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Photonics, Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Externally modulated DFB lasers (EML) and vertically illuminated photodetectors are presented and evaluated for intra-data center communication. Due to their excellent high-speed behavior and operation wavelength of 1310 nm, the chips are compatible with current systems and candidates for upgrading existing transceivers to higher baud rates. In order to demonstrate the capability of the EML and the photodetector chips for 100 GBaud transmission, an experiment is performed. Even without pre-distortion and DSP-post-compensation, the experiment clearly shows open eye diagrams and almost error-free transmission at 100 GBaud, confirming the potential for next-generation intra-data center communications. For later field use, even better performance with higher order PAM modulation is expected because the EML and photodetector chips will be hybrid integrated with drivers and TIAs. View this [...] Read more.
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Article
Spiral Caustics of Vortex Beams
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010024 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
We discuss the nonparaxial focusing of laser light into a three-dimensional (3D) spiral distribution. For calculating the tangential and normal components of the electromagnetic field on a preset curved surface we propose an asymptotic method, using which we derive equations for calculating stationary [...] Read more.
We discuss the nonparaxial focusing of laser light into a three-dimensional (3D) spiral distribution. For calculating the tangential and normal components of the electromagnetic field on a preset curved surface we propose an asymptotic method, using which we derive equations for calculating stationary points and asymptotic relations for the electromagnetic field components in the form of one-dimensional (1D) integrals over a radial component. The results obtained through the asymptotic approach and the direct calculation of the Kirchhoff integral are identical. For a particular case of focusing into a ring, an analytical relation for stationary points is derived. Based on the electromagnetic theory, we design and numerically model the performance of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) to generate field distributions shaped as two-dimensional (2D) and 3D light spirals with the variable angular momentum. We reveal that under certain conditions, there is an effect of splitting the longitudinal electromagnetic field component. Experimental results obtained with the use of a spatial light modulator are in good agreement with the modeling results. Full article
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Article
Giant Displacement Sensitivity Using Push-Pull Method in Interferometry
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010023 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
We present a giant sensitivity displacement sensor combining the push-pull method and enhanced Vernier effect. The displacement sensor consists in two interferometers that are composed by two cleaved standard optical fibers coupled by a 3 dB coupler and combined with a double-sided mirror. [...] Read more.
We present a giant sensitivity displacement sensor combining the push-pull method and enhanced Vernier effect. The displacement sensor consists in two interferometers that are composed by two cleaved standard optical fibers coupled by a 3 dB coupler and combined with a double-sided mirror. The push pull-method is applied to the mirror creating a symmetrical change to the length of each interferometer. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Vernier effect has a maximum sensitivity of two-fold that obtained with a single interferometer. The combination of the push-pull method and the Vernier effect in the displacement sensors allows a sensitivity of 60 ± 1 nm/μm when compared with a single interferometer working in the same free spectral range. In addition, exploring the maximum performance of the displacement sensors, a sensitivity of 254 ± 6 nm/μm is achieved, presenting a M-factor of 1071 and MVernier of 1.9 corresponding to a resolution of 79 pm. This new solution allows the implementation of giant-sensitive displacement measurement for a wide range of applications. Full article
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Review
Diagnosis of Glioma Molecular Markers by Terahertz Technologies
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010022 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
This review considers glioma molecular markers in brain tissues and body fluids, shows the pathways of their formation, and describes traditional methods of analysis. The most important optical properties of glioma markers in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are also presented. New metamaterial-based [...] Read more.
This review considers glioma molecular markers in brain tissues and body fluids, shows the pathways of their formation, and describes traditional methods of analysis. The most important optical properties of glioma markers in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are also presented. New metamaterial-based technologies for molecular marker detection at THz frequencies are discussed. A variety of machine learning methods, which allow the marker detection sensitivity and differentiation of healthy and tumor tissues to be improved with the aid of THz tools, are considered. The actual results on the application of THz techniques in the intraoperative diagnosis of brain gliomas are shown. THz technologies’ potential in molecular marker detection and defining the boundaries of the glioma’s tissue is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terahertz Biophotonics)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Photonics in 2020
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010021 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Photonics maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Violation of Leggett–Garg Inequalities in a Kerr-Type Chaotic System
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010020 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 584
Abstract
We consider a quantum nonlinear Kerr-like oscillator externally pumped by a series of ultrashort coherent pulses to analyze the quantum time-correlations appearing while the system evolves. For that purpose, we examine the violation of the Leggett–Garg inequality. We show how the character of [...] Read more.
We consider a quantum nonlinear Kerr-like oscillator externally pumped by a series of ultrashort coherent pulses to analyze the quantum time-correlations appearing while the system evolves. For that purpose, we examine the violation of the Leggett–Garg inequality. We show how the character of such correlations changes when the system’s dynamics correspond to the regular and chaotic regions of its classical counterpart. Full article
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Article
Neural Network DPD for Aggrandizing SM-VCSEL-SSMF-Based Radio over Fiber Link Performance
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010019 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
This paper demonstrates an unprecedented novel neural network (NN)-based digital predistortion (DPD) solution to overcome the signal impairments and nonlinearities in Analog Optical fronthauls using radio over fiber (RoF) systems. DPD is realized with Volterra-based procedures that utilize indirect learning architecture (ILA) and [...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates an unprecedented novel neural network (NN)-based digital predistortion (DPD) solution to overcome the signal impairments and nonlinearities in Analog Optical fronthauls using radio over fiber (RoF) systems. DPD is realized with Volterra-based procedures that utilize indirect learning architecture (ILA) and direct learning architecture (DLA) that becomes quite complex. The proposed method using NNs evades issues associated with ILA and utilizes an NN to first model the RoF link and then trains an NN-based predistorter by backpropagating through the RoF NN model. Furthermore, the experimental evaluation is carried out for Long Term Evolution 20 MHz 256 quadraturre amplitude modulation (QAM) modulation signal using an 850 nm Single Mode VCSEL and Standard Single Mode Fiber to establish a comparison between the NN-based RoF link and Volterra-based Memory Polynomial and Generalized Memory Polynomial using ILA. The efficacy of the DPD is examined by reporting the Adjacent Channel Power Ratio and Error Vector Magnitude. The experimental findings imply that NN-DPD convincingly learns the RoF nonlinearities which may not suit a Volterra-based model, and hence may offer a favorable trade-off in terms of computational overhead and DPD performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio over Fiber)
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Communication
InP-Components for 100 GBaud Optical Data Center Communication
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010018 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Externally modulated DFB lasers (EML) and vertically illuminated photodetectors are presented. Because of their excellent high-speed behavior and operation wavelength of 1310 nm, the devices are of interest for intra-data center communication. Since the EML and the photodetector chips are compatible with current [...] Read more.
Externally modulated DFB lasers (EML) and vertically illuminated photodetectors are presented. Because of their excellent high-speed behavior and operation wavelength of 1310 nm, the devices are of interest for intra-data center communication. Since the EML and the photodetector chips are compatible with current systems, these devices are candidates for upgrading existing transceivers to higher baud rates. Therefore, a proof of concept for 100 GBaud data transmission with the presented components is demonstrated. Even without predistortion, the experiments show clearly open eye diagrams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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Article
Study of Phase Transition in MOCVD Grown Ga2O3 from κ to β Phase by Ex Situ and In Situ Annealing
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010017 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
We report the post-growth thermal annealing and the subsequent phase transition of Ga2O3 grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We demonstrated the post-growth thermal annealing at temperatures higher than 900 °C under N2 [...] Read more.
We report the post-growth thermal annealing and the subsequent phase transition of Ga2O3 grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We demonstrated the post-growth thermal annealing at temperatures higher than 900 °C under N2 ambience, by either in situ or ex situ thermal annealing, can induce phase transition from nominally metastable κ- to thermodynamically stable β-phase. This was analyzed by structural characterizations such as high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The highly resistive as-grown Ga2O3 epitaxial layer becomes conductive after annealing at 1000 °C. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in situ annealing can lead to a crack-free β-Ga2O3. Full article
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Article
Design and Simulation of Photonic Crystal Fiber for Liquid Sensing
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010016 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
A simple hexagonal lattice photonic crystal fiber model with liquid-infiltrated core for different liquids: water, ethanol and benzene, has been proposed. In the proposed structure, three air hole rings are present in the cladding and three equal sized air holes are present in [...] Read more.
A simple hexagonal lattice photonic crystal fiber model with liquid-infiltrated core for different liquids: water, ethanol and benzene, has been proposed. In the proposed structure, three air hole rings are present in the cladding and three equal sized air holes are present in the core. Numerical investigation of the proposed fiber has been performed using full vector finite element method with anisotropic perfectly match layers, to show that the proposed simple structure exhibits high relative sensitivity, high power fraction, relatively high birefringence, low chromatic dispersion, low confinement loss, small effective area, and high nonlinear coefficient. All these properties have been numerically investigated at a wider wavelength regime 0.6–1.8 μm within mostly the IR region. Relative sensitivities of water, ethanol and benzene are obtained at 62.60%, 65.34% and 74.50%, respectively, and the nonlinear coefficients are 69.4 W−1 km−1 for water, 73.8 W−1 km−1 for ethanol and 95.4 W−1 km−1 for benzene, at 1.3 µm operating wavelength. The simple structure can be easily fabricated for practical use, and assessment of its multiple waveguide properties has justified its usage in real liquid detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing)
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Article
An Eye-Safe, SBS-Free Coherent Fiber Laser LIDAR Transmitter with Millijoule Energy and High Average Power
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010015 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 591
Abstract
We report on an eye-safe, transform-limited, millijoule energy, and high average power fiber laser. The high gain and short length of the NP phosphate-glass fibers enable the SBS-free operation with kW level peak power. The output energy is up to 1.3 mJ, and [...] Read more.
We report on an eye-safe, transform-limited, millijoule energy, and high average power fiber laser. The high gain and short length of the NP phosphate-glass fibers enable the SBS-free operation with kW level peak power. The output energy is up to 1.3 mJ, and the average power is up to 23 W at an 18 kHz repetition rate with 600 ns pulses (peak power > 2.1 kW). The PER is ≈16 dB and the M2 of the beam is 1.33 × 1.18. The coherent LIDAR Figure Of Merit (FOM) is 174 mJ*sqrt(Hz), which to our knowledge is the highest reported for a fiber laser. We also report 0.75 mJ energy and >3.7 kW peak power with down to 200 ns pulses and up to 1.21 mJ energy with a 3–5 kHz repetition rate operation of the current system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Amplifiers)
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Review
Recent Advances in High Speed Photodetectors for eSWIR/MWIR/LWIR Applications
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010014 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1353
Abstract
High speed photodetectors operating at a telecommunication band (from 1260 to 1625 nm) have been well studied with the development of an optical fiber communication system. Recent innovations of photonic systems have raised new requirements on the bandwidth of photodetectors with cutoff wavelengths [...] Read more.
High speed photodetectors operating at a telecommunication band (from 1260 to 1625 nm) have been well studied with the development of an optical fiber communication system. Recent innovations of photonic systems have raised new requirements on the bandwidth of photodetectors with cutoff wavelengths from extended short wavelength infrared (eSWIR) to long wavelength infrared (LWIR). However, the frequency response performance of photodetectors in these longer wavelength bands is less studied, and the performances of the current high-speed photodetectors in these bands are still not comparable with those in the telecommunication band. In this paper, technical routes to achieve high response speed performance of photodetectors in the extended short wavelength infrared/mid wavelength infrared/long wavelength infrared (eSWIR/MWIR/LWIR) band are discussed, and the state-of-the-art performances are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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Article
Simultaneous Dual-Modal Multispectral Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Macroscopy for Three-Dimensional Whole-Body Imaging of Small Animals
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010013 - 10 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Photoacoustic imaging is a promising medical imaging technique that provides excellent function imaging of an underlying biological tissue or organ. However, it is limited in providing structural information compared to other imaging modalities, such as ultrasound imaging. Thus, to offer complete morphological details [...] Read more.
Photoacoustic imaging is a promising medical imaging technique that provides excellent function imaging of an underlying biological tissue or organ. However, it is limited in providing structural information compared to other imaging modalities, such as ultrasound imaging. Thus, to offer complete morphological details of biological tissues, photoacoustic imaging is typically integrated with ultrasound imaging. This dual-modal imaging technique is already implemented on commercial clinical ultrasound imaging platforms. However, commercial platforms suffer from limited elevation resolution compared to the lateral and axial resolution. We have successfully developed a dual-modal photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging to address these limitations, specifically targeting animal studies. The system can acquire whole-body images of mice in vivo and provide complementary structural and functional information of biological tissue information simultaneously. The color-coded depth information can be readily obtained in photoacoustic images using complementary information from ultrasound images. The system can be used for several biomedical applications, including drug delivery, biodistribution assessment, and agent testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photoacoustic Imaging and Systems)
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Article
Analysis of the Spatial Properties of Correlated Photon in Collinear Phase-Matching
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010012 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 574
Abstract
In this paper, the spatial properties of correlated photon in collinear phase-matching in the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) are researched. Based on the study of the phase-matching angle, non-collinear angle, and correlated photon wavelength, a theoretical model of non-collinear angular [...] Read more.
In this paper, the spatial properties of correlated photon in collinear phase-matching in the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) are researched. Based on the study of the phase-matching angle, non-collinear angle, and correlated photon wavelength, a theoretical model of non-collinear angular variation is derived, which can be used to estimate and predict the width of the correlated photon ring. The experimental measurement is carried out with CMOS camera, and the measurement results are consistent with the theoretical simulation results, which verifies the rationality of theoretical reasoning. Meanwhile, the change of the correlated photon divergence angle outside the crystal is studied, the closer the wavelength is to the degenerate, the smaller the measurement value of the divergence angle, which is agreement with the theoretical simulation. The results of the study play a reference role in the evaluation of the spatial properties of correlated photon and lay a foundation for the measurement of the correlated photon number rate and the calibration of a photodetector. Full article
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Article
FOSquare: A Novel Optical HPC Interconnect Network Architecture Based on Fast Optical Switches with Distributed Optical Flow Control
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010011 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Interconnecting networks adopting Fast Optical Switches (FOS) can achieve high bandwidth, low latency, and low power consumption. We propose and demonstrate a novel interconnecting topology based on FOS (FOSquare) with distributed fast flow control which is suitable for HPC infrastructures. We also present [...] Read more.
Interconnecting networks adopting Fast Optical Switches (FOS) can achieve high bandwidth, low latency, and low power consumption. We propose and demonstrate a novel interconnecting topology based on FOS (FOSquare) with distributed fast flow control which is suitable for HPC infrastructures. We also present an Optimized Mapping (OPM) algorithm that maps the most communication-related processes inside a rack. We numerically investigate and compare the network performance of FOSquare with Leaf-Spine under real traffic traces collected by running multiple applications (CG, MG, MILC, and MINI_MD) in an HPC infrastructure. The numerical results show that the FOSquare can reduce >10% latency with respect to Leaf-Spine under the scenario of 16 available cores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reconfigurable Photonic Interconnects)
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Article
Numerical Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics Based on Spin-VCSELs with Optical Feedback
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010010 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 895
Abstract
In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics of a novel model based on optically pumped spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) with optical feedback is investigated numerically. Due to optical feedback being the external disturbance component, the complex nonlinear dynamical behaviors can be enhanced and [...] Read more.
In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics of a novel model based on optically pumped spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) with optical feedback is investigated numerically. Due to optical feedback being the external disturbance component, the complex nonlinear dynamical behaviors can be enhanced and the regions of different nonlinear dynamics in size can be extended with appropriate parameters of spin-VCSELs. According to the equations of the modified spin-flip model (SFM), the comparison of bifurcation diagrams is first presented for the clear presentation of different routes to chaos. Meanwhile, numerous bifurcation diagrams in color are illustrated to demonstrate the rich dynamical regimes intuitively, and the crucial effects of optical feedback strength, feedback delay, linewidth enhancement factor, and spin-flip relaxation rate on the region evolvement of complex dynamics of the proposed model are revealed to investigate the dependence of dynamical behaviors on external and internal parameters when the optical feedback scheme is introduced. These parameters play a remarkable role in enhancing the mechanism of complex dynamic oscillations. Furthermore, utilizing combination with time series, power spectra, and phase portraits, the various dynamical behaviors observed in the bifurcation diagram are simulated numerically. Correspondingly, the powerful measure 0–1 test is employed to distinguish between chaos and non-chaos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lasers, Light Sources and Sensors)
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Article
Outage Probability Due to Crosstalk from Multiple Interfering Cores in PAM4 Inter-Datacenter Connections
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010009 - 03 Jan 2021
Viewed by 893
Abstract
In this work, we propose to use four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) and multi-core fibers (MCFs) to support very high capacity datacenter interconnect (DCI) links. The limitations imposed by inter-core crosstalk (ICXT) on the performance of 112 Gb/s up to 80 km-long optically [...] Read more.
In this work, we propose to use four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) and multi-core fibers (MCFs) to support very high capacity datacenter interconnect (DCI) links. The limitations imposed by inter-core crosstalk (ICXT) on the performance of 112 Gb/s up to 80 km-long optically amplified PAM4 inter-DCI links with intensity-modulation and direct-detection and full chromatic dispersion compensation in the optical domain are analyzed through numerical simulation for high and low skew-symbol rate product (SSRP). With only one interfering core, we show that those PAM4 inter-DCI links achieve an outage probability (OP) of 104 with a maximum ICXT level of −13.9 dB for high SSRP and require an ICXT level reduction of about 8.1 dB to achieve the same OP for low SSRP. Due to using full dispersion compensation, for an OP of 104, the maximum acceptable ICXT level shows only a 1.4 dB variation with the MCF length increase from 10 km to 80 km. When considering the ICXT induced by several interfering cores, the maximum ICXT level per interfering core for an OP of 104 decreases around 3 dB when doubling the number of interfering cores. This conclusion holds for high and low SSRP regimes. For two interfering cores, we show that a single interfering core with low SSRP is enough to induce a severe reduction of the maximum acceptable ICXT level. Full article
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Letter
One-Way Zero Reflection in an Insulator-Metal-Insulator Structure Using the Transfer Matrix Method
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010008 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
We numerically demonstrate one-way zero reflection using the transfer matrix method. Using simulations, we adjusted the thickness of SiO2 layers in a simple SiO2-Au-SiO2 layer structure. We found two solutions, 47 nm-10 nm-32 nm and 71 nm-10 nm-60 nm, [...] Read more.
We numerically demonstrate one-way zero reflection using the transfer matrix method. Using simulations, we adjusted the thickness of SiO2 layers in a simple SiO2-Au-SiO2 layer structure. We found two solutions, 47 nm-10 nm-32 nm and 71 nm-10 nm-60 nm, which are the thicknesses for one-way zero reflection at a wavelength of 560 nm. We confirmed it with reflection spectra, where reflectance is zero for forwardly incident light and 2.5% for backwardly incident light at the wavelength 560 nm, and thickness 47 nm-10 nm-32 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Study of Light Propagation in Optical Fibers)
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Article
Constant Transmission Efficiency Dimming Control Scheme for VLC Systems
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010007 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 622
Abstract
As a novel mode of indoor wireless communication, visible light communication (VLC) should consider the illumination functions besides the primary communication function. Dimming control is one of the most crucial illumination functions for VLC systems. However, the transmission efficiency of most proposed dimming [...] Read more.
As a novel mode of indoor wireless communication, visible light communication (VLC) should consider the illumination functions besides the primary communication function. Dimming control is one of the most crucial illumination functions for VLC systems. However, the transmission efficiency of most proposed dimming control schemes changes as the dimming factor changes. A block coding-based dimming control scheme has been proposed for constant transmission efficiency VLC systems, but there is still room for improvement in dimming range and error performance. In this paper, we propose a dimming control scheme based on extensional constant weight codeword sets to achieve constant transmission efficiency. Meanwhile, we also provide a low implementation complexity decoding algorithm for the scheme. Finally, comparisons show that the proposed scheme can provide a wider dimming range and better error performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visible Light Communication (VLC))
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Review
MEMS Scanning Mirrors for Optical Coherence Tomography
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010006 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
This contribution presents an overview of advances in scanning micromirrors based on MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical systems) technologies to achieve beam scanning for OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography). The use of MEMS scanners for miniaturized OCT probes requires appropriate optical architectures. Their design involves a suitable [...] Read more.
This contribution presents an overview of advances in scanning micromirrors based on MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical systems) technologies to achieve beam scanning for OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography). The use of MEMS scanners for miniaturized OCT probes requires appropriate optical architectures. Their design involves a suitable actuation mechanism and an adapted imaging scheme in terms of achievable scan range, scan speed, low power consumption, and acceptable size of the OCT probe. The electrostatic, electromagnetic, and electrothermal actuation techniques are discussed here as well as the requirements that drive the design and fabrication of functional OCT probes. Each actuation mechanism is illustrated by examples of miniature OCT probes demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo bioimaging. Finally, the design issues are discussed to permit users to select an OCT scanner that is adapted to their specific imaging needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Microsystems)
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Letter
Intensity and Coherence Characteristics of a Radial Phase-Locked Multi-Gaussian Schell-Model Vortex Beam Array in Atmospheric Turbulence
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010005 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
The theoretical descriptions for a radial phase-locked multi-Gaussian Schell-model vortex (RPLMGSMV) beam array is first given. The normalized intensity and coherence distributions of a RPLMGSMV beam array propagating in free space and atmospheric turbulence are illustrated and analyzed. The results show that a [...] Read more.
The theoretical descriptions for a radial phase-locked multi-Gaussian Schell-model vortex (RPLMGSMV) beam array is first given. The normalized intensity and coherence distributions of a RPLMGSMV beam array propagating in free space and atmospheric turbulence are illustrated and analyzed. The results show that a RPLMGSMV beam array with larger total number N or smaller coherence length σ can evolve into a beam with better flatness when the beam array translating into the flat-topped profile at longer distance z and the flatness of the flat-topped intensity distribution can be destroyed by the atmospheric turbulence at longer distance z. The coherence distribution of a RPLMGSMV beam array in atmospheric turbulence at the longer distance will have Gaussian distribution. The research results will be useful in free space optical communication using a RPLMGSMV beam array. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) Systems)
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Letter
Multiple Filamentation Effects on THz Radiation Pattern from Laser Plasma in Air
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010004 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
An experimental study of few filaments interaction impact on the terahertz radiation pattern has demonstrated that interaction of two close propagating beams leads to formation of a superfilament-like structure with on-axis terahertz yield. Mutual delay between two beamlets tilts the output intensity front [...] Read more.
An experimental study of few filaments interaction impact on the terahertz radiation pattern has demonstrated that interaction of two close propagating beams leads to formation of a superfilament-like structure with on-axis terahertz yield. Mutual delay between two beamlets tilts the output intensity front of THz emission. Full article
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Letter
A Tip–Tilt and Piston Detection Approach for Segmented Telescopes
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010003 - 25 Dec 2020
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Accurate segmented mirror wavefront sensing and control is essential for next-generation large aperture telescope system design. In this paper, a direct tip–tilt and piston error detection technique based on model-based phase retrieval with multiple defocused images is proposed for segmented mirror wavefront sensing. [...] Read more.
Accurate segmented mirror wavefront sensing and control is essential for next-generation large aperture telescope system design. In this paper, a direct tip–tilt and piston error detection technique based on model-based phase retrieval with multiple defocused images is proposed for segmented mirror wavefront sensing. In our technique, the tip–tilt and piston error are represented by a basis consisting of three basic plane functions with respect to the x, y, and z axis so that they can be parameterized by the coefficients of these bases; the coefficients then are solved by a non-linear optimization method with the defocus multi-images. Simulation results show that the proposed technique is capable of measuring high dynamic range wavefront error reaching 7λ, while resulting in high detection accuracy. The algorithm is demonstrated as robust to noise by introducing phase parameterization. In comparison, the proposed tip–tilt and piston error detection approach is much easier to implement than many existing methods, which usually introduce extra sensors and devices, as it is a technique based on multiple images. These characteristics make it promising for the application of wavefront sensing and control in next-generation large aperture telescopes. Full article
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Article
Nonlinear Distortion Mitigation in Multi-IF over Fiber Transmission Using Modulation-Based Adaptive Power Allocation
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010002 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 873
Abstract
We propose a modulation-based adaptive power allocation (MBAPA) technique for nonlinear distortion mitigation in intermediate frequency over fiber (IFoF) systems. The technique allocates the spectral power of each IF band according to the required signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) of the modulation format. To [...] Read more.
We propose a modulation-based adaptive power allocation (MBAPA) technique for nonlinear distortion mitigation in intermediate frequency over fiber (IFoF) systems. The technique allocates the spectral power of each IF band according to the required signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) of the modulation format. To demonstrate the performance of the technique, transmission experiments were performed in 10 km and 20 km with 24-IF bands using OFDM signals. The feasibility of the proposed MBAPA technique was experimentally verified by reducing inter-modulation distortion (IMD) power and enhancing channel linearity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio over Fiber)
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Article
Transverse Load and Temperature Sensing Using Multiplexed Long-Period Fiber Gratings
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
The simultaneous measurement of transverse load and temperature using two long-period fiber gratings multiplexed in the wavelength domain is presented experimentally. For this, a mechanically induced long-period fiber grating (MI-LPFG) and a long-period fiber grating inscribed by a continuous-wave CO2 laser (CO [...] Read more.
The simultaneous measurement of transverse load and temperature using two long-period fiber gratings multiplexed in the wavelength domain is presented experimentally. For this, a mechanically induced long-period fiber grating (MI-LPFG) and a long-period fiber grating inscribed by a continuous-wave CO2 laser (CO2 LPFG) are connected in cascade. First, the transverse load and the temperature measurements were individually performed by the multiplexed long-period fiber gratings configuration. The MI-LPFG is subject to a transverse load variation from 0–2000 g with steps of 500 g, whereas the CO2 LPFG is unloaded and they are kept at room temperature. Similarly, the CO2 LPFG is subject to a temperature variation from 30 to 110 °C by increments of 20 °C, while the MI-LPFG with a constant transverse load of 2000 g is kept at room temperature. Subsequently, the simultaneous measurement of the transverse load and the temperature is performed by the multiplexed long-period fiber grating following the steps outlined above. According to the experimental results, the transverse load and temperature measurement present high repeatability for the individual and simultaneous process. Moreover, the multiplexed LPFGs exhibit low cladding-mode crosstalk of transverse load and temperature. The coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (CWDM) of long-period fiber gratings is an attractive alternative technique in optical fiber distributed sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Fiber Bragg Grating Research)
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