Next Issue
Volume 10, March
Previous Issue
Volume 10, January
 
 

Children, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 239 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This prospective case–cohort study examines the developmental pathway choices of 79 young people (13.25–23.75 years old; 33 biological males and 46 biological females) referred to a tertiary care hospital’s Department of Psychological Medicine (December 2013–November 2018, at ages 8.42–15.92 years) for diagnostic assessment for gender dysphoria (GD) and for potential gender-affirming medical interventions. All of the young people had attended a screening medical assessment (including puberty staging) by paediatricians. The study highlights the importance of careful screening, comprehensive biopsychosocial (including family) assessment, and holistic therapeutic support. Even in highly screened samples of children and adolescents seeking a GD diagnosis and gender-affirming medical care, outcome pathways follow a diverse range of possibilities. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
11 pages, 421 KiB  
Article
Neuroactive Amino Acid Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results from a Clinical Sample
by Martina Randazzo, Adriana Prato, MariaAnna Messina, Concetta Meli, Antonino Casabona, Renata Rizzo and Rita Barone
Children 2023, 10(2), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020412 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2965
Abstract
Biological bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include both genetic and epigenetic causes. Patients with ASD show anomalies in the profile of certain plasma amino acids, including neuroactive amino acids. Monitoring plasma amino acids may be relevant for patient care and interventions. We [...] Read more.
Biological bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include both genetic and epigenetic causes. Patients with ASD show anomalies in the profile of certain plasma amino acids, including neuroactive amino acids. Monitoring plasma amino acids may be relevant for patient care and interventions. We evaluated the plasma amino acid profile in samples extracted from dry blood spots by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Fourteen amino acids and eleven amino acid ratios were examined in patients with ASD and intellectual disability (ID), and neurotypical control subjects (TD). The amino acid profile in the ASD group showed reduced levels of ornithine (p = 0.008), phenylalanine (p = 0.042) and tyrosine (p = 0.013). The statistically significant amino acid ratios were Leu+Val/Phe+Tyr (p = 0.002), Tyr/Leu (p = 0.007) and Val/Phe (p = 0.028), such differences remaining significant only in the comparison between ASD and TD. Finally, a positive correlation emerged between the score of the restricted and repetitive behavior on ADOS-2 and the citrulline levels in the ASD group (p = 0.0047). To conclude, patients with ASD may show a distinguishable metabolic profile useful for studying their metabolic pathways in order to develop screening tests and targeted therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Autism Research: Diagnosis, Treatment and Best Practices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 825 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Treatment of Severe Early Childhood Caries on Growth-Development and Quality of Life
by Ecenur Eyisoy Bagis, Sera Simsek Derelioglu, Fatih Sengül and Sinan Yılmaz
Children 2023, 10(2), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020411 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
Purpose: Untreated early childhood caries (ECC) adversely affect children’s quality of life. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of ECC on growth, development, and quality of life. Design and Methods: A total of 95 children were divided into three groups: general anesthesia [...] Read more.
Purpose: Untreated early childhood caries (ECC) adversely affect children’s quality of life. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of ECC on growth, development, and quality of life. Design and Methods: A total of 95 children were divided into three groups: general anesthesia (GA) (n = 31), dental clinic (DC) (n = 31), and control (n = 33). ECOHIS was applied to the parents in the GA and DC groups during a pre-treatment period and also applied in the post-treatment in the first and sixth months. Height, weight, and BMI measurements of the children in the study groups were taken and recorded at the pre-treatment stage and in the post-treatment in the first and sixth months. However, for the control group, these measurements were made just at the baseline and in the sixth month. Results: Upon the treatment of ECC, the total ECOHIS score significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in both groups in the following first month, whereas the scores of the children in the GA group reached a similar level to the DC group at the end of the sixth month. Following treatment, the weight and height of the children with ECC who initially had significantly lower BMI percentiles than the control group (p = 0.008) were observed to increase and, thus, they reached a similar BMI percentile value to the control group in the sixth month. Conclusions: The results of our study revealed that development and growth deficiencies in the children with ECC could be reversed rapidly by dental treatments and, thus, their quality of life would increase. The importance of treating ECC was revealed since treating ECC had positive effects both on the children’s growth and development and on the quality of life of the children and their parents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Pediatric Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2265 KiB  
Article
Adaptation Difficulties of Children at the Beginning of School Attendance Based on the Optics of Primary School Teachers
by Radka Teleková, Tatiana Marcineková, Anna Tirpáková and Dalibor Gonda
Children 2023, 10(2), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020410 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2546
Abstract
The presented paper is devoted to finding out and analyzing the opinions of primary education teachers on the causes of the unsuccessful adaptation of current schoolchildren to the beginning of systematic education. To find out the above issues, pedagogical research was carried out [...] Read more.
The presented paper is devoted to finding out and analyzing the opinions of primary education teachers on the causes of the unsuccessful adaptation of current schoolchildren to the beginning of systematic education. To find out the above issues, pedagogical research was carried out at selected primary schools in Slovakia. The implementation of the research and the subsequent analysis of the research results confirmed that the length of teachers’ pedagogical practice has a statistically significant effect on their views on the causes of adaptation difficulties in emotional, social, intellectual, and psychomotor areas of children’s school readiness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Childhood Education Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 220 KiB  
Project Report
Adaptation of Global Standards of Comprehensive Sexuality Education in China: Characteristics, Discussions, and Expectations
by Wenli Liu, Jiayang Li, Hongyan Li and Haoran Zheng
Children 2023, 10(2), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020409 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2216
Abstract
This is a project report to introduce the Comprehensive Sexuality Education Technical Guideline—Adaptation of Global Standards for Potential Use in China (First Edition) (hereafter referred to as the Guideline) as the first adaptation of the International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education (ITGSE) in [...] Read more.
This is a project report to introduce the Comprehensive Sexuality Education Technical Guideline—Adaptation of Global Standards for Potential Use in China (First Edition) (hereafter referred to as the Guideline) as the first adaptation of the International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education (ITGSE) in China. The project was supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) from 2018 to 2022. The development process included rounds of participatory consultation, validation, and revisions led by the project team and a group of technical advisers from diverse backgrounds. The Guideline is developed to respond to the increasing demands of a technical tool integrating international standards and local context that can be used by all comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) stakeholders in China. While keeping the structure of the ITGSE, the Guideline made modifications and additions in light of the up-to-date Chinese policies, laws, and relevant national programs, as well as Chinese culture and social norms. It is expected that the Guideline could be widely acknowledged, distributed, and used to inform and support the future development of CSE in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Sex Education in China)
13 pages, 450 KiB  
Article
Newborn Care Practices and Associated Factors Influencing Their Health in a Northern Rural India
by Md Arfin Islam, Md Suhail Khan, Anas Ahmad Khan, Bayapa Reddy Narapureddy, Kalyan Viswanath Reddy Lingala, Nazim Nasir, Khursheed Muzammil, Irfan Ahmad, Adam Dawria, Ahmed Faheem and Ali Mohieldin
Children 2023, 10(2), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020408 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
Introduction: In developing countries, neonatal mortality is the most neglected health issue by the health system, leading to its emergence as a public health problem. A study was undertaken to assess the influence of factors and newborn care practices influencing newborn health in [...] Read more.
Introduction: In developing countries, neonatal mortality is the most neglected health issue by the health system, leading to its emergence as a public health problem. A study was undertaken to assess the influence of factors and newborn care practices influencing newborn health in the rural area of Bareilly district. Methodology: The descriptive cross-sectional study was organized in the rural areas of Bareilly. Study participants were selected based on the mothers who gave birth to a baby during the last six months. The mothers who delivered in that area within six months were included and, using the semi-structured questionnaire, data were collected. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS 2021 version for windows. Results: Out of 300 deliveries, nearly one-quarter of the deliveries, 66 (22%), were happening in homes, and most of the deliveries, 234 (78%), happened in hospitals. It was observed that unsafe cord care practices were observed more among nuclear families, 8 (53.4%), than joint families, 7 (46.6%), and it was found to be statistically insignificant. The Unsafe feed was given 48 (72.7%) more commonly among home deliveries than institutional deliveries 56 (23.9%). Mothers’ initiation of delayed breastfeeding was nearly the same in both home and hospital deliveries. Delayed bathing was observed in nearly three-fourths of mothers, 125 (70.1%), aged 24–29 years, followed by 29 (16.8%) in the age period of 30–35 years. Conclusion: The practice of essential newborn care still needs to improve in Bareilly; there is a need to create awareness among the mothers and family members on newborn and early neonatal care aspects, such as promoting exclusive and early initiation of breastfeeding and delayed bathing practices. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1137 KiB  
Article
Postnatal Outcomes of Fetuses with Prenatal Diagnosis of 6–9.9 mm Pyelectasis
by Sivan Farladansky-Gershnabel, Hadar Gluska, Segev Meyer, Maya Sharon-Weiner, Hanoch Schreiber, Shmuel Arnon and Ofer Markovitch
Children 2023, 10(2), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020407 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5170
Abstract
Pyelectasis, also known as renal pelvic dilatation or hydronephrosis, is frequently found on fetal ultrasound. This study correlated prenatally-detected, moderate pyelectasis with postnatal outcomes. This retrospective, observational study was conducted at a tertiary medical center in Israel. The study group consisted of 54 [...] Read more.
Pyelectasis, also known as renal pelvic dilatation or hydronephrosis, is frequently found on fetal ultrasound. This study correlated prenatally-detected, moderate pyelectasis with postnatal outcomes. This retrospective, observational study was conducted at a tertiary medical center in Israel. The study group consisted of 54 fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of pyelectasis on ultrasound scan during the second trimester, defined as anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD) 6–9.9 mm. Long-term postnatal outcomes and renal-related sequelae were obtained using medical records and telephone-based questionnaires. The control group included 98 cases with APRPD < 6 mm. Results indicate that fetal pyelectasis 6–9.9 mm was more frequent among males (68.5%) than females (51%, p = 0.034). We did not find significant correlations between 6–9.9 mm pyelectasis and other anomalies or chromosomal/genetic disorders. Pyelectasis resolved during the pregnancy in 15/54 (27.8%) cases. There was no change in 17/54 (31.5%) and 22/54 (40.7%) progressed to hydronephrosis Among the study group, 25/54 (46.3%) were diagnosed with neonatal hydronephrosis. There were more cases of renal reflux or renal obstruction in the study group compared to the control group 8/54 (14.8%) vs. 1/98 (1.0%), respectively; p = 0.002. In conclusion, most cases of 6–9.9 mm pyelectasis remained stable or resolved spontaneously during pregnancy. There was a higher rate of postnatal renal reflux and renal obstruction in this group; however, most did not require surgical intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Healthcare for Neonates Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1979 KiB  
Article
Warm and Harsh Parenting, Self-Kindness and Self-Judgment, and Well-Being: An Examination of Developmental Differences in a Large Sample of Adolescents
by Yizhen Ren, Xinli Chi, He Bu, Liuyue Huang, Shaofan Wang, Ying Zhang, Di Zeng, Hao Shan and Can Jiao
Children 2023, 10(2), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020406 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
Objectives: This study aimed to examine the associations between warm and harsh parenting and adolescent well-being, and the mediating effects of self-kindness and self-judgment, in relationships. Moreover, this study investigated developmental differences across three adolescence stages (early, middle, and late). Methods: In total, [...] Read more.
Objectives: This study aimed to examine the associations between warm and harsh parenting and adolescent well-being, and the mediating effects of self-kindness and self-judgment, in relationships. Moreover, this study investigated developmental differences across three adolescence stages (early, middle, and late). Methods: In total, 14,776 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.53 ± 2.08, 52.3% males), including individuals in early (10–12 years old, N = 5055), middle (13–15 years old, N = 6714), and late adolescence (16–18 years old, N = 3007) participated in this study. All the adolescents rated their levels of warm and harsh parenting, self-kindness and self-judgment, and well-being. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was adopted to examine the mediation model. Multi-group analysis was conducted to investigate differences in the mediation model across the different developmental stages. Results: Both warm and harsh parenting were related to adolescent well-being through the mediating effects of self-kindness and self-judgment. However, warm parenting exerted a more substantial impact on adolescent well-being. Self-kindness had a more robust mediating effect than self-judgment in relationships. Moreover, harsh parenting had a weaker impact on adolescent well-being in late adolescence than in early and middle adolescence. Warm parenting had a more significant impact on adolescent well-being in early adolescence than in middle and late adolescence. Conclusions: Overall, warm parenting had a more substantial effect than harsh parenting on adolescent well-being. The findings also highlighted the crucial mediating effect of self-kindness in the relationships between parenting and well-being. Moreover, this study also indicated the importance of warm parenting in early adolescence. Intervention programs should focus on enhancing the level of warm parenting to promote self-kindness in adolescents, in order to improve their well-being. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 249 KiB  
Brief Report
Mental Health in Children, Adolescents, and Youths Living with Perinatally Acquired HIV: At the Crossroads of Psychosocial Determinants of Health
by Álvaro Vázquez-Pérez, Carlos Velo, Luis Escosa, Teresa García-Lopez, Jose I. Bernardino, Eulalia Valencia, Rafael Mican, María José Mellado and Talía Sainz
Children 2023, 10(2), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020405 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Here, we aim to describe mental health (MH) in a cohort of children, adolescents, and young adults living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) in Spain and explore the treatment gap for mental disorders. We also aim to analyze the potential association between MH [...] Read more.
Here, we aim to describe mental health (MH) in a cohort of children, adolescents, and young adults living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) in Spain and explore the treatment gap for mental disorders. We also aim to analyze the potential association between MH issues to psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) and identify management priorities. We conducted a descriptive transversal study that included all cases of PHIV under follow-up in a reference hospital in Madrid. The study included patients undergoing follow-up in the pediatric outpatient clinic and youths transferred from pediatric to adult care units after 1997. Epidemiological, clinical, immunovirological, and treatment-related data were collected, including PSRF and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Of the 72 patients undergoing follow-up, 43 (59.7%) had already been transferred to the adult outpatient clinic. The patients’ median age was 25 years (IQR 18–29), and 54.2% were women. Most patients were undergoing treatment (94.6%) and were virologically suppressed (84.7%). Although MH issues were present in 30 patients (41.7%), only 17 (56.7%) had been referred for evaluation to the Department of Mental Health, and only 9 (30%) had received a MH diagnosis. PSRFs were common (32% of participants had at least one PSRF) and were associated with MH issues and adherence issues (all p < 0.05). A multidisciplinary approach to address the psychological factors and social determinants of health is urgently needed, particularly during important life development stages, such as adolescence. Full article
10 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Anorectal Malformations: Ideal Surgery Timing to Reduce Incontinence and Optimize QoL
by Gloria Pelizzo, Carlotta Paola Maria Canonica, Francesca Destro, Milena Meroni, Dario Rizzo, Lorena Canazza, Giorgio Giuseppe Orlando Selvaggio, Eleonora Durante, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti and Valeria Calcaterra
Children 2023, 10(2), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020404 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are rare and involve a wide spectrum of malformations. Prenatal diagnosis is often incomplete, and the diagnostic pathway is started during the newborn period to identify the type of malformation and the correct treatment. This retrospective study included patients between [...] Read more.
Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are rare and involve a wide spectrum of malformations. Prenatal diagnosis is often incomplete, and the diagnostic pathway is started during the newborn period to identify the type of malformation and the correct treatment. This retrospective study included patients between 8 and 18 y.o. diagnosed with ARM, referring to Our Clinic. We proposed two questionnaires, Rintala Bowel Function Score and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, and we defined four groups referring to surgical timing (age in months < 3, 3–6, 6–9, >9). In total, 74 patients were recruited (mean age 13.05 ± 2.80 y.o.), and data analysis showed a significant relationship between comorbidity and surgical timing. Moreover, timing was related to outcome in terms of fecal continence (better if surgery performed before 3 months) and Quality of Life (QoL). QoL, however, is influenced by other factors (emotional and social life, psychological sphere and take of care of chronic disease). We considered rehabilitation programs, more often practiced by children who underwent surgery after 9 months, to maintain an appropriate relational life. This study highlights the importance of surgical timing as the first step of a multidisciplinary follow-up, taking care of the child in every phase of his growth, tailored to the single patient. Full article
17 pages, 395 KiB  
Review
Current Worldwide Trends in Pediatric Helicobacter pylori Antimicrobial Resistance
by Reka Borka Balas, Lorena Elena Meliț and Cristina Oana Mărginean
Children 2023, 10(2), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020403 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2152
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has acquired several resistance mechanisms in order to escape the currently used eradication regimens such as mutations that impair the replication, recombination, and transcription of DNA; the antibiotics capability to interact with protein synthesis and ribosomal activity; [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has acquired several resistance mechanisms in order to escape the currently used eradication regimens such as mutations that impair the replication, recombination, and transcription of DNA; the antibiotics capability to interact with protein synthesis and ribosomal activity; the adequate redox state of bacterial cells; or the penicillin-binding proteins. The aim of this review was to identify the differences in pediatric H. pylori antimicrobial-resistance trends between continents and countries of the same continent. In Asian pediatric patients, the greatest antimicrobial resistance was found to metronidazole (>50%), probably due to its wide use for parasitic infections. Aside from the increased resistance to metronidazole, the reports from different Asian countries indicated also high resistance rates to clarithromycin, suggesting that ciprofloxacin-based eradication therapy and bismuth-based quadruple therapy might be optimal choices for the eradication of H. pylori in Asian pediatric population. The scarce evidence for America revealed that H. pylori strains display an increased resistance to clarithromycin (up to 79.6%), but not all studies agreed on this statement. Pediatric patients from Africa also presented the greatest resistance rate to metronidazole (91%), but the results in terms of amoxicillin remain contradictory. Nevertheless, the lowest resistance rates in most of the African studies were found for quinolones. Among European children, the most frequent antimicrobial resistance was also noticed for metronidazole and clarithromycin (up to 59% and 45%) but with a predominance for clarithromycin as compared to other continents. The differences in antibiotic use among continents and countries worldwide is clearly responsible for the discrepancies regarding H. pylori antimicrobial-resistance patterns, emphasizing the crucial role of global judicious antibiotic use in order to control the increasing resistance rates worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood Helicobacter pylori Infection: Treatment and Prevention)
14 pages, 1744 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Clinical Effectiveness of DRL Orthokeratology Lenses vs. Single-Vision Spectacles in Controlling the Progression of Myopia in Children and Teenagers: 2 Year Retrospective Study
by António Queirós, Pauline Beaujeux, Louisette Bloise, Aurélia Chaume, Jean Philippe Colliot, Dominique Plaisant Proust, Perrine Rossi, Bertrand Tritsch, Dominique Bastien Crinon and Jaume Pauné
Children 2023, 10(2), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020402 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2700
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of orthokeratology treatment with DRL lenses on the control of myopia progression compared with single vision glasses users (monofocal glasses). It was also possible to analyze the clinical efficacy of orthokeratology treatment with [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of orthokeratology treatment with DRL lenses on the control of myopia progression compared with single vision glasses users (monofocal glasses). It was also possible to analyze the clinical efficacy of orthokeratology treatment with DRL lenses for myopia correction in children and adolescents in a 2 year retrospective, multicenter study, performed in eight different ophthalmology centers in France. A total of 360 data records of children and adolescents with myopia between −0.50 D and −7.00 D at baseline visit, who completed treatment and had a centered outcome, were selected for the study from a database of 1271. The final sample included subjects undergoing orthokeratology treatment with DRL lenses (n = 211 eyes) and spectacle wearers (n = 149 eyes). After one year of treatment, the data analysis shows that the DRL lens has a refractive myopia progression control rate of 78.5% compared with the spectacle wearers (DRL M change = −0.10 ± 0.25 D, p < 0.001 Wilcoxon test and Glasses M change = −0.44 ± 0.38 D, p < 0.001 Wilcoxon test). Similar results were found after 2 years of treatment (80% with 310 eyes). This study showed the clinical efficacy of orthokeratology DRL lenses compared to monofocal spectacle wearers in controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents in a 2 year retrospective study. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1078 KiB  
Article
Peer Support and Exercise Adherence in Adolescents: The Chain-Mediated Effects of Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulation
by Yuxin Zou, Shijie Liu, Shuangshuang Guo, Qiuhao Zhao and Yujun Cai
Children 2023, 10(2), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020401 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3312
Abstract
In the context of exercise psychology, the mediating relationship between peer support, self-efficacy and self-regulation, and adolescents’ exercise adherence was to be explored. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed among 2200 teenagers from twelve middle schools in Shanghai. The “process” program in SPSS and [...] Read more.
In the context of exercise psychology, the mediating relationship between peer support, self-efficacy and self-regulation, and adolescents’ exercise adherence was to be explored. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed among 2200 teenagers from twelve middle schools in Shanghai. The “process” program in SPSS and the bootstrap method were applied to construct and analyze the direct and indirect effects of peer support on adolescents’ exercise adherence. Results: Peer support directly affected adolescents’ exercise adherence (β = 0.135, p < 0.001, effect size of 59%) and self-efficacy (β = 0.493, p < 0.001, effect size accounted for 42%), and self-regulation (β = −0.184, p < 0.001, effect size of 11%) influenced exercise adherence indirectly. In addition, self-efficacy and self-regulation could impose a chain-mediated effect on peer support and exercise adherence (effect size of 6%). Conclusion: Peer support could promote adolescents’ exercise adherence. Self-efficacy and self-regulation are mediating factors of peer support on exercise adherence in teenagers, self-regulation as well as self-efficacy-imposed chain-mediating effects on peer support and adolescents’ exercise adherence. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2853 KiB  
Article
The Use of Automated Atrial CMR Measures and a Novel Atrioventricular Coupling Index for Predicting Risk in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot
by Megan Gunsaulus, Alejandra Bueno, Carley Bright, Katelyn Snyder, Nikkan Das, Craig Dobson, Mark DeBrunner, Adam Christopher, Arvind Hoskoppal, Christopher Follansbee, Gaurav Arora, Laura Olivieri and Tarek Alsaied
Children 2023, 10(2), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020400 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
Atrial size and function have been recognized as markers of diastolic function, and diastolic dysfunction has been identified as a predictor of adverse outcomes in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). This was a retrospective single-center study with the objective of investigating the use [...] Read more.
Atrial size and function have been recognized as markers of diastolic function, and diastolic dysfunction has been identified as a predictor of adverse outcomes in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). This was a retrospective single-center study with the objective of investigating the use of atrial measurements obtained via CMR for predicting outcomes in rTOF patients. Automated contours of the left and right atria (LA and RA) were performed. A novel parameter, termed the Right Atrioventricular Coupling Index (RACI), was defined as the ratio of RA end-diastolic volume to right ventricle (RV) end-diastolic volume. Patients were risk-stratified using a previously validated Importance Factor Score for the prediction of life-threatening arrhythmias in rTOF. Patients with a high-risk Importance Factor Score (>2) had a significantly larger minimum RA volume (p = 0.04) and RACI (p = 0.03) compared to those with scores ≤2. ROC analysis demonstrated RACI to be the best overall predictor of a high-risk Importance Factor Score (AUC 0.73, p = 0.03). Older age at the time of repair and a diagnosis of pulmonary atresia were associated with a larger RACI. Automated atrial CMR measurements are easily obtained from standard CMRs and have the potential to serve as noninvasive predictors of adverse outcomes in rTOF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 539 KiB  
Systematic Review
Evaluating Self-Concept Measurements in Adolescents: A Systematic Review
by Happy Indri Hapsari, Mei-Chih Huang and Maria Wisnu Kanita
Children 2023, 10(2), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020399 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3591
Abstract
(1) Background: To evaluate the self-concept of adolescents, a proper evaluation of several existing self-concept measurements is needed. The objectives of this study are to conduct a systematic review of the available measures used to assess self-concept in adolescents, to evaluate the psychometric [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To evaluate the self-concept of adolescents, a proper evaluation of several existing self-concept measurements is needed. The objectives of this study are to conduct a systematic review of the available measures used to assess self-concept in adolescents, to evaluate the psychometric properties of each measurement, and to assess the attributes of patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs) of self-concept in adolescents. (2) Methods: The systematic review was conducted on six databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science, from inception to 2021. A standardized evaluation of psychometric properties was carried out using the Evaluating the Measurement of Patient-Reported Outcomes (EMPRO). The review was conducted independently by two reviewers. Each attribute in EMPRO was assessed and analyzed to obtain an overall score. Only scores that exceeded 50 were considered acceptable. (3) Results: From 22,388 articles, we reviewed 35 articles with five self-concept measurements. Four measurements were obtained that had values above the threshold (SPPC, SPPA, SDQ-II, and SDQII-S). However, there is not enough evidence to support the interpretability attribute in self-concept measurement. (4) Conclusions: There are various measurements of self-concept in adolescents accompanied by their psychometric properties. Each measurement of adolescent self-concept has a characteristic of psychometric properties and measurement attributes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1529 KiB  
Brief Report
Safety and Efficacy of Stand-Alone Bioactive Glass Injectable Putty or Granules in Posterior Vertebral Fusion for Adolescent Idiopathic and Non-Idiopathic Scoliosis
by Aurélien Courvoisier, Marie-Christine Maximin and Alice Baroncini
Children 2023, 10(2), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020398 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Posterior spinal fusion (PSF) is the standard procedure for the treatment of severe scoliosis. PSF is a standard procedure that combines posterior instrumentation with bone grafting and/or bone substitutes to enhance fusion. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate and compare [...] Read more.
Posterior spinal fusion (PSF) is the standard procedure for the treatment of severe scoliosis. PSF is a standard procedure that combines posterior instrumentation with bone grafting and/or bone substitutes to enhance fusion. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate and compare the post-operative safety and efficiency of stand-alone bioactive glass putty and granules in posterior spine fusion for scoliosis in a paediatric cohort. A total of 43 children and adolescents were included retrospectively. Each patient’s last follow-up was performed at 24 months and included clinical and radiological evaluations. Pseudarthrosis was defined as a loss of correction measuring >10° of Cobb angle between the pre-operative and last follow-up measurements. There was no significant loss of correction between the immediate post-operative timepoint and the 24-month follow-up. There was no sign of non-union, implant displacement or rod breakage. Bioactive glass in the form of putty or granules is an easily handled biomaterial but still a newcomer on the market. This study shows that the massive use of bioactive glass in posterior fusion, when combined with proper surgical planning, hardware placement and correction, is effective in providing good clinical and radiological outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Spine Health of Children and Adolescents)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1238 KiB  
Article
The Causes and Factors Associated with Infant Mortality Rate in Ethiopia: The Application of Structural Equation Modelling
by Endeshaw Assefa Derso, Maria Gabriella Campolo and Angela Alibrandi
Children 2023, 10(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020397 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
Infant mortality rate is a proxy measure of population health. Previous studies on the infant mortality rate in Ethiopia did not consider measurement errors in the measured variables and had a one-directional effect; little emphasis was placed on testing multiple causal paths at [...] Read more.
Infant mortality rate is a proxy measure of population health. Previous studies on the infant mortality rate in Ethiopia did not consider measurement errors in the measured variables and had a one-directional effect; little emphasis was placed on testing multiple causal paths at the same time. We used structural equation modelling for a better understanding of the direct, indirect, and total effects among causal variables in a single model. A path analysis was part of an algorithm providing equations that were relating the variances and covariances of the indicators. From the results, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was significantly mediating the influence of out-of-pocket expenditure (OOP) on infant mortality rate (IMR), and the fertility rate (FR) was significantly mediating the influence of GDP to IMR (β = 1.168, p < 0.001). The GDP affects the IMR directly and indirectly while the OOP affects IMR indirectly. This study showed that there was a causal linkage between the World Bank Health and Population Variables for causing IMR in Ethiopia. The MMR and FR were found to be the intermediate indicators in this study. Through the indicators, FR had the highest standardised coefficients for increasing the IMR. We recommended that the existing interventions to reduce IMR be strengthened. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 872 KiB  
Article
Cystathionine Beta-Synthase Deficiency: Three Consecutive Cases Detected in 40 Days by Newborn Screening in Emilia Romagna (Italy) and a Comprehensive Review of the Literature
by Egidio Candela, Michele Zagariello, Valeria Di Natale, Rita Ortolano, Francesca Righetti, Valentina Assirelli, Giacomo Biasucci, Alessandra Cassio, Andrea Pession and Federico Baronio
Children 2023, 10(2), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020396 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
Cysthiatonine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency (CBSD) is an autosomal recessive rare disorder caused by variations on CBS that leads to impaired conversion of homocysteine (Hcy) to cystathionine. Marked hyperhomocysteinemia is the hallmark of the disease. The administration of pyridoxine, the natural cofactor of CBS, [...] Read more.
Cysthiatonine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency (CBSD) is an autosomal recessive rare disorder caused by variations on CBS that leads to impaired conversion of homocysteine (Hcy) to cystathionine. Marked hyperhomocysteinemia is the hallmark of the disease. The administration of pyridoxine, the natural cofactor of CBS, may reduce total plasma Hcy. Patient phenotype is classified on pyridoxine responsivity in two groups: pyridoxine-responsive and non-responsive patients. Ectopia lentis, bone deformities, developmental delay, and thromboembolism are the classic signs and symptoms of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment impact patients’ natural history. Therapy aims to lower promptly and maintain Hcy concentrations below 100 μmol/L. Depending on the patient’s phenotype, the treatment goals could be obtained by the administration of pyridoxine and/or betaine associated with a methionine-restricted diet. CBSD could be diagnosed in the early days of life by expanded newborn screening (ENS), however, the risk of false negative results is not negligible. In Emilia-Romagna (Italy), during the first 10 years of screening experience, only three cases of CBSD identified have been diagnosed, all in the last two years (incidence 1:118,000 live births). We present the cases and a comprehensive review of the literature to emphasize the role of ENS for early diagnosis of CBSD and its potential pitfalls, reiterating the need for a more effective method to screen for CBSD. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 585 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Psychosocial Intervention on the Subjective Experiences of Children Living with Atopic Dermatitis: A Qualitative Study in Hong Kong
by Qian-Wen Xie
Children 2023, 10(2), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020395 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Nonpharmaceutical interventions are important for addressing the psychosocial needs of children living with atopic dermatitis (AD). The current study aimed to investigate the effects of an integrative body–mind–spirit (IBMS) intervention on the subjective experiences of affected children and explore the mechanisms underlying the [...] Read more.
Nonpharmaceutical interventions are important for addressing the psychosocial needs of children living with atopic dermatitis (AD). The current study aimed to investigate the effects of an integrative body–mind–spirit (IBMS) intervention on the subjective experiences of affected children and explore the mechanisms underlying the effects. Using a drawing-based, qualitative approach, the current study conducted two rounds of interviews with 13 children (aged 8–12 years) diagnosed with moderate or severe AD before and after they attended the IBMS intervention. Data were analyzed by using the thematic analysis method. The IBMS intervention worked by changing participants’ perceptions at the cognitive level, improving their coping strategies at the behavioral level, and constructing their social support network at the environmental level. Cognitive, behavioral, and environmental factors might mediate the relationships between the IBMS intervention and participants’ psychological and physical outcomes. This study highlighted the wider inclusion of child-centered qualitative research in the evaluation of the effects of psychosocial interventions designed for children. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 407 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Gait and Functional Balance Skills in Cerebral Palsy Children—A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Mohamed E. Khalil, Mohamed A. Abdel Ghafar, Osama R. Abdelraouf, Mariam E. Mohamed, Eman M. Harraz, Reem S. Dawood and Reham A. A. Abouelkheir
Children 2023, 10(2), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020394 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the long-term effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on spatiotemporal gait parameters and functional balance in children with cerebral palsy. Thirty-nine children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy were randomly allocated to one of two groups: control or study. The children [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the long-term effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on spatiotemporal gait parameters and functional balance in children with cerebral palsy. Thirty-nine children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy were randomly allocated to one of two groups: control or study. The children in both groups received traditional physical therapy three times per week for six months. In addition, the children in the study group received hyperbaric oxygen therapy five times/week for eight weeks. The GAITRite system and pediatric balance scale were used to assess spatiotemporal gait parameters and functional balance at baseline, post-intervention, and six months after the cessation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Post-intervention means of all measured parameters were significantly higher than pre-intervention means, but only for the study group (p < 0.05). However, both groups’ means at the six-month follow up were significantly greater than those at pre-intervention (p < 0.05). At the post-intervention and follow-up evaluations, comparisons between groups revealed a statistically significant difference in all measured parameters for the study group against the control group (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that adding hyperbaric oxygen therapy to physical therapy rehabilitation could be effective in improving spatiotemporal gait parameters and functional balance in children with cerebral palsy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 545 KiB  
Article
Pharmacoepidemiological Analysis of Oral Contraceptive Use in Adolescents in a German Longitudinal Cohort Study
by Markus Herzig, Astrid Bertsche, Cornelia Hilbert, Wieland Kiess, Thilo Bertsche and Martina Patrizia Neininger
Children 2023, 10(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020393 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1695
Abstract
To assess the use of oral contraceptives (OC) in adolescents, using data from a longitudinal, population-based pediatric cohort study (LIFE Child). We also investigated associations between OC use and socioeconomic status (SES), and associations between OC use and potential adverse drug reactions such [...] Read more.
To assess the use of oral contraceptives (OC) in adolescents, using data from a longitudinal, population-based pediatric cohort study (LIFE Child). We also investigated associations between OC use and socioeconomic status (SES), and associations between OC use and potential adverse drug reactions such as effects on blood pressure. We included 609 female participants of the LIFE Child cohort, aged ≥13 to <21 years, who visited the study center between 2012 and 2019. Data collection compromised drug use in the past 14 days, SES, and anthropometric data such as blood pressure. An analysis of covariance was used to detect potential associations between participants’ blood pressure and OC. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (aOR) adjusted for age and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The prevalence of OC use was 25.8%. OC intake was less common in participants with a high SES (aOR 0.30, 95% CI 0.15, 0.62). The mean age at OC initiation did not change between 2012 and 2019. We observed an increased use of second-generation OC (2013: 17.9%, 2019: 48.5%; p = 0.013) and a decreased use of fourth-generation OC (2013: 71.8%, 2019: 45.5%; p = 0.027). We found a higher systolic (mean: 111.74 mmHg, p < 0.001) and diastolic (69.15 mmHg, p = 0.004) blood pressure in OC users compared to non-users (systolic: 108.60 mmHg; diastolic: 67.24 mmHg). Every fourth adolescent took an OC. The share of second-generation OC increased during the study period. OC intake was associated with low SES. OC users had a slightly higher blood pressure than non-users. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Breakfast Skippers among Tunisian Preschool and School Children and Association with Weight Status: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Darine Dogui, Radhouene Doggui, Jalila El Ati and Myriam El Ati-Hellal
Children 2023, 10(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020392 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day. This study aimed to assess breakfast frequency and quality in Tunisian children and to determine the relationship between breakfast skipping and the weight status of the children. A total of 1200 preschool and [...] Read more.
Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day. This study aimed to assess breakfast frequency and quality in Tunisian children and to determine the relationship between breakfast skipping and the weight status of the children. A total of 1200 preschool and school children aged 3 to 9 years were randomly selected under a cross-sectional design. Breakfast habits and socio-economic characteristics were collected using a questionnaire. Participants who consumed breakfast less than five times the previous week were categorized as breakfast skippers. The other breakfast consumers were considered as non-skippers. The overall prevalence of breakfast skipping in Tunisian children was 8.3% and 83% of them consumed breakfast all the weekdays. At least two out of three children had a poor breakfast quality. Only 1% of children consumed breakfast in accordance with the composition guidelines. No relationships between breakfast skipping and weight status were detected in this study after adjustment for age, sex and all socio-economic factors (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.89, p = 0.541). Further school-based interventions should be implemented to improve breakfast quality and to promote a healthy weight in Tunisian children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Pediatric Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 788 KiB  
Article
Changes in Estimated Body Composition and Physical Fitness of Adolescent Boys after One Year of Soccer Training
by Cíntia França, Diogo V. Martinho, Élvio Rúbio Gouveia, Francisco Martins, Adilson Marques, Tiago Ribeiro, Marcelo de Maio Nascimento, Helder Lopes, Ana Rodrigues and Andreas Ihle
Children 2023, 10(2), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020391 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
Sports participation is one of the most popular forms of physical activity among youngsters. This study aimed to examine the changes in the estimated body composition, strength, and flexibility of adolescent boys after 12 months of soccer training compared with those of age-matched [...] Read more.
Sports participation is one of the most popular forms of physical activity among youngsters. This study aimed to examine the changes in the estimated body composition, strength, and flexibility of adolescent boys after 12 months of soccer training compared with those of age-matched controls with non-sports participation. We assessed 137 boys (62 soccer players and 75 controls) at baseline (TM1) and 12 months later (TM2). The differences in estimated body composition, strength, and flexibility were investigated using a repeated measure analysis of variance. The analysis revealed a significant main effect of soccer training on fat mass (F = 73.503, p ≤ 0.01, η2 = 0.59) and fat-free mass (F = 39.123, p ≤ 0.01, η2 = 0.48). Over time, the soccer group decreased their fat mass and increased their fat-free mass, while the opposite results were observed for the controls. Among physical fitness tests, a substantial effect of soccer training was evidenced for the sit-up performance (F = 16.224, p ≤ 0.01, η2 = 0.32). Regarding the time factor, significant effects were noted for height and handgrip strength. No significant differences were detected for flexibility. Overall, the benefits of soccer training were exhibited by the larger improvements in fat mass, fat-free mass, sit-ups, and handgrip strength performance, underlining the important role of soccer participation during adolescence. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1494 KiB  
Article
Thyroid Disorders Spectrum in Pediatric Endocrine Clinic; Seven-Year Experience of a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia
by Mohammad H. Al-Qahtani, Sufian A. ElYahia, Abdulaziz S. AlQahtani, Abdulrahman J. AlQahtani, Abdulaziz A. Alamer, Sultan M. AlQahtani, Abdullah A. Yousef, Waleed H. Albuali, Bassam H. Awary, Ala’a A. Aldajani and Mohammed A. Al Ghamdi
Children 2023, 10(2), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020390 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3698
Abstract
Thyroid disorders constitute one of the major endocrine disorders in pediatric service. It includes a range of congenital versus acquired anatomic and/or functional thyroid diseases in growing children that has a spectrum of severity from severe intellectual disability effect to subclinical mild pathologies. [...] Read more.
Thyroid disorders constitute one of the major endocrine disorders in pediatric service. It includes a range of congenital versus acquired anatomic and/or functional thyroid diseases in growing children that has a spectrum of severity from severe intellectual disability effect to subclinical mild pathologies. This study was designed to analyze the demographic characteristics, clinical pattern, and severity of thyroid disorders in the pediatric endocrine clinic patients at the teaching hospital of the university over a 7-year duration. A total number of 148 patients with thyroid disorders were seen in pediatric Endocrine clinic during the time between January 2015 and December 2021. Female patients constitute 64% of them. Acquired Hypothyroidism was the commonest disorder; 34% of the cases followed by the congenital hypothyroidism (CH), then Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and 5.8% for others. While a very small percentage was acquired hyperthyroidism. The majority of referrals were from dermatology and other service for the screening of thyroid disease as association with other autoimmune diseases with percentage of 28.3%. Next was neck swelling manifestation in 22.6%. Thyroid disorders in children, both congenital and acquired, constitute an important medical issue for pediatricians to be aware of its variable presentations, and its potential serious health consequences on the affected children if not diagnosed and treated earlier. Acquired hypothyroidism constitutes more percentage of the thyroid disorders followed in the pediatric endocrinology outpatient clinics. Congenital hypothyroidism is the second most common thyroid disorder in the outpatient unit, having the most potential complications. These results support the international studies with the female predominance in most of thyroid disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Diseases in Pediatrics: Diagnosis and Treatment)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 320 KiB  
Review
Basal Stimulation as Developmental Support in At-Risk Newborns: A Literature Review
by Petra Potmesilova, Milon Potmesil and Jana Mareckova
Children 2023, 10(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020389 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
Background: The aim of this review of the literature was to find and summarize relevant research evidence available within the scientific sources and gray literature in accordance with the JBI recommendations. Search question: What effect does Basal Stimulation have on the cognitive–behavioral functions [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this review of the literature was to find and summarize relevant research evidence available within the scientific sources and gray literature in accordance with the JBI recommendations. Search question: What effect does Basal Stimulation have on the cognitive–behavioral functions or temperament of a preterm or disabled infant? Methods: The following sources were searched: PSYCINFO, MEDLINE, PsycArticles, ERIC, Wiley Online Library, ProQuest Scopus, WOS, JSTOR, Google Scholar, and MedNar. The study contains an analysis of texts that have been published in the English, Czech, and German languages. The search time span was set at 15 years. Results: A total of 15 sources were found for the specified topic. Conclusions: In all cases, there was confirmation about the positive influence of the concept of “Basal Stimulation” on the cognitive–behavioral functions and temperament of premature and disabled children. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 292 KiB  
Review
High-Risk Neuroblastoma: A Surgical Perspective
by Jillian C. Jacobson, Rachael A. Clark and Dai H. Chung
Children 2023, 10(2), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020388 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
High-risk neuroblastoma requires multimodal treatment including systemic chemotherapy, surgical resection, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant, and immunotherapy. Surgeons play a vital role in obtaining local control of neuroblastoma and must therefore be knowledgeable about this complex pathology. This article provides a review of [...] Read more.
High-risk neuroblastoma requires multimodal treatment including systemic chemotherapy, surgical resection, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant, and immunotherapy. Surgeons play a vital role in obtaining local control of neuroblastoma and must therefore be knowledgeable about this complex pathology. This article provides a review of the optimal timing and extent of resection, the impact of various image-defined risk factors on surgical planning, and surgical approaches and techniques to enhance the resection of tumors in different anatomic locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Cardiology)
9 pages, 11874 KiB  
Case Report
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return in the Time of SARS-CoV-2—Case Report
by Alina-Costina Luca, Alexandrina-Ștefania Curpăn, Raluca-Stefania Manea, Lacramioara Ionela Butnariu, Elena Țarcă, Iuliana Magdalena Starcea, Solange Tamara Roșu, Dana Elena Mîndru, Elena Macsim, Heidrun Adumitrăchioaiei and Ioana Alexandra Pădureț
Children 2023, 10(2), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020387 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
The management of children with complex and life-threatening heart malformations became a clinical conundrum during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The pathophysiological features of the new coronavirus infection have raised major dilemmas regarding the postoperative evolution of an infected patient, and the epidemiological limitations have [...] Read more.
The management of children with complex and life-threatening heart malformations became a clinical conundrum during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The pathophysiological features of the new coronavirus infection have raised major dilemmas regarding the postoperative evolution of an infected patient, and the epidemiological limitations have tightened the criteria for selecting cases. We present the case of a newborn diagnosed with total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) who underwent surgical repair of the defect with favorable outcome, despite a prior diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We discuss the medical and surgical management of TAPVR, highlighting possible management difficulties brought by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1321 KiB  
Article
The Effectiveness of the Schroth Best Practice Program and Chêneau-Type Brace Treatment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Long-Term Follow-Up Evaluation Results
by Tuğba Kuru Çolak, Burçin Akçay, Adnan Apti and İlker Çolak
Children 2023, 10(2), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020386 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4727
Abstract
Background: Although the number of studies showing the efficacy of conservative treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has increased, studies with long-term follow-up are very limited. The aim of this study was to present the long-term effects of a conservative management method including exercise [...] Read more.
Background: Although the number of studies showing the efficacy of conservative treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has increased, studies with long-term follow-up are very limited. The aim of this study was to present the long-term effects of a conservative management method including exercise and brace in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with idiopathic scoliosis who presented at our department and were followed up for at least 2 years after completing the treatment. The main outcome measurements were the Cobb angle and angle of trunk rotation (ATR). Results: The cohort participants were 90.4% female, with a mean age of 11 years and the maximum Cobb angle was mean 32.1°. The mean post-treatment follow-up period was 27.8 months (range 24–71 months). The improvements after treatment in mean maximum Cobb angle (p < 0.001) and ATR (p = 0.001) were statistically significant. At the end of treatment, the maximum Cobb angle was improved in 88.1% of the patients and worsened in 11.9% compared to baseline. In the long-term follow-up evaluations, 83.3% of the curvatures remained stable. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that moderate idiopathic scoliosis in growing adolescents can be successfully halted with appropriate conservative treatment and that long-term improvement is largely maintained. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 1404 KiB  
Article
Reliability of Data Collected via Ecological Momentary Assessment on the Example of FeverApp Registry
by Larisa Rathjens, Moritz Gwiasda, Silke Schwarz, Ricarda Möhler, David D. Martin and Ekkehart Jenetzky
Children 2023, 10(2), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020385 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1355
Abstract
The FeverApp registry is an ambulant ecological momentary assessment (EMA) model registry focusing on research of fever in children. Verification of EMA reliability is a challenge, due to absence of other source data. To ensure the reliability of EMA data, 973 families were [...] Read more.
The FeverApp registry is an ambulant ecological momentary assessment (EMA) model registry focusing on research of fever in children. Verification of EMA reliability is a challenge, due to absence of other source data. To ensure the reliability of EMA data, 973 families were invited to reassess their documentation in a survey. The survey contained questions (a) regarding the number of children, (b) genuineness of entries, (c) completeness of submitted fever episodes, (d) medication, (e) usefulness and further usage of the app. Of those invited, 438 families (45% response rate) participated in the survey. Of these, 363 (83%) families have registered all their children, 208 families have one child. The majority (n = 325, 74.2%) of families stated that they only made genuine entries in the app. Agreement between survey and app for fever episodes is 90% (Cohen’s κ = 0.75 [0.66, 0.82]). Medication shows 73.7% agreement, κ = 0.49 [0.42; 0.54]. The majority (n = 245, 55.9%) consider the app as an additional benefit and 87.3% would like to use it further. Email surveys are a possible approach to evaluate EMA based registry data. The possible observation units (children and fever episodes) show an adequate reliability. With this approach, surveys of further samples and variables could help to improve the quality of EMA based registries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Statistics and Clinical Epidemiology in Children)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 3508 KiB  
Article
Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Evaluation of Bony Changes via 3DCBCT
by Mohammad Khursheed Alam
Children 2023, 10(2), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020384 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Objective: The prime objective of this research was to study the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with an evaluation of bony changes via pre- and post-treatment 3DCBCT in orthodontic malocclusion cases treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Materials and Methods: Subjects who attended [...] Read more.
Objective: The prime objective of this research was to study the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with an evaluation of bony changes via pre- and post-treatment 3DCBCT in orthodontic malocclusion cases treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Materials and Methods: Subjects who attended the Orthodontic Clinic, were diagnosed with orthodontic malocclusion, treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, and had pre- and post-management CBCT were included in the study. Patients aged 14 to 25 years who met the inclusion criteria were assigned to two groups, group A (LLLT) and group B (non-LLLT). Group A participants were treated with LLLT therapy as per standard protocol after explaining the nature of the treatment. Group B (non-LLLT) participants were not treated with LLLT therapy and therefore served as the control. LLLT was used in the experimental group after placing each archwire. Interradicular bony changes at depth levels of 1 to 4 (2, 5, 8, and 11 mm) using 3DCBCT were measured as outcome parameters. Results: The information collected was analyzed using SPSS computer software. Mostly insignificant differences were noted among groups for the different parameters (p < 0.05). Student’s t-tests and paired t-tests were used to investigate the differences. Experimental Hypothesis: There will be significant differences in the interradicular width (IRW) measurements between the LLLT and non-LLLT groups. Conclusions: The hypothesis was rejected. Upon investigation of prospective changes, most of the measured parameters showed insignificant differences. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1417 KiB  
Review
Cardiac Asystole at Birth Re-Visited: Effects of Acute Hypovolemic Shock
by Judith Mercer, Debra Erickson-Owens, Heike Rabe and Ola Andersson
Children 2023, 10(2), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020383 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3369
Abstract
Births involving shoulder dystocia or tight nuchal cords can deteriorate rapidly. The fetus may have had a reassuring tracing just before birth yet may be born without any heartbeat (asystole). Since the publication of our first article on cardiac asystole with two cases, [...] Read more.
Births involving shoulder dystocia or tight nuchal cords can deteriorate rapidly. The fetus may have had a reassuring tracing just before birth yet may be born without any heartbeat (asystole). Since the publication of our first article on cardiac asystole with two cases, five similar cases have been published. We suggest that these infants shift blood to the placenta due to the tight squeeze of the birth canal during the second stage which compresses the cord. The squeeze transfers blood to the placenta via the firm-walled arteries but prevents blood returning to the infant via the soft-walled umbilical vein. These infants may then be born severely hypovolemic resulting in asystole secondary to the loss of blood. Immediate cord clamping (ICC) prevents the newborn’s access to this blood after birth. Even if the infant is resuscitated, loss of this large amount of blood volume may initiate an inflammatory response that can enhance neuropathologic processes including seizures, hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), and death. We present the role of the autonomic nervous system in the development of asystole and suggest an alternative algorithm to address the need to provide these infants intact cord resuscitation. Leaving the cord intact (allowing for return of the umbilical cord circulation) for several minutes after birth may allow most of the sequestered blood to return to the infant. Umbilical cord milking may return enough of the blood volume to restart the heart but there are likely reparative functions that are carried out by the placenta during the continued neonatal–placental circulation allowed by an intact cord. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop