Special Issue "Advances in Integrated Watershed Modeling: Emerging Water Issues under Changing Land Use and Climate"

A special issue of Hydrology (ISSN 2306-5338).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Aleksey Y. Sheshukov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Interests: watershed modeling; soil erosion; water quality; land use and climate change impacts; conservation management; cold regions hydrology
Dr. Haw Yen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Blackland Research and Extension Center, Texas A&M University, Temple, TX 76502, USA
Interests: water resources engineering; environmental assessment; optimization; uncertainty analysis; watershed modeling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Latif Kalin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Forestry & Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
Interests: watershed hydrology; land use/cover change impacts; wetland hydrology; green infrastructure; nutrient cycling in wetlands
Dr. Laurent Ahiablame
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, San Diego, CA 92123, USA
Interests: watershed hydrology; water quality; baseflow; low impact development; expert systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Systematic approach to modeling watershed systems involves a holistic integration of hydrologic and water-quality processes with data collection and model optimization. Recent advances in the understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes and novel computer technologies have brought significant attention to watershed modeling technologies and their associated applications, such as lake contamination by harmful algal blooms in the Great Lakes region in North America, excessive soil erosion and stream sedimentation in Loess Plateau of Northern China, and water scarcity in many watersheds in Africa. These emerging issues require an integrated modeling approach to support watershed management. The strength of this inter-disciplinary approach lies in abilities to achieve challenging goals associated with cross-surface (surface to subsurface to deeper ground), cross-scale (plot to hillslope to watershed), cross-temporal (event to annual to multidecades), or cross-spatial (course to high resolution) subjects. For this Special Issue, we invite submissions from different disciplines that present latest advances in the development of watershed modeling systems, integration of hydrologic and nutrient transport processes to solve emerging water quantity and quality problems, evaluating watershed model performance under different spatial and temporal data constrains, and predicting the impacts of land use/land cover and climate change with the use of computer models.

Dr. Aleksey Y. Sheshukov
Dr. Haw Yen
Dr. Latif Kalin
Dr. Laurent Ahiablame
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Hydrology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hydrological modeling
  • Surface and subsurface hydrology
  • Nutrient transport processes at watershed scales
  • Watershed sustainability research
  • Conservation and best management practices
  • Hotspot (source and critical area) identification
  • Land use and climate change impacts
  • Mathematical and computer-aided modeling

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Deterministic Methodology for Determining the Optimal Sampling Frequency of Water Quality Monitoring Systems
Hydrology 2019, 6(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6040094 - 30 Oct 2019
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel deterministic methodology for estimating the optimal sampling frequency (SF) of water quality monitoring systems. The proposed methodology is based on employing two-dimensional contaminant transport simulation models to determine the minimum SF, taking into consideration all the potential changes [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel deterministic methodology for estimating the optimal sampling frequency (SF) of water quality monitoring systems. The proposed methodology is based on employing two-dimensional contaminant transport simulation models to determine the minimum SF, taking into consideration all the potential changes in the boundary conditions of a water body. Two-dimensional contaminant transport simulation models (RMA4) were implemented to estimate the distribution patterns of some effective physiochemical parameters within the Al-Hammar Marsh in the southern part of Iraq for 30 cases of potential boundary conditions. Using geographical information system (GIS) tools, a spatiotemporal analysis approach was applied to the results of the RMA4 models to determine the minimum SF of the monitoring stations with a monitoring accuracy (MA) level of detectable change in contaminant concentration ranging from the standard level to 50% (stepwise 5%). For the study area, the proposed methodology specified a minimum and maximum SF for each monitoring station (MS) that ranged between 12 and 33 times per year, respectively. An exponential relationship between SF and MA was obtained. This relationship shows that increasing the MA to ±10%, ±25%, and ±50% increases the SF by approximately 14%, 28%, and 93%, respectively. However, the proposed methodology includes all the potential values and cases of flow and contaminant transport boundary conditions, which increases the certainty of monitoring the system and the efficiency of the SF schedule. Moreover, the proposed methodology can be effectively applied to all types of surface water resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relative Effect of Location Alternatives on Urban Hydrology. The Case of Greater Port-Harcourt Watershed, Niger Delta
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030082 - 17 Sep 2019
Abstract
Globally, cities in developing countries are urbanising at alarming rates, and a major concern to hydrologists and planners are the options that affect the hydrologic functioning of watersheds. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been recognised as a key sustainable development tool for mitigating [...] Read more.
Globally, cities in developing countries are urbanising at alarming rates, and a major concern to hydrologists and planners are the options that affect the hydrologic functioning of watersheds. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been recognised as a key sustainable development tool for mitigating the adverse impacts of planned developments, however, research has shown that planned developments can affect people and the environment significantly due to urban flooding that arises from increased paved surfaces. Flooding is a major sustainable development issue, which often result from increased paved surfaces and decreased interception losses due to urbanisation and deforestation respectively. To date, several environmental assessment studies have advanced the concept of alternatives, yet, only a small number of hydrologic studies have discussed how the location of paved surface could influence catchment runoff. Specifically, research exploring the effects of location alternative in EIAs on urban hydrology is very rare. The Greater Port-Harcourt City (GPH) development established to meet the growth needs in Port-Harcourt city (in the Niger Delta) is a compelling example. The aim of this research is to examine the relative effect of EIA alternatives in three different locations on urban hydrology. The Hydrologic Engineering Centre’s hydrologic modelling system (HEC-HMS) hydrodynamic model was used to generate data for comparing runoff in three different basins. HEC-HMS software combine models that estimate: Loss, transformation, base flow and channel routing. Results reveal that developments with the same spatial extent had different effects on the hydrology of the basins and sub-basins in the area. Findings in this study suggest that basin size rather than location of the paved surface was the main factor influencing the hydrology of the watershed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Simplistic Approach for Assessing Hydroclimatic Vulnerability of Lakes and Reservoirs with Regulated Superficial Outflow
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030061 - 20 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study proposes a simplistic model for assessing the hydroclimatic vulnerability of lakes/reservoirs (LRs) that preserve their steady-state conditions based on regulated superficial discharge (Qd) out of the LR drainage basin. The model is a modification of the Bracht-Flyr et [...] Read more.
This study proposes a simplistic model for assessing the hydroclimatic vulnerability of lakes/reservoirs (LRs) that preserve their steady-state conditions based on regulated superficial discharge (Qd) out of the LR drainage basin. The model is a modification of the Bracht-Flyr et al. method that was initially proposed for natural lakes in closed basins with no superficial discharge outside the basin (Qd = 0) and under water-limited environmental conditions {mean annual ratio of potential/reference evapotranspiration (ETo) versus rainfall (P) greater than 1}. In the proposed modified approach, an additional Qd function is included. The modified model is applied using as a case study the Oreastiada Lake, which is located inside the Kastoria basin in Greece. Six years of observed data of P, ETo, Qd, and lake topography were used to calibrate the modified model based on the current conditions. The calibrated model was also used to assess the future lake conditions based on the future climatic projections (mean conditions of 2061-2080) derived by 19 general circulation models (GCMs) for three cases of climate change (three cases of Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The modified method can be used as a diagnostic tool in water-limited environments for analyzing the superficial discharge changes of LRs under different climatic conditions and to support the design of new management strategies for mitigating the impact of climate change on (a) flooding conditions, (b) hydroelectric production, (c) irrigation/industrial/domestic use and (d) minimum ecological flows to downstream rivers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Wetland Restoration and Climate Change Impacts on Water Balance Components of the Heeia Coastal Wetland in Hawaii
Hydrology 2019, 6(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6020037 - 14 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hydrological modeling is an important tool that can be used to assess water resources’ availability and sustainability that are necessary for food security and ecological health of coastal regions. In this study, we assessed the impacts of land use and climate changes on [...] Read more.
Hydrological modeling is an important tool that can be used to assess water resources’ availability and sustainability that are necessary for food security and ecological health of coastal regions. In this study, we assessed the impacts of land use and climate changes on water balance components (WBCs) of the Heeia coastal wetland. We developed a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to capture the unique characteristics of the Hawaiian Islands, including its volcanic soil’s nature and high initial infiltration rates. We used the sequential uncertainty fitting algorithm to assess the sensitivity and uncertainty of WBCs under different climate change scenarios. Results of the statistical analysis of daily streamflow simulations showed that the model performance was within the generally acceptable criteria. Under future climate scenarios, rainfall change was the determinant factor most negatively impacting WBCs. Recharge and baseflow components had the highest sensitivity to the combined effects of land use and climate changes, especially during dry season. The uncertainty analysis indicated that the streamflow is projected to slightly increase by the middle of 21st century, but expected to decline by 40% during the late 21st century of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of HEC-HMS Model for Flow Simulation in the Lake Tana Basin: The Case of Gilgel Abay Catchment, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia
Hydrology 2019, 6(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6010021 - 10 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Understanding the complex relationships between rainfall and runoff processes is necessary for the proper estimation of the quantity of runoff generated in a watershed. The surface runoff was simulated using the Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS) for the Gilgel Abay Catchment (1609 km2 [...] Read more.
Understanding the complex relationships between rainfall and runoff processes is necessary for the proper estimation of the quantity of runoff generated in a watershed. The surface runoff was simulated using the Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS) for the Gilgel Abay Catchment (1609 km2), Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. The catchment was delineated and its properties were extracted from a 30 m × 30 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Lake Tana Basin. The meteorological model was developed within HEC-HMS from rainfall data and the control specifications defined the period and time step of the simulation run. To account for the loss, runoff estimation, and flow routing, Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN), Soil Conservation Service Unit Hydrograph (SCS-UH) and Muskingum methods were used respectively. The rainfall-runoff simulation was conducted using six extreme daily time series events. Initial results showed that there is a clear difference between the observed and simulated peak flows and the total volume. Thereafter, a model calibration with an optimization method and sensitivity analysis was carried out. The result of the sensitivity analysis showed that the curve number is the sensitive parameter. In addition, the model validation results showed a reasonable difference in peak flow (Relative Error in peak, REP = 1.49%) and total volume (Relative Error in volume, REV = 2.38%). The comparison of the observed and simulated hydrographs and the model performance (NSE = 0.884) and their correlation (R2 = 0.925) showed that the model is appropriate for hydrological simulations in the Gilgel Abay Catchment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantifying Thermal Characteristics of Stormwater through Low Impact Development Systems
Hydrology 2019, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6010016 - 05 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Urbanization causes alteration of the thermal regime (surface, air, and water) of the environment. Heated stormwater runoff flows into lakes, streams, bays, and estuaries, which potentially increases the base temperature of the surface water. The amount of heat transferred, and the degree of [...] Read more.
Urbanization causes alteration of the thermal regime (surface, air, and water) of the environment. Heated stormwater runoff flows into lakes, streams, bays, and estuaries, which potentially increases the base temperature of the surface water. The amount of heat transferred, and the degree of thermal pollution is of great importance to the ecological integrity of receiving waters. This research reports on a controlled laboratory scale test to assess low impact development (LID) stormwater control measure impacts on the thermal characteristics of stormwater runoff. We hypothesize that LID stormwater control measures (SCMs) such as pervious surfaces and rain gardens/bioretention can be used to mitigate the ground level thermal loads from stormwater runoff. Laboratory methods in this study captured and infiltrated simulated stormwater runoff from four infrared heated substrate microcosms (pervious concrete, impervious concrete, permeable concrete pavers, and turf grass), and routed the stormwater through rain garden microcosms. A data logging system with thermistors located on, within, and at exits of the microcosms, recorded resulting stormwater temperature flux. Researchers compared steady state temperatures of the laboratory to previously collected field data and achieved between 30% to 60% higher steady state surface temperatures with indoor than outdoor test sites. This research helps establish baseline data to study heat removal effectiveness of pervious materials when used alone or in combination as a treatment train with other stormwater control measures such as rain gardens/bioretention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Spatio-Temporal Changes of Land Use and Land Cover over South-Western African Basins and Their Relations with Variations of Discharges
Hydrology 2018, 5(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology5040056 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
West African basins play a vital role in the socio-economic development of the region. They are mostly trans-boundary and sources of different land use practices. This work attempts to assess the spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes over three South Western African [...] Read more.
West African basins play a vital role in the socio-economic development of the region. They are mostly trans-boundary and sources of different land use practices. This work attempts to assess the spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes over three South Western African basins (Volta, Mono and Sassandra basins) and their influence on discharge. The land use and land cover maps of each basin were developed for 1988, 2002 and 2016. The results show that all the studied basins present an increase in water bodies, built-up, agricultural land and a decline in vegetative areas. These increases in water bodies and land use are as a result of an increase in small reservoirs, of dugouts and of dam constructions. However, the decline in some vegetative clusters could be attributed to the demographic and socio-economic growth as expressed by the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. The basic statistical analysis of precipitation and discharge data reveals that the mean annual discharge varies much more than the total annual precipitation at the three basins. For instance, in the entire Volta basin, the annual precipitation coefficient of variation (CV) is 10% while the annual discharge CV of Nawuni, Saboba and Bui are 43.6%, 36.51% and 47.43%, respectively. In Mono basin, the annual precipitation CV is 11.5% while the Nangbeto and Athieme annual discharge CV are 37.15% and 46.60%, respectively. The annual precipitation CV in Sassandra basin is 7.64% while the annual discharge CV of Soubre and Dakpadou are 29.41% and 37%, respectively. The discharge varies at least three times much more than the precipitation in the studied basins. The same conclusion was found for all months except the driest months (December and January). We showed that this great variation in discharge is mainly due to land use and land cover changes. Beside the hydrological modification of the land use and land cover changes, the climate of the region as well as the water quality and availability and the hydropower generation may be impacted by these changes in land surfaces conditions. Therefore, these impacts should be further assessed to implement appropriate climate services and measures for a sustainable land use and water management. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Improving Urban Runoff in Multi-Basin Hydrological Simulation by the HYPE Model Using EEA Urban Atlas: A Case Study in the Sege River Basin, Sweden
Hydrology 2019, 6(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6010028 - 21 Mar 2019
Abstract
In this study, the high-resolution polygonal land cover data of EEA Urban Atlas was applied for land-use characterization in the dynamic multi-basin hydrological model, HYPE. The objective of the study was to compare this dedicated urban land cover data in semi-distributed hydrological modelling [...] Read more.
In this study, the high-resolution polygonal land cover data of EEA Urban Atlas was applied for land-use characterization in the dynamic multi-basin hydrological model, HYPE. The objective of the study was to compare this dedicated urban land cover data in semi-distributed hydrological modelling with the widely used but less detailed EEA CORINE. The model was set up for a basin including a small town named Svedala in southern Sweden. In order to verify the ability of the HYPE model to reproduce the observed flow rate, the simulated flow rate was evaluated based on river flow time series, statistical indicators and flow duration curves. Flow rate simulated by the model based on Urban Atlas generally agreed better with observations of summer storm events than the CORINE-based model, especially when the daily rainfall amount was 10 mm/day or more, or the flow exceedance probability was 0.02 to 0.5. It suggests that the added value of the Urban Atlas model is higher for heavy-to-medium storm events dominated by direct runoff. To conclude, the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which aims at improving the accuracy of hydrological simulations in urbanized basins, was supported. Full article
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