Editor's Choice Articles

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Diminished Returns of Parental Education in Terms of Youth School Performance: Ruling out Regression toward the Mean
Children 2020, 7(7), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7070074 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 9
Abstract
Background: Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs) refer to systemically weaker effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators on various developmental, behavioral, and health outcomes of ethnic minorities compared to non-Hispanic (non-Latino) Whites. Similar MDRs also exist for the effects of parental education on the school [...] Read more.
Background: Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs) refer to systemically weaker effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators on various developmental, behavioral, and health outcomes of ethnic minorities compared to non-Hispanic (non-Latino) Whites. Similar MDRs also exist for the effects of parental education on the school performance of ethnic minority youth. Aim: To assess whether regression toward the mean (RTM) has any role in explaining the diminished effects of parental education on the school performance of Black and Hispanic youth relative to non-Hispanic White youth. Materials and methods: Data for this cross-sectional study came from the Monitoring the Future survey (MTF, 2017), a nationally representative survey of American youth in 12th grade. The sample included 10,262 youth who were 12th graders (typically 17–18 years old). The independent variable was parental education with five categories: Some high school, High school graduate, Some college, College graduate, and Graduate school. The outcome was self-reported school performance measured as grade point average (GPA). Ethnicity was the effect modifier. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey Post Hoc test was used to analyze the data. Data visualization (line graphs) was used to visualize the shape of youth GPA as a function of parental education levels across ethnic groups. Results: While a perfect stepwise increase was seen in youth school performance as a result of parental education improvement, this pattern differed considerably across ethnic groups. Such a perfect stepwise increase in youth school performance as a result of the incremental increase in parental education was missing for Black and Hispanic youth. The shape of the association between parental education and youth school performance ruled out regression toward the mean (RTM) as an explanation for the observed diminished effects of parental education on the school performance of Black and Hispanic youth. Conclusion: Diminished returns of parental education on the school performance of Black and Hispanic youth cannot be explained by regression toward the mean. Other factors and contextual processes, such as segregation, discrimination, racism, and poor quality of schools in urban areas, should be investigated in future research. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Family Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Childhood Trauma: Racial Differences
Children 2020, 7(6), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7060057 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 9
Abstract
Background: Minorities’ diminished returns (MDRs) refer to weaker effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as parental educational attainment and family income in generating tangible childhood outcomes for racial and ethnic minorities compared to the majority group, a pattern prevalent in the US. [...] Read more.
Background: Minorities’ diminished returns (MDRs) refer to weaker effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as parental educational attainment and family income in generating tangible childhood outcomes for racial and ethnic minorities compared to the majority group, a pattern prevalent in the US. Our existing knowledge is minimal, however, about diminished returns of family SES on reducing exposure to childhood trauma. Aim: To determine if there was a difference between non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) in the effect of SES on exposure to childhood trauma among children ages 8–11 years old. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from 4696 NHW or NHB American 8–11-year-old children who were participants in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. The independent variables were parental educational attainment and family income. The primary outcome was exposure to 1 or 2+ childhood traumas, measured by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) semi-structured interview. Polynomial regression was used for data analysis. Results: Parental education and family income had statistically significant protective (negative) effects on childhood trauma, indicating children from high income and highly educated families were exposed to a lower level of childhood trauma. However, race/ethnicity showed statistically significant interactions with parental education and family income on exposure to childhood trauma, indicating weaker protective effects of parental education and family income on reducing exposure to trauma for NHB compared to NHW children. Race-specific models showed protective effects of parental education and family income on exposure to childhood trauma for NHW but not NHB children. Conclusion: The protective effects of parental education and family income against exposure to childhood trauma are systematically diminished for NHBs compared to NHWs. To minimize the racial/ethnic health gaps, diminished returns of parental education and family income should be addressed. There is a need for programs and interventions that equalize not only SES but also the marginal returns of SES for ethnic groups. Such efforts require addressing structural and societal barriers that hinder NHB families from translating their SES resources into tangible outcomes. There is a need for studies that can minimize MDRs for NHB families, such that SES can similarly secure tangible outcomes in the presence of SES resources. Full article
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Minorities’ Diminished Returns of Parental Educational Attainment on Adolescents’ Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems
Children 2020, 7(5), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7050049 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
Aim: To compare racial groups for the effect of parental educational attainment on adolescents’ social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10,762 youth from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study were included. The independent variable was parental educational attainment. [...] Read more.
Aim: To compare racial groups for the effect of parental educational attainment on adolescents’ social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10,762 youth from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study were included. The independent variable was parental educational attainment. The main outcomes were (1) anxious and depressed mood, (2) withdrawn and depressed affect, (3) somatic complaints, (4) social and interpersonal problems, (5) thought problems, (6) rule-breaking behaviors, (7) attention problems, and (8) violent and aggressive behaviors. These scores were generated based on parent-reported behavioral problems measured using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Race and ethnicity were the moderators. Linear regression was used to analyze the ABCD data. Results: Overall, high parental educational attainment was associated with lower scores across all domains. Race and ethnicity showed statistically significant interactions with parental educational attainment on adolescents’ fewer social, emotional, and behavioral problems (all domains), net of all confounders, indicating smaller tangible gains from their parental educational attainment for Black and Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic White adolescents. Conclusions: The protective effects of parental education against social, emotional, and behavioral problems are systematically diminished for Hispanic and Black than non-Hispanic White adolescents. Full article
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Influence of Social Support on Physical Activity in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy
Children 2020, 7(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7030023 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of social support and self-efficacy with physical Activity (PA) and the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between social support and PA in Chinese adolescents. Participants included a total of 2341 Chinese [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of social support and self-efficacy with physical Activity (PA) and the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between social support and PA in Chinese adolescents. Participants included a total of 2341 Chinese adolescents (aged 12.75 ± 1.46 years). Self-reported instruments, including the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents, the social support revalued scale and the exercise self-efficacy scale, were used to measure physical activity, social support and exercise self-efficacy. Results showed that social support (r = 0.29, p < 0.05) and exercise self-efficacy (r = 0.43, p < 0.05) were significant and positive predictors of PA among Chinese adolescents, and exercise self-efficacy was a significant mediator in the relationship between social support and PA (standardized effect size = 0.15, p < 0.001). Such findings were evident with similar patterns in both male and female adolescents. The findings of this study have indicated the importance of social support and exercise self-efficacy on PA promotion in adolescents, which will aid the development of effective interventions in this population. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Effects of a Need-Supportive Motor Skill Intervention on Children’s Motor Skill Competence and Physical Activity
Children 2020, 7(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7030021 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
A need-supportive environment can provide various motivational benefits to impact children’s psychomotor developmental levels. However, very little is known about the effects of need-supportive motor skill intervention on children’s motor skill competence and physical activity by gender. Guided by self-determination theory (SDT), this [...] Read more.
A need-supportive environment can provide various motivational benefits to impact children’s psychomotor developmental levels. However, very little is known about the effects of need-supportive motor skill intervention on children’s motor skill competence and physical activity by gender. Guided by self-determination theory (SDT), this study aimed to (a) investigate the effect of a need-supportive fundamental movement skill (FMS) program on children’s FMS competence and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and (b) explore potential gender differences in these effects. Thirty-six children (63.8% girls; Mage = 6.52 ± 0.97) participated and were divided into two groups: an intervention group (24 need-supportive FMS sessions over eight weeks) and a control group. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine the influence of the motor skill intervention on FMS competence and MVPA over time by group (intervention, control) and gender (boys, girls). The results showed (a) significant group differences between the intervention and control group in FMS competence and MVPA (p < 0.001), (b) non-significant gender differences between boys and girls in FMS competence and MVPA (p = 0.85), and (c) non-significant interaction effects over time (p = 0.52). The findings highlight that a need-supportive FMS program may enhance FMS development and daily physical activity for both genders during the early school years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Profile, Health Seeking Behavior, Referral Patterns, and Outcome of Outborn Neonates Admitted to a District and Regional Hospital in the Upper West Region of Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study
Children 2020, 7(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7020015 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Neonatal mortality is the major contributor to under-five mortality rates in many low and middle income countries. We examined the health practices, care-seeking behavior, and referral of sick outborn neonates to a district and regional hospital in the Upper West Region of Ghana. [...] Read more.
Neonatal mortality is the major contributor to under-five mortality rates in many low and middle income countries. We examined the health practices, care-seeking behavior, and referral of sick outborn neonates to a district and regional hospital in the Upper West Region of Ghana. The study was a cross-sectional study conducted over an eight (8) month period in 2018. Data were obtained from caregiver interviews and case notes. Altogether, 153 outborn neonates were examined. Inappropriate practices including the use of enemas, cord care with cow dung, and herbal baths were found. Three babies treated this way died. The majority of caregivers sought care at a health facility. However, 67 (44%) sought care only after their babies were ill for ≥7 days, suggesting the influence of a period of confinement on health seeking. More than half, 94 (61.4%), of the facilities visited referred patients to destination hospitals without giving any treatment. Delayed care-seeking was associated with a low birth weight, using home remedies, and a maternal age of ≥30 years. Altogether, 12 neonates (7.8%) died, consisting of three males and nine females (p = 0.018). Socio-cultural factors strongly influence health seeking behavior and the health outcome of neonates in this setting. There appeared to be a limited repertoire of interventions for treating neonatal disease in primary care. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceCommunication
Study Protocol of the Parents in Child Nutrition Informing Community (PICNIC) Peer Education Cohort Study to Improve Child Feeding and Dietary Intake of Children Aged Six Months to Three Years Old
Children 2020, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7010003 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
One in five Australian pre-schoolers are overweight or obese, meaning the first years of life are vital for obesity primary prevention. Parent child feeding practices impact on children’s dietary intake, which in turn impacts on their weight status. Parents’ child feeding beliefs are [...] Read more.
One in five Australian pre-schoolers are overweight or obese, meaning the first years of life are vital for obesity primary prevention. Parent child feeding practices impact on children’s dietary intake, which in turn impacts on their weight status. Parents’ child feeding beliefs are heavily influenced by parenting peers. The aim of this cohort study is to evaluate the impact of the Parents in Child Nutrition Informing Community (PICNIC) study on parents feeding practices and diet quality. The secondary outcomes are the perceptions of trained peer educators and education recipients based on their involvement in PICNIC. One hundred parents with a child aged 0–2 years at time of recruitment will participate in peer educator training, then disseminate nutrition and child feeding content to other parents over an intervention period of 12 months, supported by project-specific, evidence-based social media pages and website. An additional 100 new parents, recruited by peer educators, will participate in the study as nutrition education recipients. Both peer educators and education recipients will complete quantitative child feeding surveys before and during the 12 month intervention and a dietary intake survey at a time point 12 months post intervention. Following the intervention, 30 education recipients will be asked to participate in semi-structured phone interviews about their experiences with PICNIC. Peer educators will contribute as co-researchers and active participants in the evolution of the PICNIC model. This study will contribute to enhanced understanding of contemporary health literacy strategies for communicating nutrition and feeding messages to new parents and the impact of these strategies on parents feeding practices and children’s dietary intake in a community setting. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Role of Social Support in Adolescent/Young Adults Coping with Cancer Treatment
Children 2020, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7010002 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Adolescents/young-adult (AYA) cancer patients are a psychosocially at-risk group as they are often less well-studied than other age cancer cohorts. Therefore, they experience disparities in access to developmentally informed treatment. Social support has been determined as an important aspect of AYAs’ cancer experience, [...] Read more.
Adolescents/young-adult (AYA) cancer patients are a psychosocially at-risk group as they are often less well-studied than other age cancer cohorts. Therefore, they experience disparities in access to developmentally informed treatment. Social support has been determined as an important aspect of AYAs’ cancer experience, but additional research was needed to describe specific behaviors AYAs found helpful and to explore how AYAs seek opportunities for additional support. As part of a larger qualitative study, study aims were to determine how AYAs (ages 15–26) cope during cancer treatment and examine how social support interacts with individual AYA coping. Participants included 10 AYA cancer patients undergoing treatment (mean age = 18.9 years) and 10 parents (mean age = 45.6 years). Descriptively, participants scored within the normal to high range on measures of hope, depression/anxiety/stress, quality of life, and social support. Participants completed semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews that were transcribed and coded as generated. Qualitative analysis was guided by principles of grounded theory and utilized the constant comparative approach. Themes within social support groups included presence, distraction, positive attitude, and maintaining AYA autonomy, communication, and advocacy. Results suggest social supports provide additional coping resources for AYAs with cancer through supplementing individual coping strategies. Future directions/implications for intervention/treatment are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Functioning in Childhood Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
NICU Admissions for Meconium Aspiration Syndrome before and after a National Resuscitation Program Suctioning Guideline Change
Children 2019, 6(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6050068 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation, seventh edition, does not suggest routine endotracheal suctioning for non-vigorous infants born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid. We compared 301,150 infants at ≥35 weeks’ gestational age inborn at 311 Vermont Oxford Network member centers in the United States (U.S.) [...] Read more.
The Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation, seventh edition, does not suggest routine endotracheal suctioning for non-vigorous infants born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid. We compared 301,150 infants at ≥35 weeks’ gestational age inborn at 311 Vermont Oxford Network member centers in the United States (U.S.) and admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) who were born before (2013 to 2015) and after (2017) the guideline change. Logistic regression models adjusting for clustering of infants within centers were used to calculate risk ratios. NICU admissions for infants with a diagnosis of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) decreased from 1.8% to 1.5% (risk ratio: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.97) and delivery room endotracheal suctioning in this group decreased from 57.0% to 28.9% (0.51; 0.41, 0.62). Treatment with conventional or high frequency ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remained unchanged 42.3% vs. 40.3% (0.95; 0.80, 1.13) among infants with MAS and 9.1% vs. 8.2% (0.91; 0.87, 0.95) among infants without MAS. The use of surfactant among infants with MAS increased from 24.6% to 30% (1.22; 1.02, 1.48). Mortality (2.6 to 2.9%, 1.12; 0.74, 1.69) and moderate/severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (5.4 to 6.8%, 1.24; 0.91, 1.69) increased slightly in 2017. Subgroup analyses of infants with 1 min Apgar scores of ≤3 found similar results. While NICU admissions for MAS and tracheal suctioning decreased after the introduction of the new guideline with no subsequent increase in severe respiratory distress among infants with and without a MAS diagnosis, limitations in our study preclude inferring that the new guideline is safe or effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceCommunication
Regulation of E-Cigarettes in the United States and Its Role in a Youth Epidemic
Children 2019, 6(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6030040 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
During the first decade of federal regulation of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), the e-cigarette industry has rapidly grown. Recently, the U.S. Surgeon General and Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration each declared the rapid rise in rates of youth using these [...] Read more.
During the first decade of federal regulation of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), the e-cigarette industry has rapidly grown. Recently, the U.S. Surgeon General and Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration each declared the rapid rise in rates of youth using these products to be an “epidemic.” While a foundational basis for regulating ENDS has been in effect since 2016, deferred enforcement has contributed to acute rise in use by youth. The Agency has undertaken several initiatives to address the problem and warned manufacturers that if current youth trends continue, it will be “game over.” Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco and Nicotine Use and Exposure Among Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Family Income at Birth and Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder at Age 15: Racial Differences
Children 2019, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6010010 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 70
Abstract
Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) resources protect children and adults against the risk of medical and psychiatric conditions. According to the Minorities’ Diminished Returns theory, however, such protective effects are systemically weaker for the members of racial and ethnic minority groups compared to Whites. [...] Read more.
Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) resources protect children and adults against the risk of medical and psychiatric conditions. According to the Minorities’ Diminished Returns theory, however, such protective effects are systemically weaker for the members of racial and ethnic minority groups compared to Whites. Aims: Using a national data set with 15 years of follow up, we compared Black and White youth for the effects of family SES at birth on the risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) at age 15. Methods: The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, 1998–2016) is a longitudinal prospective study of urban youth from birth to age 15. This analysis included 2006 youth who were either White (n = 360) or Black (n = 1646). The independent variable was family income, the dependent variable was ADHD at age 15. Child gender, maternal age, and family type at birth were covariates, and race was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regressions in the overall sample and specific to race. Results: In the overall sample, high family income at birth was not associated with the risk of ADHD at age 15, independent of all covariates. Despite this relationship, we found a significant interaction between race and family income at birth on subsequent risk of ADHD, indicating a stronger effect for Whites compared to Blacks. In stratified models, we found a marginally significant protective effect of family SES against the risk of ADHD for White youths. For African American youth, on the other hand, family SES was shown to have a marginally significant risk for ADHD. Conclusions: The health gain that follows family income is smaller for Black than White families, which is in line with the Minorities’ Diminished Returns. The solution to health disparities is not simply policies that aim to reduce the racial gap in SES, because various racial health disparities in the United States are not due to differential access to resources but rather the impact of these resources on health outcomes. Public policies, therefore, should go beyond equalizing access to resources and also address the structural racism and discrimination that impact Blacks’ lives. Policies should fight racism and should help Black families to overcome barriers in their lives so they can gain health from their SES and social mobility. As racism is multi-level, multi-level interventions are needed to tackle diminished returns of SES. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Review of Clinical Presentation, Hypothetical Pathogenesis, and Proposed Management
Children 2020, 7(7), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7070069 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 43
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may result in the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The clinical presentation of MIS-C includes fever, severe illness, and the involvement of two or more organ systems, in combination with laboratory evidence of inflammation [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may result in the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The clinical presentation of MIS-C includes fever, severe illness, and the involvement of two or more organ systems, in combination with laboratory evidence of inflammation and laboratory or epidemiologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some features of MIS-C resemble Kawasaki Disease, toxic shock syndrome, and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome. The relationship of MIS-C to SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that the pathogenesis involves post-infectious immune dysregulation. Patients with MIS-C should ideally be managed in a pediatric intensive care environment since rapid clinical deterioration may occur. Specific immunomodulatory therapy depends on the clinical presentation. The relationship between the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development and MIS-C requires further study. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Allergen Immunotherapy in Pediatric Asthma: A Pragmatic Point of View
Children 2020, 7(6), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7060058 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
To date, the only disease-modifying treatment strategy for allergic rhinitis and asthma is allergen immunotherapy (AIT). There is evidence that AIT improves allergic rhinitis and asthma, such as reducing symptom severity and medication use and improving of quality of life, with a long-lasting [...] Read more.
To date, the only disease-modifying treatment strategy for allergic rhinitis and asthma is allergen immunotherapy (AIT). There is evidence that AIT improves allergic rhinitis and asthma, such as reducing symptom severity and medication use and improving of quality of life, with a long-lasting effect after the end of the course. The recent clinical trials evidenced AIT effectiveness and safety in allergic asthma. Consequently, the current version of the GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) guidelines recommend AIT as an add-on therapy for asthma. There is also evidence that AIT may exert preventive activity on the possible progression from allergic rhinitis to asthma in children and the onset of new sensitizations. The present review provides a pragmatic summary of the clinical indications of AIT in pediatric asthma, including the immunological mechanisms, the predictive biomarkers, and the safety issues in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Asthma)
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Harnessing T Cells to Target Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: CARs, BiTEs, and Beyond
Children 2020, 7(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7020014 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Outcomes for pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poor, highlighting the need for improved targeted therapies. Building on the success of CD19-directed immune therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), efforts are ongoing to develop similar strategies for AML. Identifying target antigens [...] Read more.
Outcomes for pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poor, highlighting the need for improved targeted therapies. Building on the success of CD19-directed immune therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), efforts are ongoing to develop similar strategies for AML. Identifying target antigens for AML is challenging because of the high expression overlap in hematopoietic cells and normal tissues. Despite this, CD123 and CD33 antigen targeted therapies, among others, have emerged as promising candidates. In this review we focus on AML-specific T cell engaging bispecific antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. We review antigens being explored for T cell-based immunotherapy in AML, describe the landscape of clinical trials upcoming for bispecific antibodies and CAR T cells, and highlight strategies to overcome additional challenges facing translation of T cell-based immunotherapy for AML. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
New and Emerging Targeted Therapies for Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
Children 2020, 7(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7020012 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The relapse rate for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains high despite advancements in risk classification, multi-agent chemotherapy intensification, stem cell transplantation, and supportive care guidelines. Prognosis for this subgroup of children with relapsed/refractory AML remains poor. It is well known that [...] Read more.
The relapse rate for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains high despite advancements in risk classification, multi-agent chemotherapy intensification, stem cell transplantation, and supportive care guidelines. Prognosis for this subgroup of children with relapsed/refractory AML remains poor. It is well known that the ceiling of chemotherapy intensification has been reached, limited by acute and chronic toxicity, necessitating alternative treatment approaches. In the last several years, our improved understanding of disease biology and critical molecular pathways in AML has yielded a variety of new drugs to target these specific pathways. This review provides a summary of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), small molecule inhibitors, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors with an emphasis on those that are currently under clinical evaluation or soon to open in early phase trials for children with relapsed/refractory AML. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Advances in Pediatric Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
Children 2020, 7(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7020011 - 02 Feb 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease accounting for only 5%–10% of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and fewer than 1000 cases occur annually in the United States across all age groups. Characterized by t (15; 17), with a resultant PML-RARA gene [...] Read more.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease accounting for only 5%–10% of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and fewer than 1000 cases occur annually in the United States across all age groups. Characterized by t (15; 17), with a resultant PML-RARA gene fusion driving leukemia development, advances in therapy have improved outcomes for APL significantly in the past several decades, now making APL the most curable form of AML in both children and adults. Cure rates in APL are now comparable to pediatric B-lymphoid leukemias. The success of APL treatment is due, in part, to the breadth of understanding of the driver PML-RARA mutation as well as collaborative efforts to quickly introduce and maximize the benefit of new therapies. Here, we review the presentation, clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatment advances in pediatric APL. Full article
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Infantile Spasms: An Update on Pre-Clinical Models and EEG Mechanisms
Children 2020, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7010005 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Infantile spasms (IS) is an epileptic encephalopathy with unique clinical and electrographic features, which affects children in the middle of the first year of life. The pathophysiology of IS remains incompletely understood, despite the heterogeneity of IS etiologies, more than 200 of which [...] Read more.
Infantile spasms (IS) is an epileptic encephalopathy with unique clinical and electrographic features, which affects children in the middle of the first year of life. The pathophysiology of IS remains incompletely understood, despite the heterogeneity of IS etiologies, more than 200 of which are known. In particular, the neurobiological basis of why multiple etiologies converge to a relatively similar clinical presentation has defied explanation. Treatment options for this form of epilepsy, which has been described as “catastrophic” because of the poor cognitive, developmental, and epileptic prognosis, are limited and not fully effective. Until the pathophysiology of IS is better clarified, novel treatments will not be forthcoming, and preclinical (animal) models are essential for advancing this knowledge. Here, we review preclinical IS models, update information regarding already existing models, describe some novel models, and discuss exciting new data that promises to advance understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the specific EEG changes seen in IS—interictal hypsarrhythmia and ictal electrodecrement. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Pediatric Massage Therapy Research: A Narrative Review
Children 2019, 6(6), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6060078 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
This narrative review on pediatric massage literature from the last decade suggests that massage therapy has positive effects on several pediatric conditions. These include preterm infant growth, psychological problems including aggression, gastrointestinal problems including constipation and diarrhea, painful conditions including burns and sickle [...] Read more.
This narrative review on pediatric massage literature from the last decade suggests that massage therapy has positive effects on several pediatric conditions. These include preterm infant growth, psychological problems including aggression, gastrointestinal problems including constipation and diarrhea, painful conditions including burns and sickle cell, muscle tone disorders including cerebral palsy and Down syndrome, and chronic illnesses including diabetes, asthma cancer, and HIV. Potential underlying mechanisms for the massage therapy effects include increased vagal activity and decreased stress hormones. Limitations of the literature include the need for more randomized controlled trials, longitudinal studies, and underlying mechanism studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Integrative Movement Therapies for Children)
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Multidisciplinary Pain Management for Pediatric Patients with Acute and Chronic Pain: A Foundational Treatment Approach When Prescribing Opioids
Children 2019, 6(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6020033 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 13
Abstract
Opioid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment for acute procedural and postoperative pain and is regularly prescribed for severe and debilitating chronic pain conditions. Although beneficial for many patients, opioid therapy may have side effects, limited efficacy, and potential negative outcomes. Multidisciplinary pain [...] Read more.
Opioid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment for acute procedural and postoperative pain and is regularly prescribed for severe and debilitating chronic pain conditions. Although beneficial for many patients, opioid therapy may have side effects, limited efficacy, and potential negative outcomes. Multidisciplinary pain management treatments incorporating pharmacological and integrative non-pharmacological therapies have been shown to be effective in acute and chronic pain management for pediatric populations. A multidisciplinary approach can also benefit psychological functioning and quality of life, and may have the potential to reduce reliance on opioids. The aims of this paper are to: (1) provide a brief overview of a multidisciplinary pain management approach for pediatric patients with acute and chronic pain, (2) highlight the mechanisms of action and evidence base of commonly utilized integrative non-pharmacological therapies in pediatric multidisciplinary pain management, and (3) explore the opioid sparing effects of multidisciplinary treatment for pediatric pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementing Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Practice)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Electronic Cigarettes and Youth in the United States: A Call to Action (at the Local, National and Global Levels)
Children 2019, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6020030 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 24
Abstract
E-cigarettes have emerged and soared in popularity in the past ten years, making them the most common tobacco product used among youth in the United States (US). In this review, we discuss what the Surgeon General has called a public health “epidemic”—the precipitous [...] Read more.
E-cigarettes have emerged and soared in popularity in the past ten years, making them the most common tobacco product used among youth in the United States (US). In this review, we discuss what the Surgeon General has called a public health “epidemic”—the precipitous increase in youth use of e-cigarettes and the health consequences of this behavior. Further, we review tobacco control policy efforts (e.g., Tobacco 21, banning flavors, advertising restrictions, and clean indoor air laws)—efforts proven to be critical in reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among US children and adults—including their potential and challenges regarding managing and mitigating the emergence of e-cigarettes. Finally, we close with a discussion of the efforts of transnational tobacco companies to rebrand themselves using e-cigarettes and other new products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco and Nicotine Use and Exposure Among Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
The Evolution of Risk Classification for Neuroblastoma
Children 2019, 6(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6020027 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Neuroblastoma is a tumor with great clinical heterogeneity. Patients in North America are risk-stratified using a number of features including age at diagnosis, disease stage, tumor histology, MYCN status (amplified versus nonamplified), and tumor cell ploidy. In this paper, we review the evidence [...] Read more.
Neuroblastoma is a tumor with great clinical heterogeneity. Patients in North America are risk-stratified using a number of features including age at diagnosis, disease stage, tumor histology, MYCN status (amplified versus nonamplified), and tumor cell ploidy. In this paper, we review the evidence for utilizing these features in the risk classification of neuroblastic tumors. Additionally, we review the clinical and biologic criteria used by various cooperative groups to define low, intermediate, and high-risk disease populations in clinical trials, highlighting the differences in risk classification internationally. Finally, we discuss the development of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group classification system, designed to begin worldwide standardization of neuroblastoma pretreatment risk classification and allow comparison of clinical trials conducted through different cooperative groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroblastoma)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceReview
The Role of Probiotics in Preventing Allergic Disease
Children 2019, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6020024 - 05 Feb 2019
Cited by 17
Abstract
The prevalence of allergic disorders has been increasing worldwide and significantly impacts the quality of life of the atopic individual. There has been an increased interest in the role of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergic disorders, given the recent evidence [...] Read more.
The prevalence of allergic disorders has been increasing worldwide and significantly impacts the quality of life of the atopic individual. There has been an increased interest in the role of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergic disorders, given the recent evidence that atopy risk may be associated with a dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Research in this area is ongoing with some studies showing possible benefits of probiotics, with seemingly little to no risk. While these studies suggest that there may be a promise in probiotic use for the prevention or treatment of allergy, further evidence is needed to determine its efficacy, optimal dosing, and strains needed for treatment. In this review, we discuss recently published studies examining the benefits, risks, and role of probiotics in preventing atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceReview
Neuroblastoma: Tumor Biology and Its Implications for Staging and Treatment
Children 2019, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6010012 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, has widely variable outcomes dependent on the specific biology of the tumor. In this review, current biologic principles that are used to stratify risk and guide treatment algorithms are discussed. The role for surgical [...] Read more.
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, has widely variable outcomes dependent on the specific biology of the tumor. In this review, current biologic principles that are used to stratify risk and guide treatment algorithms are discussed. The role for surgical resection in neuroblastoma is also reviewed, including the indications and timing of surgery within the greater treatment plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Surgical Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Hepatoblastoma—The Evolution of Biology, Surgery, and Transplantation
Children 2019, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6010001 - 21 Dec 2018
Cited by 26
Abstract
The most common primary malignant liver tumor of childhood, hepatoblastoma has increased in incidence over the last 30 years, but little is still known about its pathogenesis. Discoveries in molecular biology provide clues but have yet to define targeted therapies. Disease-free survival varies [...] Read more.
The most common primary malignant liver tumor of childhood, hepatoblastoma has increased in incidence over the last 30 years, but little is still known about its pathogenesis. Discoveries in molecular biology provide clues but have yet to define targeted therapies. Disease-free survival varies according to stage, but is greater than 90% in favorable risk populations, in part due to improvements in chemotherapeutic regimens, surgical resection, and earlier referral to liver transplant centers. This article aims to highlight the principles of disease that guide current treatment algorithms. Surgical treatment, especially orthotopic liver transplantation, will also be emphasized in the context of the current Children’s Oncology Group international study of pediatric liver cancer (AHEP-1531). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Surgical Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceCommentary
COVID-19 Impact on Behaviors across the 24-Hour Day in Children and Adolescents: Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep
Children 2020, 7(9), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090138 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 15
Abstract
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, social restrictions to contain the spread of the virus have disrupted behaviors across the 24-h day including physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep among children (5–12 years old) and adolescents (13–17 years old). Preliminary evidence reports [...] Read more.
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, social restrictions to contain the spread of the virus have disrupted behaviors across the 24-h day including physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep among children (5–12 years old) and adolescents (13–17 years old). Preliminary evidence reports significant decreases in physical activity, increases in sedentary behavior, and disrupted sleep schedules/sleep quality in children and adolescents. This commentary discusses the impact of COVID-19-related restrictions on behaviors across the 24-h day in children and adolescents. Furthermore, we suggest recommendations through the lens of a socio-ecological model to provide strategies for lasting behavior change to insure the health and well-being of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceBrief Report
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties during COVID-19 Pandemic in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Children 2020, 7(9), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090128 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Children and young people (CYP) with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) may be particularly vulnerable to adverse mental health effects due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional U.K. parent-reported study from 2nd April–2nd June 2020, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. CYP with [...] Read more.
Children and young people (CYP) with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) may be particularly vulnerable to adverse mental health effects due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional U.K. parent-reported study from 2nd April–2nd June 2020, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. CYP with NDDs (n = 371), compared to neurotypical controls, had a higher prevalence of emotional symptoms (42% vs. 15%) and conduct problems (28% vs. 9%), and fewer prosocial behaviours (54% vs. 22%). All groups had worse emotional symptoms than pre-COVID groups, and those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed inflated conduct problems, while those with autism spectrum disorder exhibited decreased prosocial behaviours. Females with ASD had higher emotional symptoms compared to males. CYP with NDDs, and those without, showed higher levels of parent-reported mental health problems than comparable cohorts pre-COVID-19. Full article
Back to TopTop