectria. Further, mycorrhizal rootstocks did not have enhanced growth effects on physiological parameters when compared to non-mycorrhizal rootstocks. These findings stand in contrast to the general perception that AM fungi provide protection against root pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: digital PCR; ddPCR; root mycobiome; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; Ilyonectria; grapevine; trunk disease; pest management; microbial-interaction digital PCR; ddPCR; root mycobiome; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; Ilyonectria; grapevine; trunk disease; pest management; microbial-interaction
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Holland, T.; Bowen, P.; Kokkoris, V.; Urbez-Torres, J.R.; Hart, M. Does Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Reduce Trunk Disease in Grapevine Rootstocks? Horticulturae 2019, 5, 61.

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