Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article
Electron Spill-Out Effect in Singular Metasurfaces
Photonics 2021, 8(5), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8050154 - 05 May 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The electron spill-out effect is considered in a singular metasurface. Using the hydrodynamic model, we found that electron spill-out effectively smears the sharp singularity. The introduction of the electron spill-out effect also significantly changes the reflection spectrum, charge distribution, field profile for a [...] Read more.
The electron spill-out effect is considered in a singular metasurface. Using the hydrodynamic model, we found that electron spill-out effectively smears the sharp singularity. The introduction of the electron spill-out effect also significantly changes the reflection spectrum, charge distribution, field profile for a singular metasurface. Therefore, this spill-out contribution is crucial and cannot be ignored for a realistic description of optical response in a singular system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmonic Metasurfaces)
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Article
Low Noise Short Wavelength Infrared Avalanche Photodetector Using SB-Based Strained Layer Superlattice
Photonics 2021, 8(5), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8050148 - 30 Apr 2021
Abstract
We demonstrate low noise short wavelength infrared (SWIR) Sb-based type II superlattice (T2SL) avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The SWIR GaSb/(AlAsSb/GaSb) APD structure was designed based on impact ionization engineering and grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaSb substrate. At room temperature, the device [...] Read more.
We demonstrate low noise short wavelength infrared (SWIR) Sb-based type II superlattice (T2SL) avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The SWIR GaSb/(AlAsSb/GaSb) APD structure was designed based on impact ionization engineering and grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaSb substrate. At room temperature, the device exhibits a 50% cut-off wavelength of 1.74 µm. The device was revealed to have an electron-dominated avalanching mechanism with a gain value of 48 at room temperature. The electron and hole impact ionization coefficients were calculated and compared to give a better prospect of the performance of the device. Low excess noise, as characterized by a carrier ionization ratio of ~0.07, has been achieved. Full article
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Article
Akinetic Swept-Source Master–Slave-Enhanced Optical Coherence Tomography
Photonics 2021, 8(5), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8050141 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents a different approach for processing the signal from interferometers driven by swept sources that exhibit non-linear tuning during stable time intervals. Such sources are, for example, those commercialised by Insight, which are electrically tunable and akinetic. These Insight sources use [...] Read more.
This paper presents a different approach for processing the signal from interferometers driven by swept sources that exhibit non-linear tuning during stable time intervals. Such sources are, for example, those commercialised by Insight, which are electrically tunable and akinetic. These Insight sources use a calibration procedure to skip frequencies already included in a spectral sweep, i.e., a process of “clearing the spectrum”. For the first time, the suitability of the Master–Slave (MS) procedure is evaluated as an alternative to the conventional calibration procedure for such sources. Here, the MS process is applied to the intact, raw interferogram spectrum delivered by an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Two modalities are investigated to implement the MS processing, based on (i) digital generation of the Master signals using the OCT interferometer and (ii) down-conversion using a second interferometer driven by the same swept source. The latter allows near-coherence-limited operation at a large axial range (>80 mm), without the need for a high sampling rate digitiser card to cope with the large frequency spectrum generated, which can exceed several GHz. In both cases, the depth information is recovered with some limitations as described in the text. Full article
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Article
A New Type of Shape-Invariant Beams with Structured Coherence: Laguerre-Christoffel-Darboux Beams
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040134 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
A new class of sources presenting structured coherence properties is introduced and analyzed. They are obtained as the incoherent superposition of coherent Laguerre-Gaussian modes with suitable coefficients. This ensures that the shape of the intensity profile and the spatial coherence features of the [...] Read more.
A new class of sources presenting structured coherence properties is introduced and analyzed. They are obtained as the incoherent superposition of coherent Laguerre-Gaussian modes with suitable coefficients. This ensures that the shape of the intensity profile and the spatial coherence features of the propagated beams are invariant during paraxial approximation. A simple analytical expression is obtained for the cross-spectral density of the sources of this class, regardless of the number of superposed modes. Properties of these sources are analyzed and described by several examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structured Light Coherence)
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Article
High-Sensitivity Optical-Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy with an Optical-Acoustic Combiner Based on an Off-Axis Parabolic Acoustic Mirror
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040127 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a promising noninvasive biomedical imaging technology with label-free optical absorption contrasts. Performance of OR-PAM is usually closely related to the optical-acoustic combiner. In this study, we propose an optical-acoustic combiner based on a flat acoustic reflector and an [...] Read more.
Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a promising noninvasive biomedical imaging technology with label-free optical absorption contrasts. Performance of OR-PAM is usually closely related to the optical-acoustic combiner. In this study, we propose an optical-acoustic combiner based on a flat acoustic reflector and an off-axis parabolic acoustic mirror with a conical bore. Quantitative simulation and experiments demonstrated that this combiner can provide better acoustic focusing performance and detection sensitivity. Moreover, OR-PAM is based on the combiner suffer low optical disorders, which guarantees the good resolution. In vivo experiments of the mouse brain and the iris were also conducted to show the practicability of the combiner in biomedicine. This proposed optical-acoustic combiner realizes a high-quality optical-acoustic confocal alignment with minimal optical disorders and acoustic insertion loss, strong acoustic focusing, and easy implementation. These characteristics might be useful for improving the performance of OR-PAM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photoacoustic Imaging for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Microshape Measurement Method Using Speckle Interferometry Based on Phase Analysis
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040112 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
A method for the measurement of the shape of a fine structure beyond the diffraction limit based on speckle interferometry has been reported. In this paper, the mechanism for measuring the shape of the fine structure in speckle interferometry using scattered light as [...] Read more.
A method for the measurement of the shape of a fine structure beyond the diffraction limit based on speckle interferometry has been reported. In this paper, the mechanism for measuring the shape of the fine structure in speckle interferometry using scattered light as the illumination light is discussed. Furthermore, by analyzing the phase distribution of the scattered light from the surface of the measured object, this method can be used to measure the shapes of periodic structures and single silica microspheres beyond the diffraction limit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Optical Metrology)
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Article
Joule-Level Twelve-Pass LD End-Pumped Bonded Neodymium Glass Laser Amplifier
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040096 - 30 Mar 2021
Abstract
This paper reports on a Joule-level multi-pass laser amplification device with diode end-pumped square-rod neodymium glass (Nd:glass) bonded to K9 glass. The device generated 1.17 J pulse energy at 1 Hz and 1053 nm. The optical-to-optical efficiency was 13.01%, and the effective energy [...] Read more.
This paper reports on a Joule-level multi-pass laser amplification device with diode end-pumped square-rod neodymium glass (Nd:glass) bonded to K9 glass. The device generated 1.17 J pulse energy at 1 Hz and 1053 nm. The optical-to-optical efficiency was 13.01%, and the effective energy extraction efficiency was 44.23%. Comparing Nd:glass of the same specification without K9 glass under the same conditions, the thermal wave aberration of the former was 85.71% of that of the latter, which is 0.78 um. The near-field modulation degree at the highest energy output was 1.42 within 90% of the spot, and the far-field energy concentration was 81.88% within the 2.5-fold diffraction limit. The Nd:glass bonding method of the square rod is relatively novel in laser amplification systems pumped by the diode end face and can be further studied in future works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Amplifiers)
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Communication
Quest for New Data: Ionizing Radiation Metrology in the Presence of Laser-Assisted Scattering Processes
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040094 - 27 Mar 2021
Abstract
Radiation metrology is crucial in space, for instance in monitoring the conditions on-board space vehicles. The energy released in matter by ionizing radiation is due to the atomic and molecular ionization processes, which have been investigated for several decades from both a theoretical [...] Read more.
Radiation metrology is crucial in space, for instance in monitoring the conditions on-board space vehicles. The energy released in matter by ionizing radiation is due to the atomic and molecular ionization processes, which have been investigated for several decades from both a theoretical and an experimental point of view. Electronic excitation and ionization cross-section are of particular interest in radiation physics, because of their role in the radiation–matter interaction process. Recently, experimental findings have shown that the interplay with a laser field can strongly modify the electronic interaction probabilities and emission spectra. These phenomena are still not completely understood from a theoretical point of view, and the available empirical data concern a few, simple atomic species. We represent a possible dosimetric effect of the interaction with laser light, inferring from experiments the characteristics of laser-assisted cross-sections. Using a Monte-Carlo calculation for simulating the micro-dosimetric aspects of the irradiation of a simple geometry, we show the need of new experimental data and more detailed theoretical approaches to these phenomena in complex molecular systems. Full article
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Article
Wide Field-of-View, High-Resolution Endoscopic Lens Design with Low F-Number for Disposable Endoscopy
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040089 - 24 Mar 2021
Abstract
In the past few decades, video endoscopy has become one of the primary medical devices in diverse clinical fields for examination, treatment, and early disease diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract. For an accurate diagnosis, an endoscopic camera offering bright and wide field-of-view images [...] Read more.
In the past few decades, video endoscopy has become one of the primary medical devices in diverse clinical fields for examination, treatment, and early disease diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract. For an accurate diagnosis, an endoscopic camera offering bright and wide field-of-view images is required while maintaining its compact dimensions to enter the long, narrow, and dark tract inside of the body. Recent endoscopic lenses successfully provide wide fields-of-view and have compact sizes for the system; however, their f-numbers still remain at 2.8 or higher. Therefore, further improvement in f-numbers is required to compensate for the restricted illumination system of the endoscopic probe. Here, we present a low f-number endoscopic lens design while providing wide field-of-view and high-resolution imaging. The proposed lens system achieved a low f-number of 2.2 and a field-of-view of 140 deg. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is over 20% at 180 lp/mm, and relative illumination is more than 60% in the full field. Additionally, the proposed lens is designed for a 1/4” 5-megapixel complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with a pixel size of 1.4 µm. This all-plastic lens design could help develop a high-performance disposable endoscope that prevents the risk of infection or cross-contamination with mass manufacture and low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biophotonics and Biomedical Optics)
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Communication
Coherence Stokes Parameters in the Description of Electromagnetic Coherence
Photonics 2021, 8(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8030085 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The two-point counterparts of the traditional Stokes parameters, which are called the coherence Stokes parameters, have recently been extensively used for assessing the coherence properties of random electromagnetic light beams. In this work, we highlight their importance by emphasizing two features associated with [...] Read more.
The two-point counterparts of the traditional Stokes parameters, which are called the coherence Stokes parameters, have recently been extensively used for assessing the coherence properties of random electromagnetic light beams. In this work, we highlight their importance by emphasizing two features associated with them. First, the role of polarization in electromagnetic coherence is significantly elucidated when the coherence Stokes parameters are used. Second, the normalized coherence Stokes parameters should be regarded as the true electromagnetic counterparts of the normalized scalar-field correlation coefficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structured Light Coherence)
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Article
The Overlap Factor Model of Spin-Polarised Coupled Lasers
Photonics 2021, 8(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8030083 - 20 Mar 2021
Abstract
A general model for the dynamics of arrays of coupled spin-polarised lasers is derived. The general model is able to deal with waveguides of any geometry with any number of supported normal modes. A unique feature of the model is that it allows [...] Read more.
A general model for the dynamics of arrays of coupled spin-polarised lasers is derived. The general model is able to deal with waveguides of any geometry with any number of supported normal modes. A unique feature of the model is that it allows for independent polarisation of the pumping in each laser. The particular geometry is shown to be introduced via ’overlap factors’, which are a generalisation of the optical confinement factor. These factors play an important role in determining the laser dynamics. The model is specialised to the case of a general double-guided structure, which is shown to reduce to both the spin flip model in a single cavity and the coupled mode model for a pair of guides in the appropriate limit. This is applied to the particular case of a circular-guide laser pair, which is analysed and simulated numerically. It is found that increasing the ellipticity of the pumping tends to reduce the region of instability in the plane of pumping strength versus guide separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Dynamics of Semiconductor Lasers and Their Applications)
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Article
Propagation of a Modified Complex Lorentz–Gaussian-Correlated Beam in a Marine Atmosphere
Photonics 2021, 8(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8030082 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, we study the second-order statistics of a modified complex Lorentz–Gaussian-correlated (MCLGC) beam, which is a new type of partially coherent beam capable of producing an Airy-like intensity pattern in the far field, propagation through marine atmospheric turbulence. The propagation formula [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study the second-order statistics of a modified complex Lorentz–Gaussian-correlated (MCLGC) beam, which is a new type of partially coherent beam capable of producing an Airy-like intensity pattern in the far field, propagation through marine atmospheric turbulence. The propagation formula of spectral density is derived by the extended Huygens–Fresnel integral, which could explicitly indicate the interaction of turbulence on the beams’ spectral density under propagation. The influences of the structure constant of the turbulence, initial coherence width and wavelength on the spectral density are investigated in detail through numerical examples. In addition, analytical expressions for the r.m.s beam width, divergence angle and M2 factor of the MCLGC beam in the marine turbulence are also derived with the help of the Wigner distribution function. The results reveal that the beam spreads much faster, and the M2 factor deteriorates severely with the increase of the structure constant and the decrease of the inner scale size, whereas the outer scale size has little effect on these two quantities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structured Light Coherence)
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Article
Optical Machine Learning Using Time-Lens Deep Neural NetWorks
Photonics 2021, 8(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8030078 - 15 Mar 2021
Abstract
As a high-throughput data analysis technique, photon time stretching (PTS) is widely used in the monitoring of rare events such as cancer cells, rough waves, and the study of electronic and optical transient dynamics. The PTS technology relies on high-speed data collection, and [...] Read more.
As a high-throughput data analysis technique, photon time stretching (PTS) is widely used in the monitoring of rare events such as cancer cells, rough waves, and the study of electronic and optical transient dynamics. The PTS technology relies on high-speed data collection, and the large amount of data generated poses a challenge to data storage and real-time processing. Therefore, how to use compatible optical methods to filter and process data in advance is particularly important. The time-lens proposed, based on the duality of time and space as an important data processing method derived from PTS, achieves imaging of time signals by controlling the phase information of the timing signals. In this paper, an optical neural network based on the time-lens (TL-ONN) is proposed, which applies the time-lens to the layer algorithm of the neural network to realize the forward transmission of one-dimensional data. The recognition function of this optical neural network for speech information is verified by simulation, and the test recognition accuracy reaches 95.35%. This architecture can be applied to feature extraction and classification, and is expected to be a breakthrough in detecting rare events such as cancer cell identification and screening. Full article
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Article
Engineering of TiO2 or ZnO—Graphene Oxide Nanoheterojunctions for Hybrid Solar Cells Devices
Photonics 2021, 8(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8030075 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
It is currently of huge importance to find alternatives to fossil fuels to produce clean energy and to ensure the energy demands of modern society. In the present work, two types of hybrid solar cell devices were developed and characterized. The photoactive layers [...] Read more.
It is currently of huge importance to find alternatives to fossil fuels to produce clean energy and to ensure the energy demands of modern society. In the present work, two types of hybrid solar cell devices were developed and characterized. The photoactive layers of the hybrid heterojunctions comprise poly (allylamine chloride) (PAH) and graphene oxide (GO) and TiO2 or ZnO films, which were deposited using the layer-by-layer technique and DC-reactive magnetron sputtering, respectively, onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. Scanning electron microscopy evidenced a homogeneous inorganic layer, the surface morphology of which was dependent on the number of organic bilayers. The electrical characterization pointed out that FTO/(PAH/GO)50/TiO2/Al, FTO/(PAH/GO)30/ZnO/Al, and FTO/(PAH/GO)50/ZnO/Al architectures were the only ones to exhibit a diode behavior, and the last one experienced a decrease in current in a low-humidity environment. The (PAH/GO)20 impedance spectroscopy study further revealed the typical impedance of a parallel RC circuit for a dry environment, whereas in a humid environment, it approached the impedance of a series of three parallel RC circuits, indicating that water and oxygen contribute to other conduction processes. Finally, the achieved devices should be encapsulated to work successfully as solar cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology)
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Article
Computational Modeling and Simulation to Increase Laser Shooting Accuracy of Autonomous LEO Trackers
Photonics 2021, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8020055 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce a computational procedure that enables autonomous LEO laser trackers endowed with INSs to increase the current accuracy when shooting at middle distant medium-size LEO debris targets. The code is designed for the trackers to throw the targets into [...] Read more.
In this paper, we introduce a computational procedure that enables autonomous LEO laser trackers endowed with INSs to increase the current accuracy when shooting at middle distant medium-size LEO debris targets. The code is designed for the trackers to throw the targets into the atmosphere by means of ablations. In case that the targets are eclipsed to the trackers by the Earth, the motions of the trackers and targets are modeled by equations that contain post-Newtonian terms accounting for the curvature of space. Otherwise, when the approaching targets become visible for the trackers, we additionally use more accurate equations, which allow to account for the local bending of the laser beams aimed at the targets. We observe that under certain circumstances the correct shooting configurations that allow to safely and efficiently shoot down the targets, differ from the current estimations by distances that may be larger than the size of many targets. In short, this procedure enables to estimate the optimal shooting instants for any middle distant medium-size LEO debris target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Interaction with Materials)
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Article
Mie Resonance Engineering in Two Disks
Photonics 2021, 8(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8020049 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
Recently the recipes to achieve the high-Q subwavelength resonances in an isolated dielectric disk have been reported based on avoided crossing (anticrossing) of the TE resonances under variation of the aspect ratio of the disk. In a silicon disk that recipe gives an [...] Read more.
Recently the recipes to achieve the high-Q subwavelength resonances in an isolated dielectric disk have been reported based on avoided crossing (anticrossing) of the TE resonances under variation of the aspect ratio of the disk. In a silicon disk that recipe gives an enhancement of the Q factor by one order of magnitude. In the present paper we present the approach based on engineering of the spherical Mie resonances with high orbital index in two coaxial disks by two-fold avoided crossing of the resonant modes of the disks. At the first step we select the resonant modes of single disk which are degenerate because of the opposite symmetry. Approaching of the second disk removes this degeneracy because of interaction between the disks. As a result at certain distances we realize the hybridized anti-bonding resonant modes whose morphology becomes close to the spherical Mie resonant mode with high orbital index. Respectively the Q factor of the anti-bonding resonant mode can be enhanced by three orders of magnitude compared to the case of single disk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optoelectronics and Optical Materials)
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Article
Accurate Power-Efficient Format-Scalable Multi-Parallel Optical Digital-to-Analogue Conversion
Photonics 2021, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8020038 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
In optical transmitters generating multi-level constellations, optical modulators are preceded by Electronic Digital-to-Analog-Converters (eDAC). It is advantageous to use eDAC-free Optical Analog to Digital Converters (oDAC) to directly convert digital bitstreams into multilevel PAM/QAM optical signals. State-of-the-art oDACs are based on Segmented Mach-Zehnder-Modulators [...] Read more.
In optical transmitters generating multi-level constellations, optical modulators are preceded by Electronic Digital-to-Analog-Converters (eDAC). It is advantageous to use eDAC-free Optical Analog to Digital Converters (oDAC) to directly convert digital bitstreams into multilevel PAM/QAM optical signals. State-of-the-art oDACs are based on Segmented Mach-Zehnder-Modulators (SEMZM) using multiple modulation segments strung along the MZM waveguides to serially accumulate binary-modulated optical phases. Here we aim to assess performance limits of the Serial oDACs (SEMZM) and introduce an alternative improved Multi-Parallel oDAC (MPoDAC) architecture, in particular based on arraying multiple binary-driven MZMs in parallel: Multi-parallel MZM (MPMZM) oDAC. We develop generic methodologies of oDAC specification and optimization encompassing both SEMZM and MPMZM options in Direct-Detection (DD) and Coherent-Detection (COH) implementations. We quantify and compare intrinsic performance limits of the various serial/parallel DD/COH subclasses for general constellation orders, comparing with the scant prior-work on the multi-parallel option. A key finding: COH-MPMZM is the only class synthesizing ‘perfect’ (equi-spaced max-full-scale) constellations while maximizing energy-efficiency-SEMZM/MPMZM for DD are less accurate when maximal energy-efficiency is required. In particular, we introduce multiple variants of PAM4|8 DD and QAM16|64 COH MPMZMs, working out their accuracy vs. energy-efficiency-and-complexity tradeoffs, establishing their format-reconfigurability (format-flexible switching of constellation order and/or DD/COH). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reconfigurable Photonic Interconnects)
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Article
Topological-Insulator-Based Gap-Surface Plasmon Metasurfaces
Photonics 2021, 8(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8020040 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Topological insulators (TIs) have unique highly conducting symmetry-protected surface states while the bulk is insulating, making them attractive for various applications in condensed matter physics. Recently, topological insulator materials have been tentatively applied for both near- and far-field wavefront manipulation of electromagnetic waves, [...] Read more.
Topological insulators (TIs) have unique highly conducting symmetry-protected surface states while the bulk is insulating, making them attractive for various applications in condensed matter physics. Recently, topological insulator materials have been tentatively applied for both near- and far-field wavefront manipulation of electromagnetic waves, yielding superior plasmonic properties in the ultraviolet (UV)-to-visible wavelength range. However, previous reports have only demonstrated inefficient wavefront control based on binary metasurfaces that were digitalized on a TI thin film or non-directional surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation. Here, we numerically demonstrated the plasmonic capabilities of the TI Bi2Te3 as a material for gap–surface plasmon (GSP) metasurfaces. By employing the principle of the geometric phase, a far-field beam-steering metasurface was designed for the visible spectrum, yielding a cross-polarization efficiency of 34% at 500 nm while suppressing the co-polarization to 0.08%. Furthermore, a birefringent GSP metasurface design was studied and found to be capable of directionally exciting SPPs depending on the incident polarization. Our work forms the basis for accurately controlling the far- and near-field responses of TI-based GSP metasurfaces in the visible spectral range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmonic Metasurfaces)
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Article
Proposal of Highly Efficient Quantum Well Microring Resonator-Loaded Optical Phase Modulator Integrated with Antenna-Coupled Electrodes for Radio-over-Fiber
Photonics 2021, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8020037 - 03 Feb 2021
Abstract
Radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology for low-loss, high-speed millimeter-wave transmission using optical fibers has been attracting attention. We propose a highly efficient microring resonator (MRR)-loaded InGaAs/InAlAs multiple-quantum-well (MQW) phase modulator with an antenna coupled electrode (ACE) for 60 GHz RoF systems, and its modulation characteristics [...] Read more.
Radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology for low-loss, high-speed millimeter-wave transmission using optical fibers has been attracting attention. We propose a highly efficient microring resonator (MRR)-loaded InGaAs/InAlAs multiple-quantum-well (MQW) phase modulator with an antenna coupled electrode (ACE) for 60 GHz RoF systems, and its modulation characteristics are theoretically discussed. This modulator is able to directly convert wireless millimeter-wave (MMW) signals into optical signals without an external power supply. The MRR used in the waveguide structure increases the optical phase change obtained by the unique quantum confinement Stark effect in the MQW through phase enhancement effects, while the ACE based on a coupled microstrip resonant electrode applies a strong standing wave electric field to the waveguide. The proposed modulator is expected to provide tens of times higher phase modulation efficiency than a conventional gap-embedded planar antenna-integrated modulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio over Fiber)
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Communication
Effect of Si Doping on the Performance of GaN Schottky Barrier Ultraviolet Photodetector Grown on Si Substrate
Photonics 2021, 8(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8020028 - 23 Jan 2021
Abstract
GaN Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetectors with unintentionally doped GaN and lightly Si-doped n-GaN absorption layers were successfully fabricated, respectively. The high-quality GaN films on the Si substrate both have a fairly low dislocation density and point defect concentration. More importantly, the [...] Read more.
GaN Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetectors with unintentionally doped GaN and lightly Si-doped n-GaN absorption layers were successfully fabricated, respectively. The high-quality GaN films on the Si substrate both have a fairly low dislocation density and point defect concentration. More importantly, the effect of Si doping on the performance of the GaN-on-Si Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector was studied. It was found that light Si doping in the absorption layer can significantly increase the responsivity under reverse bias, which might be attributed to the persistent photoconductivity that originates from the lowering of the Schottky barrier height. In addition, the devices with unintentionally doped GaN demonstrated a relatively high-speed photo response. We briefly studied the mechanism of changes in Schottky barrier, dark current and the characteristic of response time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Photonic Devices)
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Article
Image Deconvolution with Hybrid Reweighted Adaptive Total Variation (HRATV) for Optoacoustic Tomography
Photonics 2021, 8(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8020025 - 20 Jan 2021
Abstract
Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is a hybrid biomedical imaging modality that usually employs a transducer array to detect laser-generated ultrasonic signals. The reconstructed image suffers low contrast and degraded resolution due to the limited bandwidth and the spatial directivity of the transducer element. Here, [...] Read more.
Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is a hybrid biomedical imaging modality that usually employs a transducer array to detect laser-generated ultrasonic signals. The reconstructed image suffers low contrast and degraded resolution due to the limited bandwidth and the spatial directivity of the transducer element. Here, we introduce a modified image deconvolution method with a hybrid reweighted adaptive total variation tailored to improve the image quality of OAT. The effectiveness and the parameter dependency of the proposed method are verified on standard test images. The performance of the proposed method in OAT is then characterized on both simulated phantoms and in vivo mice experiments, which demonstrates that the modified deconvolution algorithm is able to restore the sharp edges and fine details in OAT simultaneously. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the target structures in mouse liver and brain were improved by 4.90 and 12.69 dB, respectively. We also investigated the feasibility of using Fourier ring correlation (FRC) as an indicator of the image quality to monitor the deconvolution progress in OAT. Based on the experimental results, a practical guide for image deconvolution in OAT was summarized. We anticipate that the proposed method will be a promising post-processing tool to enhance the visualization of micro-structures in OAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biophotonics and Biomedical Optics)
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Article
Spiral Caustics of Vortex Beams
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010024 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
We discuss the nonparaxial focusing of laser light into a three-dimensional (3D) spiral distribution. For calculating the tangential and normal components of the electromagnetic field on a preset curved surface we propose an asymptotic method, using which we derive equations for calculating stationary [...] Read more.
We discuss the nonparaxial focusing of laser light into a three-dimensional (3D) spiral distribution. For calculating the tangential and normal components of the electromagnetic field on a preset curved surface we propose an asymptotic method, using which we derive equations for calculating stationary points and asymptotic relations for the electromagnetic field components in the form of one-dimensional (1D) integrals over a radial component. The results obtained through the asymptotic approach and the direct calculation of the Kirchhoff integral are identical. For a particular case of focusing into a ring, an analytical relation for stationary points is derived. Based on the electromagnetic theory, we design and numerically model the performance of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) to generate field distributions shaped as two-dimensional (2D) and 3D light spirals with the variable angular momentum. We reveal that under certain conditions, there is an effect of splitting the longitudinal electromagnetic field component. Experimental results obtained with the use of a spatial light modulator are in good agreement with the modeling results. Full article
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Article
Neural Network DPD for Aggrandizing SM-VCSEL-SSMF-Based Radio over Fiber Link Performance
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010019 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper demonstrates an unprecedented novel neural network (NN)-based digital predistortion (DPD) solution to overcome the signal impairments and nonlinearities in Analog Optical fronthauls using radio over fiber (RoF) systems. DPD is realized with Volterra-based procedures that utilize indirect learning architecture (ILA) and [...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates an unprecedented novel neural network (NN)-based digital predistortion (DPD) solution to overcome the signal impairments and nonlinearities in Analog Optical fronthauls using radio over fiber (RoF) systems. DPD is realized with Volterra-based procedures that utilize indirect learning architecture (ILA) and direct learning architecture (DLA) that becomes quite complex. The proposed method using NNs evades issues associated with ILA and utilizes an NN to first model the RoF link and then trains an NN-based predistorter by backpropagating through the RoF NN model. Furthermore, the experimental evaluation is carried out for Long Term Evolution 20 MHz 256 quadraturre amplitude modulation (QAM) modulation signal using an 850 nm Single Mode VCSEL and Standard Single Mode Fiber to establish a comparison between the NN-based RoF link and Volterra-based Memory Polynomial and Generalized Memory Polynomial using ILA. The efficacy of the DPD is examined by reporting the Adjacent Channel Power Ratio and Error Vector Magnitude. The experimental findings imply that NN-DPD convincingly learns the RoF nonlinearities which may not suit a Volterra-based model, and hence may offer a favorable trade-off in terms of computational overhead and DPD performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio over Fiber)
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Communication
InP-Components for 100 GBaud Optical Data Center Communication
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010018 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Externally modulated DFB lasers (EML) and vertically illuminated photodetectors are presented. Because of their excellent high-speed behavior and operation wavelength of 1310 nm, the devices are of interest for intra-data center communication. Since the EML and the photodetector chips are compatible with current [...] Read more.
Externally modulated DFB lasers (EML) and vertically illuminated photodetectors are presented. Because of their excellent high-speed behavior and operation wavelength of 1310 nm, the devices are of interest for intra-data center communication. Since the EML and the photodetector chips are compatible with current systems, these devices are candidates for upgrading existing transceivers to higher baud rates. Therefore, a proof of concept for 100 GBaud data transmission with the presented components is demonstrated. Even without predistortion, the experiments show clearly open eye diagrams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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Article
Study of Phase Transition in MOCVD Grown Ga2O3 from κ to β Phase by Ex Situ and In Situ Annealing
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010017 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
We report the post-growth thermal annealing and the subsequent phase transition of Ga2O3 grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We demonstrated the post-growth thermal annealing at temperatures higher than 900 °C under N2 [...] Read more.
We report the post-growth thermal annealing and the subsequent phase transition of Ga2O3 grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We demonstrated the post-growth thermal annealing at temperatures higher than 900 °C under N2 ambience, by either in situ or ex situ thermal annealing, can induce phase transition from nominally metastable κ- to thermodynamically stable β-phase. This was analyzed by structural characterizations such as high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The highly resistive as-grown Ga2O3 epitaxial layer becomes conductive after annealing at 1000 °C. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in situ annealing can lead to a crack-free β-Ga2O3. Full article
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Article
Function of Porous Carbon Electrode during the Fabrication of Multiporous-Layered-Electrode Perovskite Solar Cells
Photonics 2020, 7(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7040133 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
We demonstrate the effect of sheet conductivity and infiltration using the example of two graphite types, showing that, in general, the graphite type is very important. Amorphous and pyrolytic graphite were applied to carbon electrodes in fully printable carbon-based multiporous-layered-electrode perovskite solar cells [...] Read more.
We demonstrate the effect of sheet conductivity and infiltration using the example of two graphite types, showing that, in general, the graphite type is very important. Amorphous and pyrolytic graphite were applied to carbon electrodes in fully printable carbon-based multiporous-layered-electrode perovskite solar cells (MPLE-PSCs): <glass/F-doped SnO2/compact-TiO2/porous-TiO2+perovskite/porous-ZrO2+perovskite/porous-carbon+perovskite>. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) using amorphous graphite-based carbon (AGC) electrode was only 5.97% due to the low short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) value, which was due to the low incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) in the short wavelength region caused by the poor perovskite filling into the porous TiO2-ZrO2 layers. Conversely, using pyrolytic graphite-based carbon (PGC) electrode, Jsc, open-circuit photovoltage (Voc), fill factors (FF), and PCE values of 21.09 mA cm−2, 0.952 V, 0.670, and 13.45%, respectively, were achieved in the champion device. PGC had poorer wettability and a small specific surface area as compared with AGC, but it had better permeability of the perovskite precursor solution into the porous TiO2/ZrO2 layers, and therefore a denser filling and crystallization of the perovskite within the porous TiO2/ZrO2 layers than AGC. It is confirmed that the permeability of the precursor solution depends on the morphology and structure of the graphite employed in the carbon electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Materials and Devices)
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Article
Electromagnetic Scattering Analysis of SHDB Objects Using Surface Integral Equation Method
Photonics 2020, 7(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7040134 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A surface integral equation (SIE) method is applied in order to analyze electromagnetic scattering by bounded arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional objects with the SHDB boundary condition. SHDB is a generalization of SH (Soft-and-Hard) and DB boundary conditions (at the DB boundary, the normal components [...] Read more.
A surface integral equation (SIE) method is applied in order to analyze electromagnetic scattering by bounded arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional objects with the SHDB boundary condition. SHDB is a generalization of SH (Soft-and-Hard) and DB boundary conditions (at the DB boundary, the normal components of the D and B flux densities vanish). The SHDB boundary condition is a general linear boundary condition that contains two scalar equations that involve both the tangential and normal components of the electromagnetic fields. The multiplication of these scalar equations with two orthogonal vectors transforms them into a vector form that can be combined with the tangential field integral equations. The resulting equations are discretized and converted to a matrix equation with standard method of moments (MoM). As an example of use of the method, we investigate scattering by an SHDB circular disk and demonstrate that the SHDB boundary allows for an efficient way to control the polarization of the wave that is reflected from the surface. We also discuss perspectives into different levels of materialization and realization of SHDB boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Complex Media Electromagnetics)
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Article
Wavelength-Dependent Features of Photoelectron Spectra from Nanotip Photoemission
Photonics 2020, 7(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7040129 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
If a metal nanotip is irradiated with the light of a wavelength much larger than the nanotip’s radius of curvature, optical near-fields become excited. These fields are responsible for distinct strong-field electron dynamics, due to both the field enhancement and spatial localization. By [...] Read more.
If a metal nanotip is irradiated with the light of a wavelength much larger than the nanotip’s radius of curvature, optical near-fields become excited. These fields are responsible for distinct strong-field electron dynamics, due to both the field enhancement and spatial localization. By classical trajectory, Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation, and the integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE), we find that the photoelectron spectra for nanotip strong-field photoemission, irradiated by mid-infrared laser pulses, present distinctive wavelength-dependent features, especially in the mid- to high-electron energy regions, which are different from the well known ones. By extracting the electron trajectories from the CTMC simulation, we investigate these particular wavelength-dependent features. Our theoretical results contribute to understanding the photoemission and electron dynamics at nanostructures, and pave new pathways for designing high-energy nanometer-sized ultrafast electron sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strong Light Fields Coupled with Plasmonic Nano-Structures)
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Article
Scaling of Beam Collective Effects with Bunch Charge in the CompactLight Free-Electron Laser
Photonics 2020, 7(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7040125 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The CompactLight European consortium is designing a state-of-the-art X-ray free-electron laser driven by radiofrequency X-band technology. Rooted in experimental data on photo-injector performance in the recent literature, this study estimates analytically and numerically the performance of the CompactLight delivery system for bunch charges [...] Read more.
The CompactLight European consortium is designing a state-of-the-art X-ray free-electron laser driven by radiofrequency X-band technology. Rooted in experimental data on photo-injector performance in the recent literature, this study estimates analytically and numerically the performance of the CompactLight delivery system for bunch charges in the range 75–300 pC. Space-charge forces in the injector, linac transverse wakefield, and coherent synchrotron radiation in bunch compressors are all taken into account. The study confirms efficient lasing in the soft X-rays regime with pulse energies up to hundreds of microjoules at repetition rates as high as 1 kHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology)
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Article
Coherent Beam Combining Using an Internally Sensed Optical Phased Array of Frequency-Offset Phase Locked Lasers
Photonics 2020, 7(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7040118 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Coherent beam combining can be used to scale optical power and enable mechanism-free beam steering using an optical phased array. Coherently combining multiple free-running lasers in a leader-follower laser configuration is challenging due to the need to measure and stabilize large and highly [...] Read more.
Coherent beam combining can be used to scale optical power and enable mechanism-free beam steering using an optical phased array. Coherently combining multiple free-running lasers in a leader-follower laser configuration is challenging due to the need to measure and stabilize large and highly dynamic phase differences between them. We present a scalable technique based on frequency-offset phase locking and digitally enhanced interferometry to clone the coherence of multiple lasers without the use of external sampling optics, which has the potential to support both coherent and spectral beam combining, and alleviates issues of voltage wrapping associated with actuating feedback control using electro-optic modulators. This technique was demonstrated experimentally using a tiled-aperture optical phased array in which the relative output phase of three free-running lasers was stabilized with an RMS output phase stability of λ/104. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology)
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Article
Multiwavelength Frequency Modulated CW Ladar: The Effect of Refractive Index
Photonics 2020, 7(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7040090 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) laser detection and ranging is a technique for absolute distance measurements with high performances in terms of resolution, non-ambiguity range, accuracy and fast detection. It is based on a simple experimental setup, thus resulting in cost restraint with [...] Read more.
Frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) laser detection and ranging is a technique for absolute distance measurements with high performances in terms of resolution, non-ambiguity range, accuracy and fast detection. It is based on a simple experimental setup, thus resulting in cost restraint with potential wide spread, not only limited to research institutions. The technique has been widely studied and improved both in terms of experimental setup by absolute reference or active stabilization and in terms of data analysis. Very recently a multi-wavelength approach has been exploited, demonstrating high precision and non ambiguity range. The variability of refractive index along the path was not taken into account with consequent degradation of range accuracy. In this work we developed a simple model able to take into account refractive index effect in multi-wavelength FMCW measurement. We performed a numerical simulation in different atmospheric conditions of temperature, pressure, humidity and CO2 concentration showing a net improvement of range accuracy when refractive index modeling is used. Full article
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Article
A Metamaterial-Inspired Approach to Mitigating Radio Frequency Blackout When a Plasma Forms Around a Reentry Vehicle
Photonics 2020, 7(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7040088 - 06 Oct 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Radio frequency (RF) blackout and attenuation have been observed during atmospheric reentry since the advent of space exploration. The effects range from severe attenuation to complete loss of communications and can last from 90 s to 10 min depending on the vehicle’s trajectory. [...] Read more.
Radio frequency (RF) blackout and attenuation have been observed during atmospheric reentry since the advent of space exploration. The effects range from severe attenuation to complete loss of communications and can last from 90 s to 10 min depending on the vehicle’s trajectory. This paper examines a way of using a metasurface to improve the performance of communications during reentry. The technique is viable at low plasma densities and matches a split-ring resonator (SRR)-based mu-negative (MNG) sheet to the epsilon-negative (ENG) plasma region. Considering the MNG metasurface as a window to the exterior of a reentry vehicle, its matched design yields high transmission of an electromagnetic plane wave through the resulting MNG-ENG metastructure into the region beyond it. A varactor-based SRR design facilitates tuning the MNG layer to ENG layers with different plasma densities. Both simple and Huygens dipole antennas beneath a matched metastructure are then employed to demonstrate the consequent realization of significant signal transmission through it into free space beyond the exterior ENG plasma layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Complex Media Electromagnetics)
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Article
Tunable THz Pulses Generation in Non-Equilibrium Magnetized Plasma: The Role of Plasma Kinetics
Photonics 2020, 7(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7040082 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper the theoretical model to consider the influence of kinetic properties of nonequilibrium two-color plasma during the THz pulses generation in the presence of static magnetic field is developed. It is shown that applying a static magnetic field on a gas [...] Read more.
In this paper the theoretical model to consider the influence of kinetic properties of nonequilibrium two-color plasma during the THz pulses generation in the presence of static magnetic field is developed. It is shown that applying a static magnetic field on a gas along the direction of propagation of an ionizing two-color laser pulse allows one to produce two-frequency emissions in THz range with tunable central frequency and bandwidth, which are strongly dependent on electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) formed in the plasma as well as relations between collisional, plasma and cyclotron frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology)
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Article
Near- and Far-Field Excitation of Topological Plasmonic Metasurfaces
Photonics 2020, 7(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7040081 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The breathing honeycomb lattice hosts a topologically non-trivial bulk phase due to the crystalline-symmetry of the system. Pseudospin-dependent edge states, which emerge at the interface between trivial and non-trivial regions, can be used for the directional propagation of energy. Using the plasmonic metasurface [...] Read more.
The breathing honeycomb lattice hosts a topologically non-trivial bulk phase due to the crystalline-symmetry of the system. Pseudospin-dependent edge states, which emerge at the interface between trivial and non-trivial regions, can be used for the directional propagation of energy. Using the plasmonic metasurface as an example system, we probe these states in the near- and far-field using a semi-analytical model. We provide the conditions under which directionality was observed and show that it is source position dependent. By probing with circularly-polarised magnetic dipoles out of the plane, we first characterise modes along the interface in terms of the enhancement of source emissions due to the metasurface. We then excite from the far-field with non-zero orbital angular momentum beams. The position-dependent directionality holds true for all classical wave systems with a breathing honeycomb lattice. Our results show that a metasurface in combination with a chiral two-dimensional material, could be used to guide light effectively on the nanoscale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmonic Metasurfaces)
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Article
Structural, Optical and Electrical Characterizations of Midwave Infrared Ga-Free Type-II InAs/InAsSb Superlattice Barrier Photodetector
Photonics 2020, 7(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7030076 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper, a full set of structural, optical and electrical characterizations performed on midwave infrared barrier detectors based on a Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice, grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a GaSb substrate, are reported and analyzed. a Minority carrier lifetime [...] Read more.
In this paper, a full set of structural, optical and electrical characterizations performed on midwave infrared barrier detectors based on a Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice, grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a GaSb substrate, are reported and analyzed. a Minority carrier lifetime value equal to 1 µs at 80 K, carried out on dedicated structure showing photoluminescence peak position at 4.9 µm, is extracted from a time resolved photoluminescence measurement. Dark current density as low as 3.2 × 10−5 A/cm2 at 150 K is reported on the corresponding device exhibiting a 50% cut-off wavelength around 5 µm. A performance analysis through normalized spectral response and dark current density-voltage characteristics was performed to determine both the operating bias and the different dark current regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology)
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Communication
Wide-Angle Beam-Steering Using an Optical Phased Array with Non-Uniform-Width Waveguide Radiators
Photonics 2020, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7030056 - 03 Aug 2020
Abstract
We demonstrate wide-angle beam-steering using an optical phased array (OPA) with waveguide radiators designed with non-uniform widths to reduce the crosstalk between waveguides. The OPA consists of a silicon based 1 × 16 array of electro-optic phase shifters and end-fire radiators. The 16 [...] Read more.
We demonstrate wide-angle beam-steering using an optical phased array (OPA) with waveguide radiators designed with non-uniform widths to reduce the crosstalk between waveguides. The OPA consists of a silicon based 1 × 16 array of electro-optic phase shifters and end-fire radiators. The 16 radiators were configured with four different widths and a half-wavelength spacing, which can remove the higher-order diffraction patterns in free space. The waveguides showed a low crosstalk of −10.2 dB at a wavelength of 1540 nm. With phase control, the OPA achieved wide beam-steering of over ±80° with a side-lobe suppression of 7.4 dB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lasers, Light Sources and Sensors)
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Article
Characterization and Direct Modulation of a Multi-Section PIC Suited for Short Reach Optical Communication Systems
Photonics 2020, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7030055 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
A multi-section active photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is characterized in detail to gauge its suitability as a transmitter for short reach applications. The PIC is 1.5 mm long and consists of two lasers integrated in a master-slave configuration, which enables optical injection locking [...] Read more.
A multi-section active photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is characterized in detail to gauge its suitability as a transmitter for short reach applications. The PIC is 1.5 mm long and consists of two lasers integrated in a master-slave configuration, which enables optical injection locking (OIL) of the slave laser. The beneficial impact of the injection is characterized by static and dynamic measurements. The results show a reduction of the optical linewidth from 8 MHz to 2 MHz, a relative intensity noise (RIN) value as low as −154.3 dB/Hz and a 45% improvement of the slave laser modulation bandwidth from 9.5 GHz to 14 GHz. This frequency response enhancement allows the direct modulation of the slave gain section at a data rate of 10.7 Gb/s and an error-free transmission over 25 km of standard single-mode fiber (SSMF). Transmission performance of the injected case shows a 2 dB improvement in the minimum optical power required to achieve a bit error rate of 3.8×103 (hard decision forward error correction limit). These results demonstrate that the multi-section PIC can serve as an attractive cost-efficient transmitter in a wide variety of low-cost short-reach data communication applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Communication and Network)
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Article
Cloaking Using the Anisotropic Multilayer Sphere
Photonics 2020, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7030052 - 26 Jul 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
We studied a Spherically Radially Anisotropic (SRA) multilayer sphere with an arbitrary number of layers. Within each layer permittivity components are different from each other in radial and tangential directions. Under the quasi-static approximation, we developed a more generalized mathematical model that can [...] Read more.
We studied a Spherically Radially Anisotropic (SRA) multilayer sphere with an arbitrary number of layers. Within each layer permittivity components are different from each other in radial and tangential directions. Under the quasi-static approximation, we developed a more generalized mathematical model that can be used to calculate polarizability of the SRA multilayer sphere with any arbitrary number of layers. Moreover, the functionality of the SRA multilayer sphere as a cloak has been investigated. It has been shown that by choosing a suitable contrast between components of the permittivity, the SRA multilayer sphere can achieve threshold required for invisibility cloaking. Full article
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Article
Coupled Cavity Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Lasers Fabricated by Dry Etching
Photonics 2020, 7(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7030045 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this work, two-section, coupled cavity, mid-IR quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) were characterized in terms of their tuning range and emission stability under operation towards potential application in detection systems. Devices were processed by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) from InP-based [...] Read more.
In this work, two-section, coupled cavity, mid-IR quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) were characterized in terms of their tuning range and emission stability under operation towards potential application in detection systems. Devices were processed by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) from InP-based heterostructure, designed for emission in the 9.x micrometer range. Single mode devices were demonstrated with a better than 20 dB side mode suppression ratio (SMRS). The fabrication method resulted in improved yield, as well as high repeatability of individual devices. Continuous, mode-hop-free tuning of emission wavelength was observed across ~4.5 cm−1 for the range of temperatures of the heat sink from 15 °C to 70 °C. Using the thermal perturbation in the lasing cavity, in conjunction with controlled hopping between coupled-cavity (CC) modes, we were able to accomplish tuning over the range of up to ~20 cm−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lasers, Light Sources and Sensors)
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Article
Wave Front Tuning of Coupled Hyperbolic Surface Waves on Anisotropic Interfaces
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020034 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
A photonic surface wave, a propagating optical mode localized at the interface of two media, can play a significant role in controlling the flow of light at nanoscale. Among various types of such waves, surface waves with hyperbolic dispersion or simply hyperbolic surface [...] Read more.
A photonic surface wave, a propagating optical mode localized at the interface of two media, can play a significant role in controlling the flow of light at nanoscale. Among various types of such waves, surface waves with hyperbolic dispersion or simply hyperbolic surface waves supported on anisotropic metal interfaces can be exploited to effectively control the propagation of lightwaves. We used semi-analytical and numerical methods to study the nature of surface waves on several configurations of three-layers metal–dielectric–metal systems including isotropic and anisotropic cases where the metal cladding layers were assumed to have infinite thickness. We used semi-analytical and numerical approaches to study the phenomena. We showed that the propagation of surface wave can be tuned from diverging to converging in the plane of the interface by the combination of metals with different anisotropic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topological Photonics)
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Article
Generation of over 1000 Diffraction Spots from 2D Graded Photonic Super-Crystals
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020027 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
For the first time, we are able to generate over 1000 diffraction spots from a graded photonic super-crystal with a unit super-cell size of 12a × 12a where a is the lattice constant and hole radii are gradually changed in dual directions. The [...] Read more.
For the first time, we are able to generate over 1000 diffraction spots from a graded photonic super-crystal with a unit super-cell size of 12a × 12a where a is the lattice constant and hole radii are gradually changed in dual directions. The diffraction pattern from the graded photonic super-crystal reveals unique diffraction properties. The first order diffractions of (±1,0) or (0,±1) disappear. Fractional diffraction orders are observed in the diffraction pattern inside a square with vertices of (1,1), (1,−1), (−1,−1) and (−1,−1). The fractional diffraction can be understood from lattices with a period of a. However, a dual-lattice model is considered in order to explain higher-order diffractions. E-field intensity simulations show a coupling and re-distribution among fractional orders of Bloch waves. There are a total of 12 × 12 spots in E-field intensity in the unit supercell corresponding to 12 × 12 fractional diffraction orders in the diffraction pattern and 12 × 12 fractional orders of momentum in the first Brillouin zone in k-space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Optical Materials and Devices)
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Article
Topological Protection and Control of Quantum Markovianity
Photonics 2020, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7010018 - 08 Feb 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Under the Born–Markov approximation, a qubit system, such as a two-level atom, is known to undergo a memoryless decay of quantum coherence or excitation when weakly coupled to a featureless environment. Recently, it has been shown that unavoidable disorder in the environment is [...] Read more.
Under the Born–Markov approximation, a qubit system, such as a two-level atom, is known to undergo a memoryless decay of quantum coherence or excitation when weakly coupled to a featureless environment. Recently, it has been shown that unavoidable disorder in the environment is responsible for non-Markovian effects and information backflow from the environment into the system owing to Anderson localization. This turns disorder into a resource for enhancing non-Markovianity in the system–environment dynamics, which could be of relevance in cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we consider the decoherence dynamics of a qubit weakly coupled to a two-dimensional bath with a nontrivial topological phase, such as a two-level atom embedded in a two-dimensional coupled-cavity array with a synthetic gauge field realizing a quantum-Hall bath, and show that Markovianity is protected against moderate disorder owing to the robustness of chiral edge modes in the quantum-Hall bath. Interestingly, switching off the gauge field, i.e., flipping the bath into a topological trivial phase, allows one to re-introduce non-Markovian effects. Such a result indicates that changing the topological phase of a bath by a tunable synthetic gauge field can be harnessed to control non-Markovian effects and quantum information backflow in a qubit-environment system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topological Photonics)
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Article
Equivalent Circuit Model of High-Performance VCSELs
Photonics 2020, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7010013 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this work, a general equivalent circuit model based on the carrier reservoir splitting approach in high-performance multi-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is presented. This model accurately describes the intrinsic dynamic behavior of these VCSELs for the case where the lasing modes do [...] Read more.
In this work, a general equivalent circuit model based on the carrier reservoir splitting approach in high-performance multi-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is presented. This model accurately describes the intrinsic dynamic behavior of these VCSELs for the case where the lasing modes do not share a common carrier reservoir. Moreover, this circuit model is derived from advanced multi-mode rate equations that take into account the effect of spatial hole-burning, gain compression, and inhomogeneity in the carrier distribution between the lasing mode ensembles. The validity of the model is confirmed through simulation of the intrinsic modulation response of these lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Laser Dynamics: Fundamentals and Applications)
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Article
RF Injection of THz QCL Combs at 80 K Emitting over 700 GHz Spectral Bandwidth
Photonics 2020, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7010009 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
We report about RF injection locking of an homogeneous THz quantum cascade laser operating at 3 THz central frequency. The extremely diagonal nature of the optical transition, combined with low-loss copper-based double-metal waveguides, allow CW operation up to 105 K and CW power [...] Read more.
We report about RF injection locking of an homogeneous THz quantum cascade laser operating at 3 THz central frequency. The extremely diagonal nature of the optical transition, combined with low-loss copper-based double-metal waveguides, allow CW operation up to 105 K and CW power in excess of 5.6 mW measured at 80 K. Terahertz emission spanning up to 600 GHz, together with a narrow beatnote, indicate comb operation at 80 K, and strong RF injection clearly modifies the laser spectrum up to 700 GHz spectral bandwidth making these devices ideal candidates for an on-chip dual comb spectrometer. Full article
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Article
Task-Independent Computational Abilities of Semiconductor Lasers with Delayed Optical Feedback for Reservoir Computing
Photonics 2019, 6(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6040124 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
Reservoir computing has rekindled neuromorphic computing in photonics. One of the simplest technological implementations of reservoir computing consists of a semiconductor laser with delayed optical feedback. In this delay-based scheme, virtual nodes are distributed in time with a certain node distance and form [...] Read more.
Reservoir computing has rekindled neuromorphic computing in photonics. One of the simplest technological implementations of reservoir computing consists of a semiconductor laser with delayed optical feedback. In this delay-based scheme, virtual nodes are distributed in time with a certain node distance and form a time-multiplexed network. The information processing performance of a semiconductor laser-based reservoir computing (RC) system is usually analysed by way of testing the laser-based reservoir computer on specific benchmark tasks. In this work, we will illustrate the optimal performance of the system on a chaotic time-series prediction benchmark. However, the goal is to analyse the reservoir’s performance in a task-independent way. This is done by calculating the computational capacity, a measure for the total number of independent calculations that the system can handle. We focus on the dependence of the computational capacity on the specifics of the masking procedure. We find that the computational capacity depends strongly on the virtual node distance with an optimal node spacing of 30 ps. In addition, we show that the computational capacity can be further increased by allowing for a well chosen mismatch between delay and input data sample time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Laser Dynamics: Fundamentals and Applications)
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Article
Biofunctionalized Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules Encoded with Fluorescent Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Highly Specific Targeting and Imaging of Cancer Cells
Photonics 2019, 6(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6040117 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are characterized by unique optical properties, including a high photostability, wide absorption spectrum, and narrow, symmetric fluorescence spectrum. This makes them attractive fluorescent nanolabels for the optical encoding of microcarriers intended for targeted drug delivery, diagnosis, [...] Read more.
Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are characterized by unique optical properties, including a high photostability, wide absorption spectrum, and narrow, symmetric fluorescence spectrum. This makes them attractive fluorescent nanolabels for the optical encoding of microcarriers intended for targeted drug delivery, diagnosis, and imaging of transport processes on the body, cellular, and subcellular levels. Incorporation of QDs into carriers in the form of polyelectrolyte microcapsules through layer-by-layer adsorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte polymers yields microcapsules with a bright fluorescence signal and adaptable size, structure, and surface characteristics without using organic solvents. The easily modifiable surface of the microcapsules allows for its subsequent functionalization with capture molecules, such as antibodies, which ensures specific and selective interaction with cells, including tumor cells, with the use of the bioconjugation technique developed here. We obtained stable water-soluble nanolabels based on QDs whose surface was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives and determined their colloidal and optical characteristics. The obtained nanocrystals were used to encode polyelectrolyte microcapsules optically. The microcapsule surface was modified with humanized monoclonal antibodies (Abs) recognizing a cancer marker, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The possibility of effective, specific, and selective delivery of the microcapsules to tumor cells expressing EGFR has been demonstrated. The results show that the QD-encoded polyelectrolyte microcapsules functionalized with monoclonal Abs against EGFR can be used for targeted imaging and diagnosis. Full article
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Article
Pupil Function in Pseudophakia: Proximal Miosis Behavior and Optical Influence
Photonics 2019, 6(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6040114 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The pseudophakic eye lacks the ability to produce a refractive change in response to object proximity. Thus, individual anatomical features such as the pupil size play an important role in achieving functional vision levels. In this work, the range of pupil sizes at [...] Read more.
The pseudophakic eye lacks the ability to produce a refractive change in response to object proximity. Thus, individual anatomical features such as the pupil size play an important role in achieving functional vision levels. In this work, the range of pupil sizes at varying object distance was measured in pseudophakic participants. Furthermore, the impact of the measured values on eye optical quality was investigated using a computer simulation model. A binocular eye-tracker was used to measure the participants’ pupil sizes at six object distances, ranging from 0.33 m (i.e., vergence of 3.00 D) to 3.00 m (i.e., vergence of 0.33 D), while observing a Maltese cross with a constant angular size of 1 . In total, 58 pseudophakic participants were enrolled in this study (age mean ± standard deviation: 70.5 ± 11.3 years). The effects of object distance and age on pupil size variation were investigated using linear mixed effects regression models. Age was found to have a small contribution to individual variability. The mean infinite distance pupil size (intercept) was 4.45 ( 95 % CI: 2.74, 6.17) mm and the mean proximal miosis (slope) was 0.23 ( 95 % CI: −0.53, 0.08) mm/D. The visual acuity (VA) estimation for a distant object ranged from 0.1 logMAR (smallest pupil) to 0.04 logMAR (largest pupil) and the near VA ( 0.33 m) when mean proximal miosis was considered ranged from 0.28 logMAR (smallest pupil) to 0.42 logMAR (largest pupil). When mean distance pupil was considered, proximal miosis individual variability produced a variation of 0.04 logMAR for the near object and negligible variation for the distant object. These results support the importance of distance pupil size measurement for the prediction of visual performance in pseudophakia, while suggesting that proximal miosis has a negligible impact in VA variability. Full article
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Article
A Comparison between off and On-Chip Injection Locking in a Photonic Integrated Circuit
Photonics 2019, 6(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6040103 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The mutual and injection locking characteristics of two integrated lasers are compared, both on and off-chip. In this study, two integrated single facet slotted Fabry–Pérot lasers are utilised to develop the measurement technique used to examine the different operational regimes arising from optically [...] Read more.
The mutual and injection locking characteristics of two integrated lasers are compared, both on and off-chip. In this study, two integrated single facet slotted Fabry–Pérot lasers are utilised to develop the measurement technique used to examine the different operational regimes arising from optically locking a semiconductor diode laser. The technique employed used an optical spectrum analyser (OSA), an electrical spectrum analyser (ESA) and a high speed oscilloscope (HSO). The wavelengths of the lasers are measured on the OSA and the selected optical mode for locking is identified. The region of injection locking and various other regions of dynamical behaviour between the lasers are observed on the ESA. The time trace information of the system is obtained from the HSO and performing the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) of the time traces returns the power spectra. Using these tools, the similarities and differences between off-chip injection locking with an isolator, and on-chip mutual locking are examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Laser Dynamics: Fundamentals and Applications)
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Article
Flowline Optical Simulation to Refractive/Reflective 3D Systems: Optical Path Length Correction
Photonics 2019, 6(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6040101 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Nonimaging optics is focused on the study of techniques to design optical systems for the purpose of energy transfer instead of image forming. The flowline optical design method, based on the definition of the geometrical flux vector J, is one of these [...] Read more.
Nonimaging optics is focused on the study of techniques to design optical systems for the purpose of energy transfer instead of image forming. The flowline optical design method, based on the definition of the geometrical flux vector J, is one of these techniques. The main advantage of the flowline method is its capability to visualize and estimate how radiant energy is transferred by the optical systems using the concepts of vector field theory, such as field line or flux tube, which overcomes traditional raytrace methods. The main objective this paper is to extend the flowline method to analyze and design real 3D concentration and illumination systems by the development of new simulation techniques. In this paper, analyzed real 3D refractive and reflective systems using the flowline vector potential method. A new constant term of optical path length is introduced, similar and comparable to the gauge invariant, which produces a correction to enable the agreement between raytrace- and flowline-based computations. This new optical simulation methodology provides traditional raytrace results, such as irradiance maps, but opens new perspectives to obtaining higher precision with lower computation time. It can also provide new information for the vector field maps of 3D refractive/reflective systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonimaging Optics in Solar Energy)
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Article
Effects of Performance and Task Duration on Mental Workload during Working Memory Task
Photonics 2019, 6(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6030094 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
N-back is a working memory (WM) task to study mental workload on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We assume that the subject’s performance and changes in mental workload over time depends on the length of the experiment. The performance of the participant can change [...] Read more.
N-back is a working memory (WM) task to study mental workload on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We assume that the subject’s performance and changes in mental workload over time depends on the length of the experiment. The performance of the participant can change positively due to the participant’s learning process or negatively because of objective mental fatigue and/or sleepiness. In this pilot study, we examined the PFC activation of 23 healthy subjects while they performed an N-back task with two different levels of task difficulty (2-, and 3-back). The hemodynamic responses were analyzed along with the behavioral data (correct answers). A comparison was done between the hemodynamic activation and behavioral data between the two different task levels and between the beginning and end of the 3-back task. Our results show that there is a significant difference between the two task levels, which is due to the difference in task complication. In addition, a significant difference was seen between the beginning and end of the 3-back task in both behavioral data and hemodynamics due to the subject’s learning process throughout the experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurophotonics – Optics for the Brain)
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