Bioactive Compounds in Foods: Separation, Extraction and Application

A special issue of Separations (ISSN 2297-8739). This special issue belongs to the section "Analysis of Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 5861

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Food and Agricultural Industry Technologies, Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: bioactive compounds; functional food; product development; bioavailability; digestion engineering; lipid oxidation; agro-waste valorization processes; encapsulation

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Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, 38446 Volos, Greece
Interests: food chemistry; food nanotechnology; bioactivity of micronutrients; antioxidants; extracted from plants; active-packaging techniques; nanoencapsulation; nanofiltration; food safety and toxicology; quality control and assurance; improving the food quality and safety; analyzing the bioactive constituents and micronutrients; producing high value-added food products and ingredients; manufacturing functional food constituents and foods
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Guest Editor
Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, CPERI, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, CERTH, Thermi, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: membrane bioreactors (MBRs); hybrid biological-membrane processes; waste valorization; recovery and separation of bioactive compounds; membrane processes; wastewater treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive compounds can provide health benefits beyond the nutritional value and are originally present or added to food matrices. Foods and food (processing) waste are complex matrices containing an abundance of bioactive components, such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, PUFAs, vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, and pectins. Their separation, extraction and characterization can be a challenge. These steps are necessary to allow the food-derived bioactive compounds to be used safely in the food industry and produce novel, functional foods with proven health-promoting benefits. In addition, these processes should adhere to the Sustainable Development Goals, as formulated by the United Nations’ General Assembly.

The aim of this Special Issue is to promote research that adopts processes, including biological ones, that can enhance the separation, extraction and obtainment of bioactive compounds, which enables their application in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Membrane technologies that are expected to play an important role in sustainable separation processes, efficient and environmentally friendly extraction methods, as well as applications directly related to gut microbiota and the formulation of symbiotic functional foods, are particularly welcomed.

Dr. Patroklos Vareltzis
Prof. Dr. Olga Gortzi
Dr. Sotiris I. Patsios
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive
  • extraction
  • separation
  • food
  • food waste
  • food-processing waste
  • agro-industrial waste
  • functional foods
  • symbiotic foods
  • membrane processes

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 1333 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Quantitation of Anthocyanins of the Pigmented Tea Cultivar TRI 2043 (Camellia sinensis L.) from Sri Lanka
by Philipp Hopfstock, Pitumpe Appuhamilage Nimal Punyasiri, Mats Kiene, Jeevan Dananjava Kottawa-Arachchi, Recep Gök and Peter Winterhalter
Separations 2024, 11(5), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11050157 - 16 May 2024
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Abstract
Tea leaves are rich in diverse bioactive compounds. The tea accession TRI 2043 is unique due to its pigmented leaves caused by anthocyanins, clonal origin, resistance to blister blight disease, and high pubescence density. Because of its peculiarity, TRI 2043 is used to [...] Read more.
Tea leaves are rich in diverse bioactive compounds. The tea accession TRI 2043 is unique due to its pigmented leaves caused by anthocyanins, clonal origin, resistance to blister blight disease, and high pubescence density. Because of its peculiarity, TRI 2043 is used to produce high-quality silver tip tea, a premium type of tea that commands high prices. This study was carried out to clarify and elucidate the types of anthocyanins in this particular accession. Four different anthocyanin species were identified and quantitated as cyanidin-3-O-β-d-galactoside and delphinidin-3-O-β-d-galactoside equivalents for leaf blades and stems of the cultivar TRI 2043. The characterization was performed by comparison with commercially available reference substances and further confirmed using ion mobility high-resolution time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (IMS-HRTOF-MS). Quantitation was carried out using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet–visible detection (UHPLC-UV-vis) with cyanidin-3-O-β-d-glucoside as an internal standard. E- and Z-geometric isomers of 6-p-coumaroyl derivates of delphinidin and cyanidin-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosides were observed, and collision cross section (CCS) values were determined for all four different anthocyanidin species. The content of anthocyanins in leaf blades of cultivar TRI 2043 was 856.32 ± 41.56 µg/g dry weight, with cyanidin being the more abundant anthocyanin (69.8%). Conversely, the stem material contained an anthocyanin amount of 459.5 ± 44.7 µg/g dry weight, with a higher content of delphinidin (69.6%). In summary, an enrichment strategy using analytical membrane chromatography was established to fully elucidate and quantify the anthocyanin profile of plant samples such as the special tea variety TRI 2043. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Foods: Separation, Extraction and Application)
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14 pages, 1315 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Reaction between 5-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid (5-CQA) and Tryptophan—Isolation of the Product and Its Evaluation as a Food Dye
by Patroklos Vareltzis, Panagiota Karatsioli, Ioannis Kazakos, Anna-Maria Menelaou, Konstantina Parmaxi and Vangelis Economou
Separations 2024, 11(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11020060 - 16 Feb 2024
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Abstract
The food industry is seeking a stable, non-toxic red dye as a substitute for synthetic pigments. This can result from the reaction between 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) and tryptophan (TRP). This study explores the reaction kinetics under ultrasound conditions and investigates reaction parameters, such [...] Read more.
The food industry is seeking a stable, non-toxic red dye as a substitute for synthetic pigments. This can result from the reaction between 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) and tryptophan (TRP). This study explores the reaction kinetics under ultrasound conditions and investigates reaction parameters, such as pH, temperature, and reactants’ concentrations, to accelerate the reaction. At the end of the reaction, the solution was either spray-dried or acidified to isolate the pigment, which was evaluated for its potential as a food dye. Using ultrasound at 40 °C led to a significant acceleration of the reaction that was completed in 8.5 h, marking a 300% improvement compared to literature. The caffeic acid, and not the quinic acid, moiety of 5-CQA seems to be partly responsible for the formation of the red pigment. The pH had a profound impact on the reaction rate, with an optimal value of pH = 9.5. Increased TRP concentrations led to increased reaction rates, while higher 5-CQA concentrations led to significant deviations from redness (a* value). The pigment, lacking significant antimicrobial activity, exhibited remarkable thermal stability (pH 3–9), delaying food oxidation and color deterioration. The results indicate that the reaction can be significantly accelerated by ultrasound, which will be useful for the scale-up of the process and giving the produced pigment the potential for use as an alternative to artificial coloring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Foods: Separation, Extraction and Application)
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14 pages, 3564 KiB  
Article
Content of Acidic Compounds in the Bean of Coffea arabica L., Produced in the Department of Cesar (Colombia), and Its Relationship with the Sensorial Attribute of Acidity
by Luz Fanny Echeverri-Giraldo, Valentina Osorio Pérez, Claudia Tabares Arboleda, Lady Juliet Vargas Gutiérrez and Luis Carlos Imbachi Quinchua
Separations 2024, 11(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11020052 - 7 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Cesar, a coffee-growing department in Colombia, has particular characteristics that favor the production of coffees differentiated by sensory profile, for which the acidity attribute stands out. The chemical composition and sensory quality of the coffee produced by 160 coffee growers during two production [...] Read more.
Cesar, a coffee-growing department in Colombia, has particular characteristics that favor the production of coffees differentiated by sensory profile, for which the acidity attribute stands out. The chemical composition and sensory quality of the coffee produced by 160 coffee growers during two production harvests (2021 and 2022) and processed by the wet method were evaluated to correlate the contents of the main acidic chemical compounds present in green coffee beans with the perceived acidity of the beverage. The chemical analysis of coffee samples utilized spectrophotometric methods and HPLC-DAD techniques. Lactic, 3,5-di-CQA and phosphoric acids were good discriminators of acidity classified as excellent; that is, with a score higher than 7.75 on the Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) scale, presenting the highest contents in the green coffee bean. There was a direct linear relationship between acidity and 3,5-di-CQA and 5-CQA and an inverse relationship between acidity and 3-CQA, 4-CQA and 4,5-CQA. These findings contribute to the understanding of the quality and chemistry of Colombian coffee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Foods: Separation, Extraction and Application)
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16 pages, 4855 KiB  
Article
Solubility of Gallic Acid in Single and Mixed Solvents
by Yea-Rok Park and Bong-Seop Lee
Separations 2024, 11(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11010036 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2316
Abstract
Gallic acid, known for its biological activity contributing to human health, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimutagenic properties, was the focus of this study. The solubility of gallic acid was experimentally measured in pure and mixed solvents of water, ethanol, and acetic acid [...] Read more.
Gallic acid, known for its biological activity contributing to human health, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimutagenic properties, was the focus of this study. The solubility of gallic acid was experimentally measured in pure and mixed solvents of water, ethanol, and acetic acid and predicted using the COSMO-SAC model and the Hansen solubility parameter. The Hansen solubility parameter method predicted a higher solubility of gallic acid in pure water than in pure ethanol, and in a mixed solvent, it predicted the maximum solubility at 80% water content, showing different results from the experimental data trends. However, using the molar volume obtained from COSMO calculations resulted in a tendency that matched the experimental results. The results revealed higher solubility in ethanol compared to water, with the solubility in mixed solvent falling within the range between them. Using the same method, the Hansen solubility parameter obtained was applied to acetic acid/water and acetic acid/ethanol mixtures, and similar trends were observed compared to experimental data. In particular, gallic acid in the acetic acid/water mixture solvent exhibited maximum solubility, and this phenomenon was well-predicted. As the temperature increased, solubility in both pure and mixed solvents also increased. While the COSMO-SAC model effectively captured this trend, the predicted solubility values were slightly lower than the experimental data. The solubility trends depending on solvent types were confirmed by comparing the σ-profiles of each compound. The σ-profile of gallic acid closely resembled that of ethanol, and this result led to higher solubility than water and acetic acid. The maximum solubility in ethanol/water and acetic acid/water mixed solvents could be anticipated when two solvents with significant differences in their σ-profiles are mixed in an appropriate ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Foods: Separation, Extraction and Application)
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