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Separations, Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 29 articles

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19 pages, 4260 KiB  
Article
Polyphenols from Sage Leaves (Salvia officinalis L.): Environmentally Friendly Extraction under High Hydrostatic Pressure and Application as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Tinplate
by Maja Dent, Regina Fuchs-Godec, Sandra Pedisić, Dorotea Grbin, Verica Dragović-Uzelac, Damir Ježek and Tomislav Bosiljkov
Separations 2024, 11(5), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050158 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Due to the diversity of organic molecular structures present in sage extract, sage extract is a promising potential source of a cheap and effective biodegradable green corrosion inhibitor for tinplate in 3% NaCl solution, which was evaluated in this study. HHP proved to [...] Read more.
Due to the diversity of organic molecular structures present in sage extract, sage extract is a promising potential source of a cheap and effective biodegradable green corrosion inhibitor for tinplate in 3% NaCl solution, which was evaluated in this study. HHP proved to be a new and emerging technology for the useful extraction of polyphenols from sage as a functional ingredient from natural sources. Analysis of variance among all tested independent factors (ethanol concentration, HHP parameters and temperature) revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) in total polyphenol content as well as for rosmarinic acid as the major phenolic compound in sage extract, while extraction time had no effect (p ˃ 0.05). The optimum HHP conditions (600 MPa, 30% ethanol, 60 °C and 5 min) gave a maximum extraction yield of total polyphenols of 3811.84 mg/100 g. Sage-leaf extracts were found to be a mixture of phenolic acids, namely rosmarinic and salvianolic acid K, epicatechin and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide glycoside. The corrosion results show that the sage extract at a concentration of 0.6 g/L in 3% NaCl is an effective corrosion inhibitor (93%), forming a passivation layer of sage extract consisting of organic compounds such as polyphenols on the surface of tinplate. Full article
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11 pages, 1333 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Quantitation of Anthocyanins of the Pigmented Tea Cultivar TRI 2043 (Camellia sinensis L.) from Sri Lanka
by Philipp Hopfstock, Pitumpe Appuhamilage Nimal Punyasiri, Mats Kiene, Jeevan Dananjava Kottawa-Arachchi, Recep Gök and Peter Winterhalter
Separations 2024, 11(5), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050157 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 526
Abstract
Tea leaves are rich in diverse bioactive compounds. The tea accession TRI 2043 is unique due to its pigmented leaves caused by anthocyanins, clonal origin, resistance to blister blight disease, and high pubescence density. Because of its peculiarity, TRI 2043 is used to [...] Read more.
Tea leaves are rich in diverse bioactive compounds. The tea accession TRI 2043 is unique due to its pigmented leaves caused by anthocyanins, clonal origin, resistance to blister blight disease, and high pubescence density. Because of its peculiarity, TRI 2043 is used to produce high-quality silver tip tea, a premium type of tea that commands high prices. This study was carried out to clarify and elucidate the types of anthocyanins in this particular accession. Four different anthocyanin species were identified and quantitated as cyanidin-3-O-β-d-galactoside and delphinidin-3-O-β-d-galactoside equivalents for leaf blades and stems of the cultivar TRI 2043. The characterization was performed by comparison with commercially available reference substances and further confirmed using ion mobility high-resolution time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (IMS-HRTOF-MS). Quantitation was carried out using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet–visible detection (UHPLC-UV-vis) with cyanidin-3-O-β-d-glucoside as an internal standard. E- and Z-geometric isomers of 6-p-coumaroyl derivates of delphinidin and cyanidin-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosides were observed, and collision cross section (CCS) values were determined for all four different anthocyanidin species. The content of anthocyanins in leaf blades of cultivar TRI 2043 was 856.32 ± 41.56 µg/g dry weight, with cyanidin being the more abundant anthocyanin (69.8%). Conversely, the stem material contained an anthocyanin amount of 459.5 ± 44.7 µg/g dry weight, with a higher content of delphinidin (69.6%). In summary, an enrichment strategy using analytical membrane chromatography was established to fully elucidate and quantify the anthocyanin profile of plant samples such as the special tea variety TRI 2043. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Foods: Separation, Extraction and Application)
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18 pages, 3129 KiB  
Article
Efficient Quality Control of Peptide Pools by UHPLC and Simultaneous UV and HRMS Detection
by Gaby Bosc-Bierne, Shireen Ewald, Oliver J. Kreuzer and Michael G. Weller
Separations 2024, 11(5), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050156 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Peptide pools consist of short amino acid sequences and have proven to be versatile tools in various research areas in immunology and clinical applications. They are commercially available in many different compositions and variants. However, unlike other reagents that consist of only one [...] Read more.
Peptide pools consist of short amino acid sequences and have proven to be versatile tools in various research areas in immunology and clinical applications. They are commercially available in many different compositions and variants. However, unlike other reagents that consist of only one or a few compounds, peptide pools are highly complex products which makes their quality control a major challenge. Quantitative peptide analysis usually requires sophisticated methods, in most cases isotope-labeled standards and reference materials. Usually, this would be prohibitively laborious and expensive. Therefore, an approach is needed to provide a practical and feasible method for quality control of peptide pools. With insufficient quality control, the use of such products could lead to incorrect experimental results, worsening the well-known reproducibility crisis in the biomedical sciences. Here we propose the use of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with two detectors, a standard UV detector at 214 nm for quantitative analysis and a high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) for identity confirmation. To be cost-efficient and fast, quantification and identification are performed in one chromatographic run. An optimized protocol is shown, and different peak integration methods are compared and discussed. This work was performed using a peptide pool known as CEF advanced, which consists of 32 peptides derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and influenza virus, ranging from 8 to 12 amino acids in length. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Synthesis, Separation and Purification)
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10 pages, 1696 KiB  
Communication
Coordination Ion Spray for Analysis of the Growth Hormones Releasing Peptides in Urine—An Application Study
by Azamat Temerdashev, Elina Gashimova, Alice Azaryan, Yu-Qi Feng and Sanka N. Atapattu
Separations 2024, 11(5), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050155 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 530
Abstract
In this article, a comparison of ionization techniques is provided and discussed. Conventional liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source shows higher robustness and repeatability in comparison with liquid chromatography coupled with a coordination ion spray (CIS-MS) source using silver nitrate as the [...] Read more.
In this article, a comparison of ionization techniques is provided and discussed. Conventional liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source shows higher robustness and repeatability in comparison with liquid chromatography coupled with a coordination ion spray (CIS-MS) source using silver nitrate as the dopant. However, the higher sensitivity and possibility to collect more data in untargeted applications mean CIS-MS is emerging as an instrument used in specific applications. During this research, the limit of detection (LOD) for GHRP-2 and GHRP-6 was established at 0.2 ng/mL, and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.5 ng/mL for CIS-MS. For conventional ESI-MS combined with solid-phase extraction on weak cation exchange columns, the limit of detection was found to be 1 ng/mL, and the lower limit of quantification was 2 ng/mL. Full article
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11 pages, 1578 KiB  
Article
Improving the Current European Pharmacopoeia Enantio-Selective HPLC Method for the Determination of Enantiomeric Purity in Atorvastatin Calcium Salt Drug Substance
by Francesca Romana Mammone, Daniele Sadutto, Giulia D’Ettorre, Antonina Mosca and Roberto Cirilli
Separations 2024, 11(5), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050154 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Atorvastatin (ATV) is a well-established lipid-lowering agent. ATV has two stereogenic centers, and of the four possible stereoisomers, only the (3R,5R) form is used therapeutically. The European Pharmacopoeia (EP) monograph 2022 for ATV calcium salt describes a normal-phase high-performance [...] Read more.
Atorvastatin (ATV) is a well-established lipid-lowering agent. ATV has two stereogenic centers, and of the four possible stereoisomers, only the (3R,5R) form is used therapeutically. The European Pharmacopoeia (EP) monograph 2022 for ATV calcium salt describes a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of enantiomeric purity in both drug substance and working standard samples, based on a 150 mm × 4.6 mm Chiralpak AD-H column. The main problems with this method are the very long analysis time and the high solvent consumption. Here, an alternative chromatographic protocol was developed using the Chiralpak AD-3 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm) packed with 3 μm silica particles instead of the 5 μm silica particles of the Chiralpak AD-H chiral stationary phase and characterized by the same polysaccharide selector, amylose-tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). Using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of n-hexane-ethanol-formic acid 90:10:0.1 (v/v/v) as the mobile phase and setting the flow rate and column temperature to 1.0 mL min−1 and 35 °C, respectively, a simultaneous stereo-selective separation was achieved within 35 min without observing any overlap between the enantiomeric impurity peak and peaks related to other ATV impurities. Compared to HPLC EP conditions, the analysis time to elute all the potentially related substances was faster and significantly less mobile phase volume was required. The linearity of the method has been demonstrated in the range of 4.4 μg mL−1 to 1000 μg mL−1 (R2 > 0.999). At a concentration of 4.4 μg mL−1, which is 0.075% of the test solution (5.8 mg mL−1, as ATV free acid), the signal-to-noise ratio was found to be 20. Full article
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11 pages, 3361 KiB  
Article
Packed-Nanofiber Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Fluorescence for Determining Gut Microbiota–Host Cometabolites and Indoleamines in Human Urine
by Lanlan Wei and Xuejun Kang
Separations 2024, 11(5), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050153 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Exercise reduces the risk of inflammatory diseases by modulating different tissue and cell types, including those within the gastrointestinal tract. Obtaining a more comprehensive understanding of pathophysiology requires monitoring of dynamic changes in cometabolites. This study aimed to develop a method for determining [...] Read more.
Exercise reduces the risk of inflammatory diseases by modulating different tissue and cell types, including those within the gastrointestinal tract. Obtaining a more comprehensive understanding of pathophysiology requires monitoring of dynamic changes in cometabolites. This study aimed to develop a method for determining gut microbiota–host cometabolites and indoleamines in human urine. Four key gut microbiota–host cometabolites were chromatographically separated by isocratic elution, with a running time of 10 min. The linearity of this method was confirmed over different concentration ranges: 1.0–400 ng/mL for melatonin (MEL), indole-3-propionic acid (3-IPA), indole (IND), and skatole (SKT). This method was extremely sensitive and stable and hence could be successfully applied to characterize the changes in gut microbiota–host cometabolites in human before- and after-running urine. The concentrations of MEL, 3-IPA, IND, and SKT in after-running urine were 84.0 ± 9.69, 25.9 ± 3.39, 343.7 ± 36.8, and 14.6 ± 1.36 ng/mL, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations in before-running urine were 54.2 ± 5.10, 14.4 ± 1.30, 250.8 ± 14.1, and 9.43 ± 1.07 ng/mL, respectively, which showed significantly less difference in concentrations (p < 0.05) in before- than after-running urine. Overall, the established method could simultaneously monitor gut microbiota–host cometabolites and hence can be further applied to clinical and comprehensive pathophysiological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation of Membranes and Their Application in Separation)
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20 pages, 739 KiB  
Review
Research Progress in the Separation of Chemical Components from Essential Oils by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography
by Linhong He, Zihao Zhong, Lijuan Zhang and Xi Bai
Separations 2024, 11(5), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050152 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are vital secondary metabolites in plants. They have garnered substantial attention owing to their distinct flavors and desirable attributes, including potent antioxidant, antibacterial, and antitumor properties. Nevertheless, the active constituents of EOs exhibit intricate chemical structures, and conventional separation techniques [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are vital secondary metabolites in plants. They have garnered substantial attention owing to their distinct flavors and desirable attributes, including potent antioxidant, antibacterial, and antitumor properties. Nevertheless, the active constituents of EOs exhibit intricate chemical structures, and conventional separation techniques are inadequate for purifying the individual chemical components from EOs. High-speed countercurrent chromatography, based on the principles of a hydrodynamic equilibrium system, has emerged as a liquid–liquid chromatographic separation method renowned for its ability to handle substantial single injection volumes and the absence of irreversible adsorption. Consequently, in recent years, this technique has been widely employed in the isolation and refinement of natural products. In this review, a comprehensive analysis is conducted, contrasting the merits and demerits of high-speed countercurrent chromatography with conventional separation methods. The solvent systems, elution modes, commonly employed detectors, and practical applications are reviewed in the context of high-speed countercurrent chromatography for essential oil separation and purification. Furthermore, this review offers a glimpse into the potential prospects of applying this technique, with the intention of serving as a valuable reference for the use of high-speed countercurrent chromatography in the purification of EOs. Full article
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16 pages, 1667 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of Different Methods for Separating n-Hexane and Ethanol
by Aleksandra Sander, Ana Petračić, Marko Rogošić, Mirela Župan, Leonarda Frljak and Matija Cvetnić
Separations 2024, 11(5), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050151 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Conventional distillation methods cannot effectively separate the components of an azeotropic mixture since both phases have the same composition, thereby preventing further separation. Additional techniques such as pressure swing distillation or distillation with entrainers are often employed to overcome this limitation and achieve [...] Read more.
Conventional distillation methods cannot effectively separate the components of an azeotropic mixture since both phases have the same composition, thereby preventing further separation. Additional techniques such as pressure swing distillation or distillation with entrainers are often employed to overcome this limitation and achieve separation. The aim of this investigation was to select the most effective method for separating n-hexane and ethanol. The feasibility of three methods was analyzed: reduced pressure distillation, extractive distillation, and liquid–liquid extraction. The mutual solubility of n-hexane and prepared deep eutectic solvents (DESs) (nine hydrophilic: choline chloride with glycerol, ethylene glycol, or carboxylic acid (malic, citric, glycolic); tetramethylammonium chloride with glycolic acid; lactic acid with glycerol; K2CO3 with glycerol or ethylene glycol; two hydrophobic: menthol with decanoic or dodecanoic acid) was experimentally determined. Extraction experiments were conducted to test the solubility of DESs in the feed mixture. The effect of changing DES-to-feed mass ratio was further investigated with choline chloride–glycerol (1:2). The same DES and both hydrophobic DESs were able to increase the relative volatility and enhance the separation of ethanol and n-hexane. Based on the obtained results, extraction was selected as the most effective method for the separation of n-hexane and ethanol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Purification Technology)
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16 pages, 2461 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the SPIRITAS: A Disposable Sampling Setup for Volatile Organic Compound Collection and Analysis
by David J. Mager, Yoni E. van Dijk, Özgü Varan, Susanne J. H. Vijverberg, Suzanne W. J. Terheggen-Lagro, Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee, Hettie M. Janssens and Paul Brinkman
Separations 2024, 11(5), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050150 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Analyzing exhaled breath for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) offers a non-invasive diagnostic approach for various diseases. Despite its promise, the method faces challenges like sampling heterogeneity and high costs. Following the European Respiratory Society’s advocacy for methodological [...] Read more.
Analyzing exhaled breath for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) offers a non-invasive diagnostic approach for various diseases. Despite its promise, the method faces challenges like sampling heterogeneity and high costs. Following the European Respiratory Society’s advocacy for methodological standardization, we developed the SPIRITAS (Standardized Product for Inexpensive Respiratory InvesTigation: A breath Sampler), a low-cost, disposable breath sampler. This study evaluates the SPIRITAS’s effectiveness in detecting targeted VOCs. We tested the SPIRITAS using the Peppermint Experiment, a standardized protocol that allows for comparison between different breath sampling and analytical practices by assessing the ability to detect five peppermint-specific VOCs after ingestion of a 200-milligram peppermint oil capsule. We included ten subjects and performed six breath samples per participant, including a baseline measurement taken before ingestion. We used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to evaluate whether baseline values were significantly lower than the peak values of the targeted VOCs. Additionally, we conducted an experiment utilizing humidified medical-grade air to identify any VOCs attributable to the SPIRITAS setup itself. Results showed successful detection of four out of five targeted “peppermint-associated” VOCs: alpha-pinene (p ≤ 0.01), beta-pinene (p ≤ 0.01), menthone (p = 0.01), and menthol (p = 0.02), indicating significant differences between the baseline and peak values in the volunteers’ breath. However, detection of eucalyptol was inconsistent. In addition, we identified 16 VOCs that were released by the SPIRITAS, one of which remains unidentified. Our findings underscore the SPIRITAS’s potential for clinical applications, paving the way for broader biomarker research. The combination of ease of use, low cost, reduced risk of contamination, and standardization makes SPIRITAS very suitable for large-scale international studies. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the SPIRITAS’s effectiveness in detecting specific VOCs and identified 16 compounds originating from the SPIRITAS, ensuring that these compounds would not be mis-qualified as potential biomarkers in future clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chromatographic Separations)
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17 pages, 9132 KiB  
Article
Aluminum Removal from Rare Earth Chloride Solution through Regulated Hydrolysis via Electrochemical Method
by Yaoyao Zhu, Jian Li, Dongyue Xie, Hui Zhang, Man Li, Binfeng Xu, Xuxia Zhang, Yangyang Xie and Tao Qi
Separations 2024, 11(5), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050149 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 969
Abstract
Due to the coexistence of Al3+ and RE3+ and their similar properties, the separation of aluminum from rare earths is difficult. In this study, selective precipitation was used to separate aluminum from rare earth chloride solution via electrochemical regulated hydrolysis. By [...] Read more.
Due to the coexistence of Al3+ and RE3+ and their similar properties, the separation of aluminum from rare earths is difficult. In this study, selective precipitation was used to separate aluminum from rare earth chloride solution via electrochemical regulated hydrolysis. By controlling the current density and electrolytic time, the rate of hydroxyl ion production was regulated, and the selective separation of rare earth and aluminum was realized according to the different precipitation sequences. By altering the temperature, current density, pH value, and other parameters, the separation performance of aluminum from rare earth in mixed rare earth chloride systems was systematically investigated. The removal rate of aluminum reached 88.35%, and the loss rate of rare earth was only 5.99% under optimized conditions. Compared with traditional neutralization hydrolysis, the new process showed higher efficiency and lower rare earth loss rate. Furthermore, a kinetic analysis of aluminum precipitation revealed that the reaction adhered to pseudo-first order kinetics. Additionally, the precipitate obtained via separation and filtration was amorphous alumina hydroxide with a small amount of rare earth attached. No reagent was consumed for the new process, which was more efficient and cleaner, providing a new idea for removing aluminum impurities from rare earth solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Purification Technology)
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16 pages, 3444 KiB  
Article
A Study of the Elemental Profiles of Wines from the North-Eastern Coast of the Black Sea
by Lev A. Oganesyants, Alexandr L. Panasyuk, Dmitriy A. Sviridov, Olesya S. Egorova, Dilyara R. Akbulatova, Mikhail Y. Ganin, Aleksey A. Shilkin and Alexandr A. Il’in
Separations 2024, 11(5), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050148 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Due to the increasing consumer interest in wines with a controlled place of origin, PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) and PDO (Protected Designation of Origin), the most acute question is how to identify them. One of the most effective ways to confirm the place [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing consumer interest in wines with a controlled place of origin, PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) and PDO (Protected Designation of Origin), the most acute question is how to identify them. One of the most effective ways to confirm the place of origin of wine in global practice is a comprehensive study of the elemental profile using statistical analysis methods. In the period from 2020 to 2023, 152 grape samples of grapes were collected from various wineries in Crimea and Kuban. The grape must that was obtained from them was fermented in laboratory conditions. The elemental profile was determined in the prepared wines, which included 71 indicators. In the conducted work, it was revealed that wines from Crimea and Kuban differ statistically significantly in the concentration of the elements B, Ca, Cu, Mn, Na, Ni, Re, Si, Sn and U. At the same time, the contents of the elements U, Sn and Re prevail in wines from Crimea, and those of B, Ca, Cu, Mn, Na, Ni and Si prevail in wines from Kuban. At the same time, methods of univariate and multivariate statistics do not allow us to reliably classify wine samples from Crimea and Kuban by their place of origin. In order to reveal the non-linear dependence of the studied indicators in wines on the geographical place of grape growing, the method of a supervised learning Random Forest was used. After training the model on the dataset, the proportion of its correct predictions was 96%. The model used 61 parameters, among which the most important were Ni, Re, Ba, Rb, Na, U, Sb, Zn, Bi, Ag and Ti. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Methods for Food Quality and Safety Analysis)
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12 pages, 2962 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic Pretreatment Combined with Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation for Extraction of Essential Oil from Melaleuca bracteata ‘Revolution Gold’ Leaves Scales Induced by Cellulase-Inorganic Salt and Its Anti-Fungal Activity
by Yan Huang, Xiaonan Zhang, Fajian Zeng, Jinmei Chang and Zhiwei Liu
Separations 2024, 11(5), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050147 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 637
Abstract
In order to further develop the commercial use of Melaleuca bracteata (F. Muell), this report studied the extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca bracteata (F. Muell) leaves using ultrasonic pretreatment, cellulase-inorganic salt soaked and combined with microwave-assisted hydrodistillation. To optimize the primary contributing [...] Read more.
In order to further develop the commercial use of Melaleuca bracteata (F. Muell), this report studied the extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca bracteata (F. Muell) leaves using ultrasonic pretreatment, cellulase-inorganic salt soaked and combined with microwave-assisted hydrodistillation. To optimize the primary contributing parameters, the Box–Behnken design (BBD) was applied. The optimum yield of essential oil was 9.61 mL/kg DW at a microwave power of 510.77 W, lithium chloride dose of 63.56 μmol, and microwave irradiation period of 46.97 min. The essential oil included a total of 41 compounds, and methyl eugenol (76.53%) and methyl cinnamate (12.62%) were the main compounds. The inhibitory impact was notable when the essential oil concentration was 1.6 mg/mL. Therefore, it has the potential to replace chemical pesticides. When the concentration of the essential oil solution was 1.6 mg/mL, the three pathogenic species of fungus (Pseudocercospora psidii, Colletotrichum eriobotryae, and Colletotrichum siamense) were greatly affected; at this dose, the fungus was unable to develop and its growth diameter was 0 mm. Additionally, the fungus’s inhibition rate reached 100%. Full article
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16 pages, 8161 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Operational Parameters for Lithium Hydroxide Production via Bipolar Membrane Electrodialysis
by Guoxiang Wei, Mengmeng Wang, Chenxiao Lin, Chuan Xu and Jie Gao
Separations 2024, 11(5), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050146 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Traditional lithium hydroxide production techniques, like lithium sulfate and lithium carbonate causticizing methods, suffer from drawbacks including high specific energy consumption, time-consuming processes, and low recovery rates. The conversion of lithium chloride to lithium hydroxide using bipolar membrane electrodialysis is straightforward; however, the [...] Read more.
Traditional lithium hydroxide production techniques, like lithium sulfate and lithium carbonate causticizing methods, suffer from drawbacks including high specific energy consumption, time-consuming processes, and low recovery rates. The conversion of lithium chloride to lithium hydroxide using bipolar membrane electrodialysis is straightforward; however, the influence of operational parameters on bipolar membrane electrodialysis performance have not been investigated. Herein, the impact of the current density (20 mA/cm2~80 mA/cm2), feed concentration (0.5 M~2.5 M), initial feed pH (2.5, 3.5 and 4.5), and the volume ratio of the feed and base solution (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1) on the current efficiency and specific energy consumption in the bipolar membrane electrodialysis was systematically investigated. The bipolar membrane electrodialysis process showed promising results under optimal conditions with a current density of 50 mA/cm2 and an initial lithium chloride concentration of 1.5 M. This process achieved a current efficiency of 75.86% with a specific energy consumption of 3.65 kwh/kg lithium hydroxide while also demonstrating a lithium hydroxide recovery rate exceeding 90% with a purity of about 95%. This work will provide valuable guidance for hands on implementation of bipolar membrane electrodialysis technology in the production of LiOH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Purification Technology)
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16 pages, 2857 KiB  
Article
Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Fagopyrum tataricum Bran
by Zhou Xu, Xiaomei Da, Jipeng Qu and Shiming Xiao
Separations 2024, 11(5), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050145 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 785
Abstract
In this study, eleven kinds of flavonoids were identified from F. tataricum bran (FTB) by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that four compounds, including rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and nicotiflorin, were the most significant components. Subsequently, natural deep eutectic solvent-based ultrasound-assisted extraction (NADES-UAE) was [...] Read more.
In this study, eleven kinds of flavonoids were identified from F. tataricum bran (FTB) by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that four compounds, including rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and nicotiflorin, were the most significant components. Subsequently, natural deep eutectic solvent-based ultrasound-assisted extraction (NADES-UAE) was employed to extract flavonoids from FTB. Among the six kinds of NADES prepared, choline chloride–ethylene glycol (ChCl-EG) was identified as a promising candidate for extracting flavonoids due to its superior extraction performance. The extraction conditions were statistically investigated using response surface methodology conducted by Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimal operational conditions were as follows: ultrasonic time 268 s, ultrasonic temperature 76 °C, and liquid–solid ratio 43 mL/g, which resulted in a high total flavonoid yield of 40.29 mg/g. Afterwards, the efficient extraction mechanism of NADES-UAE was comprehensively explored through FT-IR spectra, COSMO model, and microstructural analysis. In conclusion, NADES-UAE extraction is considered a green, efficient, and sustainable method for FTB flavonoids. Full article
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16 pages, 4845 KiB  
Article
Degradation of Levofloxacin by Electroactivated Sodium Persulfate on Carbon Cloth Cathode Modified with Cerium-Based Metal Organic Frameworks (Ce-MOF) Derivatives
by Xinbiao Mao, Mingyu Ou, Wenjun Zhao, Shuangting Yu and Hao Xu
Separations 2024, 11(5), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050144 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 656
Abstract
Levofloxacin (LFX), which is difficult to degrade effectively due to its molecular stability, has become an problem that needs to be solved urgently. The advanced oxidation technology of persulfate has received increasing attention from researchers. In this study, a Ce-MOF derivative (Ce-MOF-T) was [...] Read more.
Levofloxacin (LFX), which is difficult to degrade effectively due to its molecular stability, has become an problem that needs to be solved urgently. The advanced oxidation technology of persulfate has received increasing attention from researchers. In this study, a Ce-MOF derivative (Ce-MOF-T) was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and calcination, which synergistically responded to electroactivation to generate sulfate radicals for the efficient degradation of LFX. It has been proven that electrical activation and the Ce-MOF derivatives work together to generate sulfate radicals and effectively degrade LFX. Ce-MOF-550-modified carbon cloth was used as the cathode and a platinum electrode as the anode, the concentration of LFX was 20 mg·L−1, the loading of Ce-MOF-550 was 15 mg, pH = 5, the concentration of sodium persulfate (PMS) was 0.3 g·L−1, the current density was 100 A·m−2, and the degradation rate was 82.05% after 1 h of reaction and 95% after 3 h of reaction. After five cycle tests, the degradation rate was still higher than 75.00%, indicating that the material had good stability. In addition, the degradation of LFX was consistent with a quasi-primary kinetic reaction with apparent rate constants of 2.26 × 10−2 min−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Electrochemistry in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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24 pages, 10774 KiB  
Review
Achievements in Preparation of Cyclodextrin–Based Porous Materials for Removal of Pollutants
by Kaiyue Bao, Anyun Zhang, Yiyao Cao and Lei Xu
Separations 2024, 11(5), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050143 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Cyclodextrin–based porous materials have been widely applied in removing various organic pollutants from water environments, due to their unique physical and chemical properties, like the size–matching effect and hydrophobic interaction. Large numbers of hydroxyl groups in its external structure give cyclodextrin a high [...] Read more.
Cyclodextrin–based porous materials have been widely applied in removing various organic pollutants from water environments, due to their unique physical and chemical properties, like the size–matching effect and hydrophobic interaction. Large numbers of hydroxyl groups in its external structure give cyclodextrin a high solubility in water, but the existence of these hydroxyl groups also endows cyclodextrin with the ability to be chemically modified with various functional groups to reduce its solubility in water and, meanwhile, to develop some novel functionalized cyclodextrin–based porous materials for selective removal of the target organic pollutants. This review focuses on the recent development in the synthesis of cyclodextrin–based porous materials (crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers and immobilized cyclodextrins), as well as highlighting their applications and mechanisms in the removal of dyes, endocrine disruptors, and mixed pollutants from water. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives in related research fields are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adsorption and Remediation of Emerging Pollutants from Water and Soil)
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13 pages, 3191 KiB  
Article
Efficient Separation of Re (VII) and Mo (VI) by Extraction Using E-1006–Ammonium Sulfate Aqueous Two-Phase System
by Linlin Fan, Wenhui Li, Zilong Dai, Min Zhou and Yunren Qiu
Separations 2024, 11(5), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050142 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Aqueous two-phase extraction (APTE) stands out as an environmentally friendly technique for the separation of metal ions. The separation of Re (VII) and Mo (VI) in an aqueous solution was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of isodecanol polyoxyethylene ether [...] Read more.
Aqueous two-phase extraction (APTE) stands out as an environmentally friendly technique for the separation of metal ions. The separation of Re (VII) and Mo (VI) in an aqueous solution was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of isodecanol polyoxyethylene ether (E-1006), ammonium sulfate, and water. A phase diagram of this system was developed, and the effects of pH, temperature, extraction time, the concentrations of E-1006 and (NH4)2SO4, and metal ions on the separation of Re (VII) and Mo (VI) were examined. The results show that at pH 7.0, Mo (VI) had almost transformed into the (NH4)2SO4-rich phase, while Re (VI) was extracted into the E-1006-rich phase. The increase in temperature induces a transition of Mo (VI) to the salt-rich phase, which is unfavorable for the extraction of Re (VII). The increase in the concentrations of E-1006 and (NH4)2SO4 has a positive effect on the separation of rhenium and molybdenum. Overall, the ATPS consisting of 200 g/L of E-1006, 200 g/L of (NH4)2SO4, and water yields an extraction efficiency of 97.2% for Re and a high separation factor of 2700 for Re (VII) and Mo (VI) from a mixture of 0.1 g/L of Re (VII) and 5 g/L of Mo (VI) at pH 7.0 and 323.15 K. Separation studies of the simulated leaching solution show that the extraction efficiency for Re (VI) is 99.1% and the separation factor of Re (VII) and Mo (VI) is 5100. Full article
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18 pages, 8322 KiB  
Article
Decoding the Volatile Profile of White Romanian Fetească Wines
by Fulvia-Ancuța Manolache, Denisa-Eglantina Duță, Gabriela Daniela Criveanu-Stamatie, Teodora-Alexandra Iordache and Maria-Cristina Todașcă
Separations 2024, 11(5), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050141 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 665
Abstract
The wine’s volatilome, most of the time, defines not only its aroma, but also, its major attributes. In the case of wines, the authentication process has become imperative, in light of increased production of alcoholic beverages; consequently, reliable analytical methods have served for [...] Read more.
The wine’s volatilome, most of the time, defines not only its aroma, but also, its major attributes. In the case of wines, the authentication process has become imperative, in light of increased production of alcoholic beverages; consequently, reliable analytical methods have served for it. Therefore, the goal of this research was to establish the global volatile profile of traditional Romanian white wines from Fetească varieties (Fetească albă, Fetească regală) in order to identify its unique characteristics by means of a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography analysis (HS-SPME/GC-MS) and e-Nose devoted techniques. Statistics was also employed aimed at differentiating the analyzed wine by varietal groups. Consequently, 23 volatile compounds were detected and quantified in 39 Fetească white wine samples originating from various production areas (Muntenia, Oltenia, Transylvania, Banat and Dobrogea), then further classified according to their odor thresholds in five aromatic classes (floral, fruity, sweet, lactic (cheesy) and other). In addition, statistics (Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hieratical Clustering Analysis (HCA)) were used aiming to differentiate the analyzed varietal groups. The outcomes have pointed out the existence of distinct clusters connected with ethyl esters or alcohol composition and production year, depending on each examined variety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Analysis of Food and Beverages)
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15 pages, 653 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of an LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Plasma and Red Blood Cell Omega Fatty Acids: A Useful Diagnostic Tool
by Lénárd Farczádi, Minodora Dobreanu, Adina Huțanu and Silvia Imre
Separations 2024, 11(5), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050140 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Background: LC-MS is an ever-increasingly used methodology for clinical applications. Due to the superior selectivity and sensitivity, in certain situations, it can offer an advantage or be the only option for diagnostics and biomonitoring applications. Methods: A high selectivity sensitive LC-MS/MS method was [...] Read more.
Background: LC-MS is an ever-increasingly used methodology for clinical applications. Due to the superior selectivity and sensitivity, in certain situations, it can offer an advantage or be the only option for diagnostics and biomonitoring applications. Methods: A high selectivity sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for direct quantification of free plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as conjugated membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids, using isocratic reverse phase elution. A quick and simple sample purification method was used in order to ensure high-throughput analysis of biological samples. The method was validated with regard to selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, carryover, and recovery, as well as other relevant parameters. Results and Conclusions: The method was developed and validated with respect to all relevant parameters and was successfully used in a number of clinical diagnostics and biomonitoring applications. The simple sample purification process allowed for an easy learning curve for analysts and other users, while ensuring a low chance of systematic or random errors and thus reliable results usable in a clinical setting. Full article
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12 pages, 948 KiB  
Article
Fertilizers’ Impact on Grassland in Northeastern Romania
by Otilia A. Culicov, Doina Tarcau, Inga Zinicovscaia, Octavian G. Duliu, Mihai Stavarache and Vasile Vintu
Separations 2024, 11(5), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050139 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 850
Abstract
In order to obtain more data concerning the influence of fertilizers (organic and mineral) on different forage plants in the northeastern Romanian grassland, the mass fractions of 14 essential, enzymatic, or toxic elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis together with the [...] Read more.
In order to obtain more data concerning the influence of fertilizers (organic and mineral) on different forage plants in the northeastern Romanian grassland, the mass fractions of 14 essential, enzymatic, or toxic elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis together with the amount of crude proteins, ash, fibers, as well as fat ether extract. The final results showed a significant variance in the content of analyzed elements on organic as well as on mineral fertilized experimental plots. At the same time, increased content of crude protein and fat ether extract was evident in fertilized grasses for all applied fertilizers, while other global indicators such as neutral and acid fibers of sulfuric lignin content decreased, suggesting significantly higher nutritional values for fertilized forage plants. Full article
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11 pages, 1356 KiB  
Article
Phosphate Recovery Mechanism from Low P-Containing Wastewaters via CaP Crystallization Using Apatite as Seed: Seed Adsorption, Surface-Induced Crystallization, or Ion Clusters Aggregation?
by Xiaobao Nie, Yinan Li, Junli Wan, Shuai Ouyang, Zhengbo Wang, Guoqi Wang and Heng Jiang
Separations 2024, 11(5), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050138 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Low P-containing wastewaters (LPWs) exhibit huge P recovery potential, considering their larger volume. P recovery via CaP crystallization using apatite as seed is documented as being potentially well suited for LPWs. However, its responsible mechanisms remain a subject for debate. Taking hydroxyapatite (HAP) [...] Read more.
Low P-containing wastewaters (LPWs) exhibit huge P recovery potential, considering their larger volume. P recovery via CaP crystallization using apatite as seed is documented as being potentially well suited for LPWs. However, its responsible mechanisms remain a subject for debate. Taking hydroxyapatite (HAP) as the seed of LPWs, this paper conducted HAP adsorption/dissolution experiments, titration experiments, and P recovery experiments to distinguish the primary responsible mechanism. Results showed that it was HAP dissolution, not P adsorption, that occurred when the initial P concentration was no higher than 5 mg/L, ruling out adsorption mechanism of P recovery from LPWs using HAP as the seed. Significant OH consumption and rapid P recovery occurred simultaneously within the first 60 s in titration experiments, suggesting CaP crystallization should be responsible for P recovery. Moreover, the continuous increase in P recovery efficiency with seed dosages observed in P recovery experiments seemed to follow well the mechanism of pre-nucleation ion clusters (PNCs) aggregation. During PNCs aggregation, P aggregates with Ca2+ quickly, generating CaP PNCs; then, CaP PNCs aggregate with seed particles, followed by CaP PNCs fusion, and ultimately transform into fines attached to the seed surface. PNCs’ aggregation mechanism was further supported by a comparison of seed SEM images before and after P recovery, since denser and smaller rod-shaped fines were observed on the seed surface after P recovery. This study suggests that PNCs’ aggregation is the dominant mechanism responsible for the recovery of P from LPWs via CaP crystallization using HAP as the seed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Separations)
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17 pages, 7355 KiB  
Article
Formation Mechanism of Deposits in Rotary Kiln during Steelmaking Dust Carbothermic Recycling
by Xiaobo Min, Luyu Huang, Maixin Yu, Yunyan Wang, Yong Ke, Cong Peng, Xu Yan, Qingyu Huang and Yun Li
Separations 2024, 11(5), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050137 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 773
Abstract
Rotary kiln has been widely used in hazardous waste treatment because of its strong adaptability to raw materials, high productivity, and simple processing technology. However, the formation of deposits reduces its performance period and profitability. This study characterized the deposit mineralogy and thermodynamically [...] Read more.
Rotary kiln has been widely used in hazardous waste treatment because of its strong adaptability to raw materials, high productivity, and simple processing technology. However, the formation of deposits reduces its performance period and profitability. This study characterized the deposit mineralogy and thermodynamically and experimentally investigated its formation mechanism. The results show that the main phases of the deposit are magnetite, monolithic iron, olivine, and yellow feldspar. They indicate that the deposit formation process was accompanied by the participation of alkaline and iron oxides. The intermediate product Ca2SiO4 can promote the generation of low melting point phases, such as CaFeSiO4 and Ca2Al2SiO7, which are the main phases of deposit materials. Additionally, the reduction intermediate product FeO facilitated the generation of a liquid ferrous mixture (Fe3O4-FeO and Fe3O4-FeO-Fe mixture), which in turn further promoted the growth of the initial deposit phase. The solid deposit formed and attached to the kiln inner wall, along with a decrease in temperature. These results are expected to provide an idea or approach for fundamentally solving the problem of deposits in the rotary kiln. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Separation Engineering)
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18 pages, 790 KiB  
Article
Multiplex Detection of Seven Staphylococcal Enterotoxins Using Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Combined with a Novel Capture Molecule
by Jing Lv, Tingting Liu, Xinyu Fang, Songyang Han, Lina Dong, Jiaxin Li, Jing Wang, Jinglin Wang, Shan Gao, Lin Kang and Wenwen Xin
Separations 2024, 11(5), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050136 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Food poisoning caused by Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) is prevalent globally, making efficient detection of these toxins very important. Traditionally, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry required immunosorbent enrichment by magnetic bead-coupled antibodies obtained by animal-specific immunization. However, this method is time-consuming and costly. In this study, [...] Read more.
Food poisoning caused by Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) is prevalent globally, making efficient detection of these toxins very important. Traditionally, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry required immunosorbent enrichment by magnetic bead-coupled antibodies obtained by animal-specific immunization. However, this method is time-consuming and costly. In this study, two recombinant protein capture molecules were designed based on the principle of toxins binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHCII) and T cell receptor (TCR) molecules. The two capture molecules are called MHCII and MHCII-D10. The design of the MHCII and TCR-D10 was achieved through searching for the binding site protein sequence of Staphylococcal enterotoxins in the relevant literature, and MHCII-D10 was to link MHCII sequence with TCR-D10 sequence using linker (G4S)3 linking peptide. These capture molecules were shown to effectively bind to seven types of toxins and to capture SEs in various matrices. The digestion time, ratio, and temperature were further optimized, reducing the overall digestion time to just 2 h. The specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision (RSD%), and recovery of the two methods were verified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. When the MHCII and MHCII-D10 captured the toxins, the limit of quantification (LOD) in the 1 × PBS, plasma, and milk matrices ranged from 1.5625 to 100 fmol/µL, with the recovery rate ranging from 18.4% to 96%. The design of these capture molecules eliminates the need for animal-specific immunization, simplifying the pre-detection process and avoiding ethical concerns. This development holds significant promise for clinical diagnosis and reference. Full article
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15 pages, 2252 KiB  
Article
Exploring Varied (Green) Extraction Methods to Optimize Galia Melon Peel Antioxidant Potential
by Vassileios Dimtsas, Anastasia Douma, Dimitra Soukia, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Vassilis Athanasiadis, Konstantina Kotsou, Eleni Bozinou and Stavros I. Lalas
Separations 2024, 11(5), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050135 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 767
Abstract
Cucumis melo L. (C. melo), commonly known as the melon, is a widely cultivated tropical fruit associated with nutritional benefits and bioactive properties. With global production reaching 40 million tons annually, the fruit processing industry generates significant waste, primarily peels, totaling [...] Read more.
Cucumis melo L. (C. melo), commonly known as the melon, is a widely cultivated tropical fruit associated with nutritional benefits and bioactive properties. With global production reaching 40 million tons annually, the fruit processing industry generates significant waste, primarily peels, totaling 8 to 20 million tons yearly. These organic by-products are rich in bioactive compounds such as antioxidants, offering health benefits such as a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, as well as of diabetes and neurogenerative diseases, offering an opportunity for sustainable utilization. C. melo by-products have demonstrated various health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant properties, attributed mainly to polyphenols. Recognizing the potential of melon waste, this study systematically explored different extraction methods, including stirring (ST), ultrasound (US), and pulsed electric field (PEF) methods, while considering factors such as extraction time, temperature, and solvent composition. The primary goal was to identify the most effective extraction procedures and optimal conditions for maximizing the yield of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity (using the FRAP and DPPH methods) from C. melo peel by-products. According to the results, the optimum conditions include ST as the extraction method, an ethanolic solvent with a strength of 50%, a 150 min extraction duration, and an 80 °C extraction temperature. The maximum values of total polyphenols that can be observed are 3.75 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of dry weight (dw) and 25.77 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g dw and 34.44 μmol AAE/g dw from FRAP and DPPH antioxidant assays, respectively. The polyphenols identified were the following: gallic acid, neochlorogenic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and kaempferol. By securing the maximum isolation of bioactive content and antioxidant activity, the research will contribute to sustainable waste management by reducing waste and developing value-added products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Purification Technology)
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12 pages, 1710 KiB  
Article
Pomegranate Juice Clarification Using Ultrafiltration: Influence of the Type of Variety and Degree of Ripeness
by Asunción M. Hidalgo, José A. Macario, Marta Abellán-Baeza, Teresa Sánchez-Moya, Rubén López-Nicolás and Fulgencio Marín-Iniesta
Separations 2024, 11(5), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050134 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 826
Abstract
Fruit consumption guarantees the supply of most of the necessary nutrients for a complete and balanced diet, as it is a relevant source of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. In particular, pomegranate has very interesting medicinal properties, such as an anti-inflammatory effect and the [...] Read more.
Fruit consumption guarantees the supply of most of the necessary nutrients for a complete and balanced diet, as it is a relevant source of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. In particular, pomegranate has very interesting medicinal properties, such as an anti-inflammatory effect and the protection of the cardiovascular system, among others. During pomegranate juice production, it appears cloudy and must be clarified to remove suspended solids such as colloids and high-molecular weight tannins. The membrane clarification process is a cost-effective alternative to the conventional methods, resulting in a high-quality product. In this work, the clarification of pomegranate juice using the Triple System Model F1 membrane module was carried out for the Mollar and Wonderful varieties with early and late maturity. Three ultrafiltration membranes with different molecular weight cut-off and different chemical compositions were used. The rejection coefficient and permeate flux (which represent the selectivity of the membranes and the process efficiency, respectively) were measured. GR-40PP showed the best results in terms of membrane selectivity and process efficiency, achieving adequate physicochemical juice parameters. Regarding the comparison of the maturity degree, in general terms, the Mollar variety showed better results. Ripe pomegranates showed greater selectivity, while the process efficiency was higher for the early samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analysis of Natural Products and Pharmaceuticals)
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21 pages, 1134 KiB  
Review
Phthalates: The Main Issue in Quality Control in the Beverage Industry
by Alessia Iannone, Cristina Di Fiore, Fabiana Carriera, Pasquale Avino and Virgilio Stillittano
Separations 2024, 11(5), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050133 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a group of chemicals used to improve the flexibility and durability of plastics. The chemical properties and the resistance to high temperatures promote their degradation and release into the environment. Food and beverages can be contaminated by PAEs through [...] Read more.
Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a group of chemicals used to improve the flexibility and durability of plastics. The chemical properties and the resistance to high temperatures promote their degradation and release into the environment. Food and beverages can be contaminated by PAEs through the migration from packaging material because they are not covalently bound to plastic and also via different kinds of environmental sources or during processing. For instance, alcoholic drinks in plastic containers are a particular risk, since the ethanol contained provides a good solubility for PAEs. According to its role as an endocrine disruptor compound and its adverse effects on the liver, kidney, and reproductive and respiratory systems, the International Agency on Research Cancer (IARC) classified di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a possible human carcinogen. For this reason, to control human exposure to PAEs, many countries prohibited their use in food as non-food substances. For example, in Europe, the Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/2005 restricts the use of DEHP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) to a concentration equal to or below 0.1 by weight in plasticizers in articles used by consumers or in indoor areas. There are reports from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that some beverages (and food as well), particularly fruit juices, contain high levels of phthalates. In some cases, the deliberate adulteration of soft drinks with phthalate esters has been reported. This paper would like to show the difficulties of performing PAE analysis in beverage matrices, in particular alcoholic beverages, as well as the main solutions provided for quality control in the industrial branches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analysis of Food and Beverages)
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18 pages, 2967 KiB  
Article
Metabolite Profiling and Molecular Network Shows Kinkeloids as Promoting of Collagen Synthesis from Combretum micranthum
by Souhila Messaili, Doha Haggouch, Mikaela Bignard, Pierre-Eric Campos, Emilie Destandau and Eldra Delannay
Separations 2024, 11(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050132 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 724
Abstract
Combretum micranthum, a plant native to Africa, has a well-documented traditional use in the treatment of various ailments such as fever, diabetes, and malaria. Its pharmaceutical benefits include nephroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties, which were proven. In addition, its potential for [...] Read more.
Combretum micranthum, a plant native to Africa, has a well-documented traditional use in the treatment of various ailments such as fever, diabetes, and malaria. Its pharmaceutical benefits include nephroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties, which were proven. In addition, its potential for cosmetic applications is being explored due to its depigmenting, anti-inflammatory, and UV-damage-repairing properties. This article investigates the molecular composition and new cosmetically relevant biological activity of C. micranthum and enriched fractions to begin the establishment of the structure–activity relationship. Firstly, an extract of C. micranthum was prepared and selected for its overall biological response and then fractionated to obtain simplified molecular fractions. One fraction was particularly enriched in kinkeloids, a specific family of compounds to this species. All the fractions and the crude extract were then tested on biological targets to evaluate and compare their cosmetic activities. Molecular networks were constructed from the UHPLC-MS/HRMS data to better characterize the extract and fractions and to highlight structure–activity relationships. This study highlights the metabolic profiling of a butylene glycol extract of C. micranthum, showing its main chemical families and revealing that the kinkeloids, identified by HRMS and NMR, promote an increase in collagen I synthesis, an interesting cosmetic activity neither previously described for these compounds and neither for C. micranthum extract. Full article
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15 pages, 2880 KiB  
Article
Comparative Kinetic Analysis of Triclosan Degradation under UV-C and Simulated Solar Irradiation
by Lázaro Adrián González-Fernández, Myriam Chems, Nahum Andrés Medellín-Castillo, Ventura Castillo-Ramos, Manuel Sánchez-Polo, Javier E. Vilasó-Cadre and Raúl Ocampo-Pérez
Separations 2024, 11(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050131 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
This research delves deeply into the intricate degradation kinetics of triclosan, employing two distinct methodologies: UV and simulated solar irradiation. Through a comprehensive comparative analysis, the study endeavors to elucidate the efficacy of these techniques, aiming to shed light on their respective methodological [...] Read more.
This research delves deeply into the intricate degradation kinetics of triclosan, employing two distinct methodologies: UV and simulated solar irradiation. Through a comprehensive comparative analysis, the study endeavors to elucidate the efficacy of these techniques, aiming to shed light on their respective methodological strengths and limitations. The study compares the efficacy of UV and simulated solar irradiation techniques for triclosan degradation, revealing that both methods exhibit effectiveness in degrading triclosan, with variations observed in degradation rates and byproduct formation. Through a detailed examination of the kinetics of triclosan degradation, the study reveals the intricate pathways and mechanisms involved in the photodegradation process. Results highlight the influence of irradiance levels and residence times on degradation efficiency. The research identifies optimal conditions for triclosan degradation, emphasizing the importance of residence time and irradiance levels. Results show that a residence time of 4 h and an irradiance level of 450 W m−2 maximize degradation efficiency. Analysis of degradation byproducts provides insights into the transformation pathways of triclosan under UV and simulated solar irradiation, indicating the formation of 2,4-dichlorophenol, quinone, and hydroquinone as primary byproducts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Biosorbents in Environmental Purification)
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16 pages, 9438 KiB  
Review
Application of Magnetic Separation Technology in Resource Utilization and Environmental Treatment
by Jiangang Ku, Kunpeng Wang, Qian Wang and Zhongyun Lei
Separations 2024, 11(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050130 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Magnetic separation technology is a physical separation method that uses the differences in magnetism between matter to separate them from each other by different motion behaviors in a non-uniform magnetic field. It is highly efficient, green, and environmentally friendly, with little change in [...] Read more.
Magnetic separation technology is a physical separation method that uses the differences in magnetism between matter to separate them from each other by different motion behaviors in a non-uniform magnetic field. It is highly efficient, green, and environmentally friendly, with little change in the physical and chemical properties of raw materials. Magnetic separation technology is commonly used in the field of mineral processing engineering for magnetite, hematite, titanite, and other magnetic ferrous metal oxide minerals. This paper summarizes the application of magnetic separation technology for resource utilization and environmental treatment in different fields, such as non-metal decomposition, valuable metal recovery, use of magnetic carrier chemical separation, biomedical targeted magnetic separation, and use of magnetic species separation in water and wastewater treatment. We seek to review the application and potential of magnetic separation technology in various fields, emphasize their key role, and explore possible directions for their future development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Magnetic Separation Technology in Green Production)
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