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Hydrology, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Siem Reap River has played a crucial role in maintaining the Angkor temple complex and livelihood [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Relative Effect of Location Alternatives on Urban Hydrology. The Case of Greater Port-Harcourt Watershed, Niger Delta
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030082 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Globally, cities in developing countries are urbanising at alarming rates, and a major concern to hydrologists and planners are the options that affect the hydrologic functioning of watersheds. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been recognised as a key sustainable development tool for mitigating [...] Read more.
Globally, cities in developing countries are urbanising at alarming rates, and a major concern to hydrologists and planners are the options that affect the hydrologic functioning of watersheds. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been recognised as a key sustainable development tool for mitigating the adverse impacts of planned developments, however, research has shown that planned developments can affect people and the environment significantly due to urban flooding that arises from increased paved surfaces. Flooding is a major sustainable development issue, which often result from increased paved surfaces and decreased interception losses due to urbanisation and deforestation respectively. To date, several environmental assessment studies have advanced the concept of alternatives, yet, only a small number of hydrologic studies have discussed how the location of paved surface could influence catchment runoff. Specifically, research exploring the effects of location alternative in EIAs on urban hydrology is very rare. The Greater Port-Harcourt City (GPH) development established to meet the growth needs in Port-Harcourt city (in the Niger Delta) is a compelling example. The aim of this research is to examine the relative effect of EIA alternatives in three different locations on urban hydrology. The Hydrologic Engineering Centre’s hydrologic modelling system (HEC-HMS) hydrodynamic model was used to generate data for comparing runoff in three different basins. HEC-HMS software combine models that estimate: Loss, transformation, base flow and channel routing. Results reveal that developments with the same spatial extent had different effects on the hydrology of the basins and sub-basins in the area. Findings in this study suggest that basin size rather than location of the paved surface was the main factor influencing the hydrology of the watershed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Impacts of Climate Change on Sediment Yield from the Logiya Watershed, Lower Awash Basin, Ethiopia
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030081 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 192
Abstract
It is anticipated that climate change will impact sediment yield in watersheds. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of climate change on sediment yield from the Logiya watershed in the lower Awash Basin, Ethiopia. Here, we used the coordinated [...] Read more.
It is anticipated that climate change will impact sediment yield in watersheds. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of climate change on sediment yield from the Logiya watershed in the lower Awash Basin, Ethiopia. Here, we used the coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX)-Africa data outputs of Hadley Global Environment Model 2-Earth System (HadGEM2-ES) under representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Future scenarios of climate change were analyzed in two-time frames: 2020–2049 (2030s) and 2050–2079 (2060s). Both time frames were analyzed using both RCP scenarios from the baseline period (1971–2000). A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was constructed to simulate the hydrological and the sedimentological responses to climate change. The model performance was calibrated and validated using the coefficient of determination (R2), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBIAS). The results of the calibration and the validation of the sediment yield R2, NSE, and PBIAS were 0.83, 0.79, and −23.4 and 0.85, 0.76, and −25.0, respectively. The results of downscaled precipitation, temperature, and estimated evapotranspiration increased in both emission scenarios. These climate variable increments were expected to result in intensifications in the mean annual sediment yield of 4.42% and 8.08% for RCP4.5 and 7.19% and 10.79% for RCP8.5 by the 2030s and the 2060s, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flood Hazard Analysis of Proposed Regulator on Shatt Al-Arab River
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030080 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 238
Abstract
Recently, the Shatt Al-Arab River has suffered from increased salinization of its water due to the reduction of freshwater from its tributaries, mainly from the Tigris River, which has resulted in long-distance salinity intrusion. Therefore, there is a need to establish a regulator [...] Read more.
Recently, the Shatt Al-Arab River has suffered from increased salinization of its water due to the reduction of freshwater from its tributaries, mainly from the Tigris River, which has resulted in long-distance salinity intrusion. Therefore, there is a need to establish a regulator in the Abu-Flus district to prevent salt intrusion. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of a proposed regulator on the Shatt Al-Arab River with simulations using the Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) model. The upstream boundary conditions were the daily discharges of Tigris River and the downstream boundary conditions were the hourly water stages of the Shatt Al-Arab River. The river model was operated by using the daily discharges recorded in 2014 for calibration and verification of the model. Then, a program operated with a suggested regulator and a flood wave assumed a 200 m3/s peak flow for a duration of 27 days. The flooding occurrence period of the flood wave was investigated under the effect of three study cases of regulator gates, which were fully open (case B1), tide gate (case B2), and fully closed (case B3). The results showed that flooding inundation occurred only in two cases (B2 and B3). These results will encourage the construction of the regulator considering certain precautions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Copula-Based Bivariate Flood Risk Assessment on Tarbela Dam, Pakistan
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030079 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 218
Abstract
Flooding from the Indus river and its tributaries has regularly influenced the region of Pakistan. Therefore, in order to limit the misfortune brought about by these inevitable happenings, it requires taking measures to estimate the occurrence and effects of these events. The current [...] Read more.
Flooding from the Indus river and its tributaries has regularly influenced the region of Pakistan. Therefore, in order to limit the misfortune brought about by these inevitable happenings, it requires taking measures to estimate the occurrence and effects of these events. The current study uses flood frequency analysis for the forecast of floods along the Indus river of Pakistan (Tarbela). The peak and volume are the characteristics of a flood that commonly depend on one another. For progressively proficient hazard investigation, a bivariate copula method is used to measure the peak and volume. A univariate analysis of flood data fails to capture the multivariate nature of these data. Copula is the most common technique used for a multivariate analysis of flood data. In this paper, four Archimedean copulas have been tried using the available information, and in light of graphical and measurable tests, the Gumbel Hougaard copula was found to be most appropriate for the data used in this paper. The primary (TAND, TOR), conditional and Kendall return periods have been also determined. The copula method was found to be a powerful method for the distribution of marginal variables. It also gives the Kendall return period for the multivariate analysis the consequences of flooding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coupled Stress-Dependent Groundwater Flow-Deformation Model to Predict Land Subsidence in Basins with Highly Compressible Deposits
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030078 - 29 Aug 2019
Viewed by 221
Abstract
In this study, a stress-dependent groundwater model, MODFLOW-SD, has been developed and coupled with the nonlinear subsidence model, NDIS, to predict vertical deformation occurring in basins with highly compressible deposits. The MODFLOW-SD is a modified version of MODFLOW (the USGS Modular Three-Dimensional Groundwater [...] Read more.
In this study, a stress-dependent groundwater model, MODFLOW-SD, has been developed and coupled with the nonlinear subsidence model, NDIS, to predict vertical deformation occurring in basins with highly compressible deposits. The MODFLOW-SD is a modified version of MODFLOW (the USGS Modular Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow Model) with two new packages, NONK and NONS, to update hydraulic conductivity and skeletal specific storage due to change in effective stress. The NDIS package was developed based on Darcy–Gersevanov Law and bulk flux to model land subsidence. Results of sample simulations run for a conceptual model showed that hydraulic heads calculated by MODFLOW significantly overestimated for confining units and slightly underestimated for aquifer ones. Moreover, it showed that applied stress due to pumping changed initially homogeneous layers to be heterogeneous ones. Comparison of vertical deformations calculated by NDIS and MODFLOW-SUB showed that neglecting horizontal strain and stress-dependency of aquifer parameters can overestimate future subsidence. Furthermore, compared to the SUB (Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction) package, NDIS is more likely to provide a more accurate compaction model for a complex aquifer system with vertically variable compression ( C c ), recompression ( C r ) , and hydraulic conductivity change ( C k ) indices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrological hazard estimation for the municipality of Yautepec de Zaragoza, Morelos, Mexico
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030077 - 27 Aug 2019
Viewed by 292
Abstract
The hydrological hazard for the municipality of Yautepec de Zaragoza, State of Morelos, Mexico, is evaluated considering the overflow process of the rivers located in the Yautepec sub-basin. Different scenarios of hydrological hazard were generated to identify those areas with high flood potential [...] Read more.
The hydrological hazard for the municipality of Yautepec de Zaragoza, State of Morelos, Mexico, is evaluated considering the overflow process of the rivers located in the Yautepec sub-basin. Different scenarios of hydrological hazard were generated to identify those areas with high flood potential using hydraulic modeling for three return periods (Rp) of 50, 100 and 500 years based on statistical analysis of the maximum annual discharge of the Yautepec hydrometric station. We used the Hec-Ras software and geographic information systems (GIS) to model the different flood scenarios. Our results indicate that 10% (1.5 km2) of the total urban area of the municipality will be flooded for a return period of 50 years. About 12% (1.8 km2) of the territory will be affected by flood for a Rp of 100 years. For a Rp of 500 years, approximately 13.5% (2.1 km2) of the municipality’s area will be flooded. Spatially, the central and southern regions of the municipality will be affected by flood heights greater than 1 m for Rp of 100 and 500 years. The northern zone will have heights of less than 0.50 m for Rp of 50 years. Our results can be used as a tool to prevent and reduce the impact of future floods in the municipality of Yautepec de Zaragoza. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Projecting Wet Season Rainfall Extremes Using Regional Climate Models Ensemble and the Advanced Delta Change Model: Impact on the Streamflow Peaks in Mkurumudzi Catchment, Kenya
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030076 - 26 Aug 2019
Viewed by 309
Abstract
Each year, many African countries experience natural hazards such as floods and, because of their low adaptative capabilities, they hardly have the means to face the consequences, and therefore suffer huge economic losses. Extreme rainfall plays a key role in the occurrence of [...] Read more.
Each year, many African countries experience natural hazards such as floods and, because of their low adaptative capabilities, they hardly have the means to face the consequences, and therefore suffer huge economic losses. Extreme rainfall plays a key role in the occurrence of these hazards. Therefore, climate projection studies should focus more on extremes in order to provide a wider range of future scenarios of extremes which can aid policy decision making in African societies. Some researchers have attempted to analyze climate extremes through indices reflecting extremes in climate variables such as rainfall. However, it is difficult to assess impacts on streamflow based on these indices alone, as most hydrological models require daily data as inputs. Others have analyzed climate projections through general circulation models (GCMs) but have found their resolution too coarse for regional studies. Dynamic downscaling using regional climate models (RCMs) seem to address the limitation of GCMs, although RCMs might still lack accuracy due to the fact that they also contain biases that need to be eliminated. Given these limitations, the current study combined both dynamic and statistical downscaling methods to correct biases and improve the reproduction of high extremes by the models. This study’s aim was to analyze extreme high flows under the projection of extreme wet rainfall for the horizon of 2041 of a Kenyan South Coast catchment. The advanced delta change (ADC) method was applied on observed data (1982–2005), control (1982–2005) and near future (2018–2041) from an ensemble mean of multiple regional climate models (RCMs). The created future daily rainfall time series was introduced in the HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System) hydrological model and the generated future flow were compared to the baseline flow at the gaging station 3KD06, where the observed flow was available. The findings suggested that in the study area, the RCMs, bias corrected by the ADC method, projected an increase in rainfall wet extremes in the first rainy season of the year MAMJ (March–April–May–June) and a decrease in the second rainy season OND (October–November–December). The changes in rainfall extremes, induced a similar change pattern in streamflow extremes at the gaging station 3KD06, meaning that an increase/decrease in rainfall extremes generated an increase/decrease in the streamflow extremes. Due to lack of long-term good quality data, the researchers decided to perform a frequency analysis for up to a 50 year return period in order to assess the changes induced by the ADC method. After getting a longer data series, further analysis could be done to forecast the maximum flow to up to 1000 years, which could serve as design flow for different infrastructure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring and Analysis of Drought Using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030075 - 25 Aug 2019
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Drought monitoring needs comprehensive and integrated meteorological and hydrologic data. However, such data are generally not available in extensive catchments. The present study aimed to analyze drought in the central plateau catchment of Iran using the terrestrial water storage deficit index (TSDI). In [...] Read more.
Drought monitoring needs comprehensive and integrated meteorological and hydrologic data. However, such data are generally not available in extensive catchments. The present study aimed to analyze drought in the central plateau catchment of Iran using the terrestrial water storage deficit index (TSDI). In this arid catchment, the meteorological and hydrologic observed data are scarce. First, the time series of terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) obtained from the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) was calculated and validated by the water budget output. Then, the studied area was divided into semi-arid, arid, and hyper-arid zones and the common drought indices of SPI and RDIe within a timescale of 3, 6, and 12 months were calculated to compare the results obtained from the TSDI by using the meteorological data of 105 synoptic stations. Based on the results, the study area experienced a drought with extreme severity and expansion during 2007–2008. The drought spatial distribution map obtained from three indices indicated good conformity. Based on the maps, the severity, duration, and frequency of drought in the semi-arid zone were greater than that in other zones, while no significant drought occurred in the hyper-arid zone. Furthermore, the temporal distribution of drought in all three zones indicated that the TSDI could detect all short- and long-term droughts. The study results showed that the TSDI is a reliable, integrated, and comprehensive index. Using this index in arid areas with little field data led to some valuable results for planning and water resource management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pollution Source Identification for River Chemical Spills by Modular-Bayesian Approach: A Retrospective Study on the ‘Landmark’ Spill Incident in China
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030074 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 363
Abstract
It is important to identify source information after a river chemical spill incident occurs. Among various source inversion approaches, a Bayesian-based framework is able to directly characterize inverse uncertainty using a probability distribution and has recently become of interest. However, the literature has [...] Read more.
It is important to identify source information after a river chemical spill incident occurs. Among various source inversion approaches, a Bayesian-based framework is able to directly characterize inverse uncertainty using a probability distribution and has recently become of interest. However, the literature has not reported its application to actual spill incidents, and many aspects in practical use have not yet been clearly illustrated, e.g., feasibility for large scale pollution incidents, algorithm parameters, and likelihood functions. This work deduced a complete modular-Bayesian approach for river chemical spills, which combined variance assumptions on a pollutant concentration time series with Adaptive-Metropolis sampling. A retrospective case study was conducted based on the ‘landmark’ spill incident in China, the Songhua River nitrobenzene spill of 2005. The results show that release mass, place, and moment were identified with biases of −26.9%, −7.9%, and 16.9%, respectively. Inverse uncertainty statistics were also quantified for each source parameter. Performance, uncertainty sources, and future work are discussed. This study provides an important real-life case to demonstrate the usefulness of the modular-Bayesian approach in practice and provides valuable references for the setting of parameters for the sampling algorithm and variance assumptions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Spatiotemporal Pattern of Rainy-Season Precipitation in the Haihe River Basin, North China
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030073 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 291
Abstract
The Haihe River basin of North China is characterized by extremely low per capita water resources and a consistently long-term decreasing trend of precipitation and runoff over the last few decades. This study analyzes the climatological features of rainy season (May–September) precipitation in [...] Read more.
The Haihe River basin of North China is characterized by extremely low per capita water resources and a consistently long-term decreasing trend of precipitation and runoff over the last few decades. This study analyzes the climatological features of rainy season (May–September) precipitation in the Haihe River basin and its branch systems based on a high-density hourly observational dataset during 2007–2017. We show that there are two high-rainfall zones in the basin, with one along the south of the Yanshan Mountains to Taihang Mountains and another along the Tuma River in the south. Rainstorm centers exist amidst the two zones. July generally sees the highest precipitation, followed by August, and May has the lowest precipitation. The major flood season is reached between the third pentad of July and the fourth pentad of August. The precipitation is high at night but low in the daytime. In the pre-flood season before early July, rainfalls mostly arrive at 16:00–21:00 h. After entering the major flood season, the diurnal precipitation has two peaks, one at 17:00–22:00 h and the other at 0:00–7:00 h. In the post-flood season after mid-August, the most rain occurs at night, with the peak appearing at 0:00–8:00 h. The short-duration precipitation is mainly distributed in the mountainous areas, and the long-duration precipitation that contributes most to seasonal rainfalls appears in the plain areas, and the continuous precipitation mostly occurs in the windward slopes of the Taihang Mountains and the Yanshan Mountains. In addition, urbanization process around large city stations may have affected the rainy season precipitation to a certain extent in the Haihe River basin, with large and medium city stations experiencing around 10% higher precipitation than small city stations. However, this issue needs to be investigated exclusively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mid-Century Climate Change Impacts on Ouémé River Discharge at Bonou Outlet (Benin)
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030072 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 399
Abstract
This work focuses on impacts of climate change on Ouémé River discharge at Bonou outlet based on four global climate models (GCM) over Ouémé catchment from 1971 to 2050. Empirical quantile mapping method is used for bias correction of GCM. Furthermore, twenty-five rain [...] Read more.
This work focuses on impacts of climate change on Ouémé River discharge at Bonou outlet based on four global climate models (GCM) over Ouémé catchment from 1971 to 2050. Empirical quantile mapping method is used for bias correction of GCM. Furthermore, twenty-five rain gauges were selected among which are three synoptic stations. The semi-distributed model HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Modeling System from Hydrologic Engineering Center) is used to simulate runoff. As results, HEC-HMS showed ability to simulate runoff while taking into account land use and cover change. In fact, Kling–Gupta Efficiency (KGE) coefficient was 0.94 and 0.91 respectively in calibration and validation. Moreover, Ouémé River discharge is projected to decrease about 6.58 m3/s under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5) while an insignificant increasing trend is found under RCP 8.5. Therefore, water resource management infrastructure, especially dam construction, has to be developed for water shortage prevention. In addition, it is essential to account for uncertainties when designing such sensitive infrastructure for flood management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Grout Curtain Parameters on Uplift and Piping Phenomenon; Case Study: Sattarkhan Dam
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030071 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Design of earth dams and their issues during and after construction is very important for residents downstream of the dam because of the potential risks and possible breakdowns. In the design of dams, various forces influence the dam body, including uplift pressure and [...] Read more.
Design of earth dams and their issues during and after construction is very important for residents downstream of the dam because of the potential risks and possible breakdowns. In the design of dams, various forces influence the dam body, including uplift pressure and piping phenomenon which should be considered in order to ensure the safety of the dam. Among the measures taken to prevent the washing away phenomenon, the reduction of the output gradient, and the leakage discharge from beneath the hydraulic structures, construction of the grout curtain and installation of the drainage are applicable. Therefore, in order to investigate the effect of various parameters such as the gradient angle of the grout curtain, length, and distance and the number of grout curtains, as well as the length of the drainage on the pressure and output gradient of the numerical models, were considered in current study. For this purpose, the SEEP/W software was used for modeling on Sattarkhan Dam as a case study. The results of the analysis showed that the use of the Qa’im grout curtain at the upstream of the dam has the highest resistance against the pressure and piping phenomenon. The results also showed that increase in the length of the curtain of the water seal increases safety against uplift and piping phenomenon. The use of further spacing between the two grout curtains under the core of the dam led to increase in overall pressure or reduction in safety against uplift pressure. Increase in the length of the horizontal drainage reduced the effects of uplift pressure and output gradient. Results show that period of 70 to 110 degree is appropriate for curtain angle and setting curtain in upstream of dam core with angle of 70 to 80 degree is optimum and economic. A length of 30 m is optimum for curtain. The number of 2 curtains is also optimum. Studying various scenarios of distance of 2 curtains in dam core indicates that distance of 6 m is optimum and also length of 18 m for horizontal drainage is optimum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Approach for the Integral Management of Water Extremes in Plain Areas
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030070 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Due to the socioeconomical impact of water extremes in plain areas, there is a considerable demand for suitable strategies aiding in the management of water resources and rainfed crops. Numerical models allow for the modelling of water extremes and their consequences in order [...] Read more.
Due to the socioeconomical impact of water extremes in plain areas, there is a considerable demand for suitable strategies aiding in the management of water resources and rainfed crops. Numerical models allow for the modelling of water extremes and their consequences in order to decide on management strategies. Moreover, the integration of hydrologic models with hydraulic models under continuous or event-based approaches would synergistically contribute to better forecasting of water extreme consequences under different scenarios. This study conducted at the Santa Catalina stream basin (Buenos Aires province, Argentina) focuses on the integration of numerical models to analyze the hydrological response of plain areas to water extremes under different scenarios involving the implementation of an eco-efficient infrastructure (i.e., the integration of a green infrastructure and hydraulic structures). The two models used for the integration were: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the CELDAS8 (CTSS8) hydrologic-hydraulic model. The former accounts for the processes related to the water balance (e.g., evapotranspiration, soil moisture, percolation, groundwater discharge and surface runoff), allowing for the analysis of water extremes for either dry or wet conditions. Complementarily, CTSS8 models the response of a basin to a rainfall event (e.g., runoff volume, peak flow and time to peak flow, flooded surface area). A 10-year data record (2003–2012) was analyzed to test different green infrastructure scenarios. SWAT was able to reproduce the waterflow in the basin with Nash Sutcliffe (NS) efficiency coefficients of 0.66 and 0.74 for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. The application of CTSS8 for a flood event with a return period of 10 years showed that the combination of a green infrastructure and hydraulic structures decreased the surface runoff by 28%, increased the soil moisture by 10% on an average daily scale, and reduced the impact of floods by 21% during rainfall events. The integration of continuous and event-based models for studying the impact of water extremes under different hypothetical scenarios represents a novel approach for evaluating potential basin management strategies aimed at improving the agricultural production in plain areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Long–Term Response-Based Rainfall-Runoff Hydrologic Model: Case Study of The Upper Blue Nile
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030069 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 431
Abstract
This study develops a response-based hydrologic model for long-term (continuous) rainfall-runoff simulations over the catchment areas of big rivers. The model overcomes the typical difficulties in estimating infiltration and evapotranspiration parameters using a modified version of the Soil Conservation Service curve number SCS-CN [...] Read more.
This study develops a response-based hydrologic model for long-term (continuous) rainfall-runoff simulations over the catchment areas of big rivers. The model overcomes the typical difficulties in estimating infiltration and evapotranspiration parameters using a modified version of the Soil Conservation Service curve number SCS-CN method. In addition, the model simulates the surface and groundwater hydrograph components using the response unit-hydrograph approach instead of using a linear reservoir routing approach for routing surface and groundwater to the basin outlet. The unit-responses are Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-pre-calculated on a semi-distributed short-term basis and applied in the simulation in every time step. The unit responses are based on the time-area technique that can better simulate the real routing behavior of the basin. The model is less sensitive to groundwater infiltration parameters since groundwater is actually controlled by the surface component and not the opposite. For that reason, the model is called the SCHydro model (Surface Controlled Hydrologic model). The model is tested on the upper Blue Nile catchment area using 28 years daily river flow data set for calibration and validation. The results show that SCHydro model can simulate the long-term transforming behavior of the upper Blue Nile basin. Our initial assessment of the model indicates that the model is a promising tool for long-term river flow simulations, especially for long-term forecasting purposes due to its stability in performing the water balance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation and Bias Correction of CHIRP Rainfall Estimate for Rainfall-Runoff Simulation over Lake Ziway Watershed, Ethiopia
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030068 - 09 Aug 2019
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Abstract
In Lake Ziway watershed in Ethiopia, the contribution of river inflow to the water level has not been quantified due to scarce data for rainfall-runoff modeling. However, satellite rainfall estimates may serve as an alternative data source for model inputs. In this study, [...] Read more.
In Lake Ziway watershed in Ethiopia, the contribution of river inflow to the water level has not been quantified due to scarce data for rainfall-runoff modeling. However, satellite rainfall estimates may serve as an alternative data source for model inputs. In this study, we evaluated the performance and the bias correction of Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation (CHIRP) satellite estimate for rainfall-runoff simulation at Meki and Katar catchments using the Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) hydrological model. A non-linear power bias correction method was applied to correct CHIRP bias using rain gauge data as a reference. Results show that CHIRP has biases at various spatial and temporal scales over the study area. The CHIRP bias with percentage relative bias (PBIAS) ranging from −16 to 20% translated into streamflow simulation through the HBV model. However, bias-corrected CHIRP rainfall estimate effectively reduced the bias and resulted in improved streamflow simulations. Results indicated that the use of different rainfall inputs impacts both the calibrated parameters and its performance in simulating daily streamflow of the two catchments. The calibrated model parameter values obtained using gauge and bias-corrected CHIRP rainfall inputs were comparable for both catchments. We obtained a change of up to 63% on the parameters controlling the water balance when uncorrected CHIRP satellite rainfall served as model inputs. The results of this study indicate that the potential of bias-corrected CHIRP rainfall estimate for water balance studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Quantitative Approach to Evaluate Changes in Hydrologic Conditions of Headwater Streams: A Case Study of Restoration and Recovery Following Longwall Mine Subsidence
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030067 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Mine subsidence can induce streambed ruptures that pirate surface water from a stream. Current understanding of the effects of longwall mining on streams lacks rigorous analytical approaches to detect hydrologic effects and does not consider the efficacy of streambed restoration techniques to address [...] Read more.
Mine subsidence can induce streambed ruptures that pirate surface water from a stream. Current understanding of the effects of longwall mining on streams lacks rigorous analytical approaches to detect hydrologic effects and does not consider the efficacy of streambed restoration techniques to address flow disruption. CONSOL Pennsylvania Coal Company, LLC (CPCC) collected and analyzed pre-mining, post-mining, and post-restoration stream discharge and flow duration data from 51.9 km of streams overlying its Bailey Mine to define pre-mining flow variability, detect post-mining changes, and evaluate post-intervention flow recovery. The primary intervention method for restoring stream flow was bedrock permeation grouting. Pre-mine and post-mine baseflow data were compared using both parametric and non-parametric hypothesis testing, which yielded similar results. An environmental flow assessment method for headwater streams using probabilistic risk assessment and correlation analysis of change threshold criteria was developed to differentiate hydrologic change as induced by mine subsidence or explained by natural variability. The method is objective, pragmatic, and statistically delimited. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Drought and Desertification in Iran
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030066 - 07 Aug 2019
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Abstract
Iran has different climatic and geographical zones (mountainous and desert areas), mostly arid and semi-arid, which are suffering from land degradation. Desertification as a land degradation process in Iran is created by natural and anthropogenic driving forces. Meteorological drought is a major natural [...] Read more.
Iran has different climatic and geographical zones (mountainous and desert areas), mostly arid and semi-arid, which are suffering from land degradation. Desertification as a land degradation process in Iran is created by natural and anthropogenic driving forces. Meteorological drought is a major natural driving force of desertification and occurs due to the extended periods of low precipitation. Scarcity of water, as well as the excessive use of water resources, mainly for agriculture, creates negative water balances and changes in plant cover, and accelerates desertification. Despite various political measures having been taken in the past, desertification is still a serious environmental problem in many regions in Iran. In this study, drought and aridity indices derived from long-term temperature and precipitation data were used in order to show long-term drought occurrence in different climatic zones in Iran. The results indicated the occurrence of severe and extremely severe meteorological droughts in recent decades in the areas studied. Moreover, the De Martonne Aridity Index (IDM) and precipitation variability index (PVI) showed an ongoing negative trend on the basis of long-term data and the conducted regression analysis. Rapid population growth, soil salinization, and poor water resource management are also considered as the main anthropogenic drivers. The percentage of the rural population in Iran is decreasing and the urban area is growing fast. Since the 1970s, the usage of groundwater in Iran has increased around fourfold and the average annual decrease in the groundwater table has been around 0.51 m. The results of the study provide a better ex-post and ex-ante understanding of the occurrence of droughts as key driving forces of the desertification in Iran. Additionally, they can enable policymakers to prepare proper regional-based strategic planning in the future. Desertification cannot be stopped or managed completely, but could be mitigated by the adoption of some proposed sustainable land management strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Calibration and Validation of the Cosmic Ray Neutron Rover for Soil Water Mapping within Two South African Land Classes
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030065 - 05 Aug 2019
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Knowledge of soil water at a range of spatial scales would further our understanding of the dynamic variable and its influence on numerous hydrological applications. Cosmic ray neutron technology currently consists of the Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) and the Cosmic Ray Neutron [...] Read more.
Knowledge of soil water at a range of spatial scales would further our understanding of the dynamic variable and its influence on numerous hydrological applications. Cosmic ray neutron technology currently consists of the Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) and the Cosmic Ray Neutron Rover (CRNR). The CRNR is an innovative tool to map surface soil water across the land surface. This research assessed the calibration and validation of the CRNR at two survey sites (hygrophilous grassland and pine forest) within the Vasi area with an area of 72 and 56 ha, respectively. The assessment of the calibrations showed that consistent calibration values (N0) were obtained for both survey sites. The hygrophilous grassland site had an average N0 value of 133.441 counts per minute (cpm) and an average error of 2.034 cpm. The pine site had an average N0 value of 132.668 cpm and an average error of 0.375 cpm between surveys. The validation of CRNR soil water estimates with interpolated hydro-sense soil water estimates showed that the CRNR can provide spatial estimates of soil water across the landscape. The hydro-sense and CRNR soil water estimates had a R2 of 0.439 at the hygrophilous grassland site and 0.793 at the pine site. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Land Use Change Detection and Prediction in Upper Siem Reap River, Cambodia
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030064 - 25 Jul 2019
Viewed by 707
Abstract
Siem Reap River has played a crucial role in maintaining the Angkor temple complex and livelihood of the people in the basin since the 12th century. Land use in this watershed has changed considerably over the last few decades, which is thought to [...] Read more.
Siem Reap River has played a crucial role in maintaining the Angkor temple complex and livelihood of the people in the basin since the 12th century. Land use in this watershed has changed considerably over the last few decades, which is thought to have had an influence on river. This study was carried out as part of assessing the land use and climate change on hydrology of the upper Siem Reap River. The objective was to reconstruct patterns of annual deforestation from 1988 to 2018 and to explore scenarios of land use 40 and 80 years into the future. A supervised maximum likelihood classification was applied to investigate forest cover change in the last three decades. Multi-layer perceptron neural network-Markov chain (MLPNN-MC) was used to forecast land use and land cover (LULC) change for the years 2058 and 2098. The results show that there has been a significantly decreasing trend in forest cover at the rate 1.22% over the last three decades, and there would be a continuous upward trend of deforestation and downward trend of forest cover in the future. This study emphasizes the impacts of land use change on water supply for the Angkor temple complex (World Heritage Site) and the surrounding population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment and Mitigation of Streamflow and Sediment Yield under Climate Change Conditions in Diyala River Basin, Iraq
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030063 - 23 Jul 2019
Viewed by 571
Abstract
The impact of climate change on the streamflow and sediment yield in the Derbendkhan and Hemrin Watersheds is an important challenge facing the water resources of the Diyala River in Iraq. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to project this [...] Read more.
The impact of climate change on the streamflow and sediment yield in the Derbendkhan and Hemrin Watersheds is an important challenge facing the water resources of the Diyala River in Iraq. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to project this impact on streamflow and sediment yield until year 2050 by applying five climate models for scenario A1B involving medium emissions. The models were calibrated and validated based on daily observed streamflow and sediment recorded for the periods from 1984 to 2013 and 1984 to 1985, respectively. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency and coefficient of determination values for the calibration (validation) were 0.61 (0.53) and 0.6 (0.62) for Derbendkhan and Hemrin, respectively. In addition, the average of the future predictions for the five climate models indicated that the streamflow (sediment yield) for the Derbendkhan and Hemrin Watersheds would decrease to 49% (43.7%) and 20% (30%), respectively, until 2050, compared with the observed flow of the base period from 1984 to 2013. The spatial analysis showed that 10.4% and 68% of the streamflow comes from Iraqi parts of the Derbendkhan and Hemrin Watersheds, respectively, while 10% and 60% of the sediment comes from the Iraqi parts of the Derbendkhan and Hemrin Watersheds, respectively. Deforestation of the northern part of the Hemrin Watershed is the best method to decrease the amount of sediment entering the Hemrin Reservoir. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Surface Radiation on Forested Snowpack Changes across a Latitudinal Gradient
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030062 - 22 Jul 2019
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Radiation is the major driver of snowmelt, and, hence, its estimation is critically important. Net radiation reaching the forest floor is influenced by vegetation density. Previous studies in mid-latitude conifer forests have confirmed that net radiation decreases and then subsequently increases with increasing [...] Read more.
Radiation is the major driver of snowmelt, and, hence, its estimation is critically important. Net radiation reaching the forest floor is influenced by vegetation density. Previous studies in mid-latitude conifer forests have confirmed that net radiation decreases and then subsequently increases with increasing vegetation density, for clear sky conditions. This leads to the existence of a net radiation minimum at an intermediate vegetation density. With increasing cloud cover, the minimum radiation shifts toward lower densities, sometimes resulting in a monotonically increasing radiation with vegetation density. The net radiation trend, however, is expected to change across sites, affecting the magnitude and timing of individual radiation components. This research explores the variability of net radiation on a snow-covered forest floor for different vegetation densities along a latitudinal gradient. We especially investigate how the magnitude of minimum/maximum radiation and the corresponding vegetation density change with the site geographical location. To evaluate these, the net radiation is evaluated using the Forest Radiation Model at six different locations in predominantly white spruce (Picea glauca) canopy cover across North America, ranging from 45 to 66° N latitudes. Results show that the variation of net radiation with vegetation density considerably varies with latitude. In higher latitude forests, the magnitude of net radiation is generally smaller, and the minimum radiation is exhibited at relatively sparser vegetation densities, under clear sky conditions. For interspersed cloudy sky conditions, net radiation non-monotonically varies with latitude across the sites, depending on the seasonal sky cloudiness and air temperature. The latitudinal sensitivity of net radiation is lower on north-facing hillslopes than on south-facing sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snow Hydrology: Monitoring and Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
A Simplistic Approach for Assessing Hydroclimatic Vulnerability of Lakes and Reservoirs with Regulated Superficial Outflow
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030061 - 20 Jul 2019
Viewed by 568
Abstract
This study proposes a simplistic model for assessing the hydroclimatic vulnerability of lakes/reservoirs (LRs) that preserve their steady-state conditions based on regulated superficial discharge (Qd) out of the LR drainage basin. The model is a modification of the Bracht-Flyr et [...] Read more.
This study proposes a simplistic model for assessing the hydroclimatic vulnerability of lakes/reservoirs (LRs) that preserve their steady-state conditions based on regulated superficial discharge (Qd) out of the LR drainage basin. The model is a modification of the Bracht-Flyr et al. method that was initially proposed for natural lakes in closed basins with no superficial discharge outside the basin (Qd = 0) and under water-limited environmental conditions {mean annual ratio of potential/reference evapotranspiration (ETo) versus rainfall (P) greater than 1}. In the proposed modified approach, an additional Qd function is included. The modified model is applied using as a case study the Oreastiada Lake, which is located inside the Kastoria basin in Greece. Six years of observed data of P, ETo, Qd, and lake topography were used to calibrate the modified model based on the current conditions. The calibrated model was also used to assess the future lake conditions based on the future climatic projections (mean conditions of 2061-2080) derived by 19 general circulation models (GCMs) for three cases of climate change (three cases of Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The modified method can be used as a diagnostic tool in water-limited environments for analyzing the superficial discharge changes of LRs under different climatic conditions and to support the design of new management strategies for mitigating the impact of climate change on (a) flooding conditions, (b) hydroelectric production, (c) irrigation/industrial/domestic use and (d) minimum ecological flows to downstream rivers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrochemical Analysis of Groundwater in Remah and Al Khatim Regions, United Arab Emirates
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030060 - 11 Jul 2019
Viewed by 742
Abstract
Groundwater constitutes an important part of the available water resources in arid areas. Knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative status of groundwater is a key aspect in optimal groundwater management. The purpose of this study was to provide technical information on the groundwater [...] Read more.
Groundwater constitutes an important part of the available water resources in arid areas. Knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative status of groundwater is a key aspect in optimal groundwater management. The purpose of this study was to provide technical information on the groundwater in the sand aquifer of two neighboring areas in the United Arab Emirates to support stakeholders working towards sustainable groundwater development. The chemical characteristics of the groundwater have been used to identify the processes controlling groundwater chemistry and assess the suitability of the groundwater for agricultural purposes. Despite tapping into the same aquifer, considerable differences in groundwater quality were found between the two study areas. The area with a shallower water table showed clear indications of irrigation return flow deteriorating the groundwater quality. Using standard agricultural indices, the groundwater at both study areas is classified as unfit for agricultural purposes. However, considering that groundwater is the only available water source for irrigation, it will continue to be used for agriculture. This indicates the need for improved irrigation management and the development of new strategies for sustainable groundwater development in arid areas in the context of food security. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrological Characteristics and Paradoxes of Mediterranean High-Mountain Water-Bodies of the Sierra-Nevada, SE Spain
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030059 - 09 Jul 2019
Viewed by 536
Abstract
Each lake complex must be understood before attempting any regional synthesis leading us to view these water-bodies as indicators of regional climate change. Therefore, in order to improve knowledge of these Mediterranean biotopes, we examined the dependence of the fringes of hygrophilous communities [...] Read more.
Each lake complex must be understood before attempting any regional synthesis leading us to view these water-bodies as indicators of regional climate change. Therefore, in order to improve knowledge of these Mediterranean biotopes, we examined the dependence of the fringes of hygrophilous communities surrounding the water-bodies (green fringes) on their hydrological and geomorphological features. The climate of the western sector of this massif is cryo–oromediterranean, where thawing produces 53 hm3 of run-off and 11 hm3 of sub-surface flow. Part of this water is stored in 123 water-bodies located from 2480 to 3200 m a.s.l., 72 of which (58%) are located on the south-facing Mediterranean watershed. The total surface of the water sheet is approximately 170,000 m2, and volume is approximately 215,000 m3, of which 140,000 m3 (65%) are stored in the south-facing water-bodies. Green fringes surrounding 84 water-bodies have a total surface area of approximately 186,000 m2. Surprisingly, the more xeric Mediterranean watershed holds 58 such fringes (149,000 m2, 80%) while 26 are found on the Atlantic watershed (38,000 m2, 20%). Green fringes are mainly associated with small water-bodies (<5000 m3), which occupy 148,000 m2 on the Mediterranean watershed, while on the Atlantic side, green fringes occupy 31,000 m2. Sierra Nevada also has 46 times higher water-efficiency in the smaller water-bodies than in the large ones; 16.4 and 335.8 times higher on the Atlantic and Mediterranean watersheds, respectively. The differences in gradient of the massif hillsides must largely explain this uneven behaviour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Agricultural and Urban Infrastructure on River Basin Delineation and Surface Water Availability: Case of the Culiacan River Basin
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030058 - 29 Jun 2019
Viewed by 582
Abstract
River basin delineation can be inappropriate to determine surface water availability in a country, even if it is established by its water authority. This is because the effect of agricultural and urban infrastructure in runoff direction is ignored, and the anthropogenic changes in [...] Read more.
River basin delineation can be inappropriate to determine surface water availability in a country, even if it is established by its water authority. This is because the effect of agricultural and urban infrastructure in runoff direction is ignored, and the anthropogenic changes in hydrography and topography features distort the runoff. This situation is really important because water rights are granted based on volumes that are not physically accessible. The existence of this problem is demonstrated through a case of study: the Culiacan River Basin in Mexico. To overcome such a situation, this study poses criteria to revise official river basin configurations and to delineate new river basins based on digital elevation models, vector files of agricultural infrastructure, and extensive field verification. Significant differences were noticed in surface water availability calculated under distinct river basin delineations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Surface Water Resources of Eastern Iraq
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030057 - 26 Jun 2019
Viewed by 675
Abstract
Large amounts of runoff is generated in western Iran and flows into eastern Iraq due to relatively intensive rainstorms along the international border line. Currently, most of this runoff is being wasted by evaporation instead of being stored and preserved for later uses. [...] Read more.
Large amounts of runoff is generated in western Iran and flows into eastern Iraq due to relatively intensive rainstorms along the international border line. Currently, most of this runoff is being wasted by evaporation instead of being stored and preserved for later uses. This paper is an attempt to (1) assess and harness the water resources of eastern Iraq, and (2) propose a storage scheme to use the harvested water in the water shortage times. The runoff of eight catchment areas (Mandali, Qazania, Tursaq, Mirzabad, Galal Badra, al-Chabbab, al-Teeb, and Dwaireeg) is estimated using regression equations derived for areas in the western and southern parts of the United States of America. Several models were selected from two states based on catchment area location, average terrain elevation, average annual precipitation, and slope of main stream. Observed runoffs of Tursaq, Galal Badra, and al-Chabbab streams are analyzed using normal probability plots. Statistical analysis shows that there is no a statistically significant difference between observed and predicted runoffs for different return periods. The study proposes a water reservoir to be constructed within al-Shiwiaja Marsh to accommodate runoff generated within Mandali, Qazania, Tursaq, Mirzabad, and Galal Badra streams. The capacity of the proposed reservoir is 3000 Mm3 and the expected inflow from these streams is projected to exceed the capacity of the reservoir. The proposed reservoir will contribute to the flow of the River Tigris during the non-rainy seasons. More studies are needed to propose and design a storage scheme for two remaining streams (al-Teeb and Dwaireeg). Full article
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