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Economies, Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2022) – 27 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper fulfills the research gap with an in-depth investigation of spatial milk and dairy product market integration between two neighboring countries—Poland and Czechia—using regional data and including both production and processing levels. The econometric analysis of time series covering the period 2001–2021 reveals that only long-run milk and skimmed milk powder (SMP) price relationships are between the Czech Republic and Poland. The results of the study confirm that the factors influencing spatial price relationships between the Czech Republic and Poland are strong trade ties, the common moment of accession to the EU, a close distance between markets, and region specialization. View this paper
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Article
Inactive Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Does Inequality of Opportunity Matter?
Economies 2022, 10(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010027 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 747
Abstract
The present study seeks to find out how gender, age, area of living, parent background in terms of educational level and occupation determine the probability of youth to be out of the labour market in six Sub-Saharan Africa countries. We utilize data from [...] Read more.
The present study seeks to find out how gender, age, area of living, parent background in terms of educational level and occupation determine the probability of youth to be out of the labour market in six Sub-Saharan Africa countries. We utilize data from the school-to-work transition surveys from 2014 and 2015 from the ILO. For each country, we first calculate a revised version of the Human Opportunity Index developed by the World Bank. Second, we compute the contribution of each factor to that index. The results show that dissimilarity has a marked influence in Madagascar and to some extent Malawi and Uganda, while the major challenges with getting the youth onto the labour market are still in Liberia even after taking dissimilarity of unchangeable background into account. Full article
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Article
Prevention Village Fund Fraud in Indonesia: Moral Sensitivity as a Moderating Variable
Economies 2022, 10(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010026 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 792
Abstract
This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the internal control system, appropriate compensation, and the competency of the village apparatus regarding the prevention of village fund fraud with moral sensitivity as a moderating variable. This research is a quantitative method using hypothesis–inference [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the internal control system, appropriate compensation, and the competency of the village apparatus regarding the prevention of village fund fraud with moral sensitivity as a moderating variable. This research is a quantitative method using hypothesis–inference to answer exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, and predictive analysis questions. Primary data are mainly used in this study. Data were collected using a survey method in a questionnaire with questions given to respondents to collect information. The sample of this research is the village office in 16 (sixteen) districts in Sumowono, Semarang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia, with 289 participants. Data analysis was carried out using Warp-PLS 7.0 application software. The results showed that the village apparatus’s internal control system, appropriate compensation, and competency prevented village fund fraud. Furthermore, the novelty of this research is to add a moderating variable, moral sensitivity, which can strengthen the relationship between the internal control system, appropriate compensation, and competency of the village apparatus regarding the prevention of village fund fraud. Full article
Article
Spatial Market Integration: A Case Study of the Polish–Czech Milk Market
Economies 2022, 10(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010025 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 749
Abstract
Analyses of spatial market integration contributes to the knowledge about market efficiency and provides information to policymakers, as the spatial integration of markets contributes to competitiveness and economic development. Although the integration of agri-food markets is widely discussed in the economic literature, research [...] Read more.
Analyses of spatial market integration contributes to the knowledge about market efficiency and provides information to policymakers, as the spatial integration of markets contributes to competitiveness and economic development. Although the integration of agri-food markets is widely discussed in the economic literature, research on the dairy sector is relatively limited. This paper fulfils the research gap with an in-depth investigation of spatial milk and dairy product market integration between two neighboring countries—Poland and Czechia—using regional data, and including both production and processing levels. The econometric analysis of time series covering the period 2001–2021 reveals that only long-run milk and skimmed milk powder (SMP) price relationships are between the Czech Republic and Poland. The results of the study confirm that the factors influencing spatial price relationships between the Czech Republic and Poland are: strong trade ties, the common moment of accession to the EU, a close distance between markets, and region specialization. Full article
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Article
Power Theory of Exchange and Money
Economies 2022, 10(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010024 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Modern exchange theories model a large market, but do not explain single exchanges. This paper considers the phenomenon of single exchange and formulates the general exchange problem in the form of a system of two equations, subjective and objective. Subjective equilibrium is given [...] Read more.
Modern exchange theories model a large market, but do not explain single exchanges. This paper considers the phenomenon of single exchange and formulates the general exchange problem in the form of a system of two equations, subjective and objective. Subjective equilibrium is given by the Walras–Jevons marginal utility equation. Objective equilibrium equations by Walras and Jevons are averaged over all transactions in the market and can only give a rough general picture without explaining the specific price of an individual exchange. An exchange micro-condition must be found that, when averaged, will give the Walras market equilibrium macro-condition. The study of the internal structure of exchange leads to the need to consider power. The concept of generalized power is introduced. It is generalized power that serves as the primary comparable and measurable objective basis of exchange. The power theory of exchange provides the objective price-equation. It is demonstrated that money is a measure of generalized power in exchange and a certification of generalized power in subsequent exchanges. This methodology is based on an interdisciplinary analysis of an abstract exchange model in the form of a system of equations. The proposed theory is able to uniformly explain any exchange, including a single one, which is impossible with the existing theories of exchange. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Financial Markets and Monetary Policy)
Article
The Role of Non-Bank Financials in the Formation of Long-Term Resources for Economic Growth in Russia
Economies 2022, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010023 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 643
Abstract
The development of the activities of non-bank financial institutions that accumulate the resources of the national savings system on a long-term basis is seen as a factor in increasing investment in the Russian economy and its growth rates. When carrying out the study, [...] Read more.
The development of the activities of non-bank financial institutions that accumulate the resources of the national savings system on a long-term basis is seen as a factor in increasing investment in the Russian economy and its growth rates. When carrying out the study, we used general scientific methods, methods of structural, weigh, and dynamic analysis, and comparisons of performance indicators of non-bank financial institutions. Problems in the activities of organizations in the non-banking sector of the Russian financial market are predetermined by the parameters and trends in the development of the socio-economic situation in Russia, including insufficient efficiency of regulatory practices. The positive dynamics of the development of non-bank financial intermediaries is qualified as unstable; it is not supported by the solution of the structural and institutional problems of the Russian economy. In view of this, an increase in their role in the redistribution process is associated both with decisions of a more general order and with the improvement of the regulatory and supervisory practices implemented by the Bank of Russia. The solution to the identified problems in the development of the non-banking segment of the financial market should be aimed at turning it into an effective mechanism for capital formation to ensure economic growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Economics and Sustainable Growth)
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Article
Regional Integration in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU): Complementarity or Competition?
Economies 2022, 10(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010022 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 624
Abstract
This paper analyzes and characterizes the nature of the interactions between countries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) over the period 1995–2015. The analysis uses sigma-convergence on the one hand and the Dendrinos-Sonis spatial competition model estimated by the SUR [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes and characterizes the nature of the interactions between countries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) over the period 1995–2015. The analysis uses sigma-convergence on the one hand and the Dendrinos-Sonis spatial competition model estimated by the SUR method on the other hand. The results show a lack of convergence of living standards and support the idea of income polarization in space; these results also support the idea of a very poorly integrated region with relatively competitive interrelationships. The paper suggests the acceleration of regional integration in the WAEMU region combined with the implementation of inclusive integration policies that promote each member’s comparative advantage. Full article
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Article
Comparing Push and Pull Factors Affecting Migration
Economies 2022, 10(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010021 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to conduct a comparison of the push and pull factors affecting migration between Poland and Romania. The study aimed to find out which among the push and pull factors have a greater effect overall and individually on [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research was to conduct a comparison of the push and pull factors affecting migration between Poland and Romania. The study aimed to find out which among the push and pull factors have a greater effect overall and individually on the migration activities. The study was conducted using primary data collected from migrants in both countries using a structured questionnaire. There were data from 298 and 288 surveys for Poland and Romania, respectively. The push and pull migration framework was applied to guide the study. The model suitability was confirmed satisfactory on validity, reliability and factor analysis. The hypothesis was analyzed and evaluated using multiple regression analysis. The findings of the study indicated that pull factors have a greater influence on migration in these two countries as compared to the push factors. Five out of six (economic, political and social in Poland and economic and political in Romania) pull factors were found significant as compared to two (social in Poland and in Romania) out of six push factors. Pull economic factors were significant determinants of migration in all the countries. Pull political factors were found to have the highest effect in both countries, because they influenced migrants in Romania. Economic factors are the major factors that influence migration, including the hope of finding better jobs and better life in the foreign countries, and these factors should be addressed in the effort to reduce migration. In addition, political issues such as unfair legal system, violent conflicts, underdevelopment, poverty, political instability and corruption should be addressed to control the issue of migration. Full article
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Article
Effects of Insurance Adoption and Risk Aversion on Agricultural Production and Technical Efficiency: A Panel Analysis for Italian Grape Growers
Economies 2022, 10(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010020 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 913
Abstract
This article aims to evaluate the effect of insurance on production, technical efficiency, and input use of Italian specialised-quality grape growers. A panel instrumental variable stochastic frontier approach is applied over the years 2008–2017 using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network. The [...] Read more.
This article aims to evaluate the effect of insurance on production, technical efficiency, and input use of Italian specialised-quality grape growers. A panel instrumental variable stochastic frontier approach is applied over the years 2008–2017 using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network. The results show the requirement to correct for the endogeneity that stems from insurance adoption. Insurance has an enhancing effect on production and efficiency and reduces the use of intermediate inputs. It suggests that insurance helps to diminish the risk-averse farmers’ suboptimal input use due to the presence of uncertainty. Crop insurance leads risk-averse farmers to behave as if they were risk neutral and employs the profit-maximising input vector. Therefore, by reducing the risks linked to the uncertainty of outcomes, crop insurance leads grape growers to go in the direction of profit maximisation. Full article
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Article
Muslim Clothing Online Purchases in Indonesia during COVID-19 Crisis
Economies 2022, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010019 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 908
Abstract
Today, online Muslim clothing providers in Indonesia are faced with increasing competition in business openness. This condition requires online Muslim clothing providers to be more creative, innovative, effective and efficient by offering Muslim clothing products that are more valuable than competitors’. Therefore, a [...] Read more.
Today, online Muslim clothing providers in Indonesia are faced with increasing competition in business openness. This condition requires online Muslim clothing providers to be more creative, innovative, effective and efficient by offering Muslim clothing products that are more valuable than competitors’. Therefore, a sophisticated and smart technology planning concept is needed for Muslim fashion consumers and to continue to achieve the benefits obtained by online Muslim clothing providers. This study aims to determine: (1) the influence of attitudes on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis (2) the influence of subjective norm on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis (3) the influence of perceived behavioral control on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis (4) the effect of attitudes on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis moderated by religious belief, (5) the effect of subjective norm on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis moderated by religious belief, and (6) the effect of perceived behavioral control on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis moderated by religious belief. This study uses 1. independent variables, namely: attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. 2. The dependent variable is: Purchase intention. 3. The moderating variable is: religion. The data in this study are obtained from questionnaires distributed to 762 respondents. The method used is purposive sampling to all respondents who shopped online. The method is through the LISREL 8.7 program and t-test. These results indicate that the variables of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control influence the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis. They also find that the religious belief variable can moderate the variable of attitude towards the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis but not the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Socio-Economic Impact of the Interest-Free Community Investment Fund: A Case Study of Rural Sindh, Pakistan
Economies 2022, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010018 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 683
Abstract
This study aims to measure the impact of an intervention, the Community Investment Fund (CIF), on the socio-economic life of rural women. CIF is a community-managed fund aimed at improving the living standards of women by empowering them to undertake income-generating projects to [...] Read more.
This study aims to measure the impact of an intervention, the Community Investment Fund (CIF), on the socio-economic life of rural women. CIF is a community-managed fund aimed at improving the living standards of women by empowering them to undertake income-generating projects to become financially more stable and self-governed in the Khairpur, Shikarpur, Kandhkot-Kashmore and Jacobabad districts of Sindh, Pakistan. This study used a quasi-experimental design approach that involved two groups, i.e., the treatment group (beneficiaries) and control group (non-beneficiaries). The sample size of this study was 708 respondents including the treatment and control group. The results of comparison of mean indicate that there is a significant difference between treatment and control group in terms of socio-demographic variables (including monthly income and consumption, saving amount, total asset value, an asset purchased value and household diet) and women empowerment’s indicators, thereby suggesting that CIF has resulted in women empowerment. Concerning the results of the poverty scorecard, the higher graduation of beneficiaries (treatment group) asserts that the intervention of CIF has also a positive impact on targeted beneficiaries. In particular, the findings indicate that 72% of beneficiaries (treatment group) have graduated from one poverty band to another higher band compared to 59.4% of non-beneficiaries (control group) in poverty score. In addition, the findings of the logistic regression analysis confirmed that participation in the CIF program empowers women beneficiaries. This study will support policymakers to further improve CIF so that it can become more effective and sustainable. Full article
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Article
Price Index Modeling and Risk Prediction of Sharia Stocks in Indonesia
Economies 2022, 10(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010017 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 918
Abstract
This study aimed to predict the JKII (Jakarta Islamic Index) price as a price index of sharia stocks and predict the loss risk. This study uses geometric Brownian motion (GBM) and Value at Risk (VaR; with the Monte Carlo Simulation approach) on the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to predict the JKII (Jakarta Islamic Index) price as a price index of sharia stocks and predict the loss risk. This study uses geometric Brownian motion (GBM) and Value at Risk (VaR; with the Monte Carlo Simulation approach) on the daily closing price of JKII from 1 August 2020–13 August 2021 to predict the price and loss risk of JKII at 16 August 2021–23 August 2021. The findings of this study were very accurate for predicting the JKII price with a MAPE value of 2.03%. Then, using VaR with a Monte Carlo Simulation approach, the loss risk prediction for 16 August 2021 (one-day trading period after 13 August 2021) at the 90%, 95%, and 99% confidence levels was 2.40%, 3.07%, and 4.27%, respectively. Most Indonesian Muslims have financial assets in the form of Islamic investments as they offer higher returns within a relatively short time. The movement of all Islamic stock prices traded on the Indonesian stock market can be seen through the Islamic stock price index, namely the JKII (Jakarta Islamic Index). Therefore, the focus of this study was predicting the price and loss risk of JKII as an index of Islamic stock prices in Indonesia. This study extends the previous literature to determine the prediction of JKII price and the loss risk through GBM and VaR using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Financial Markets and Monetary Policy)
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Article
Dynamic Linkages among Saudi Market Sectors Indices
Economies 2022, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010016 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 641
Abstract
This study aims to test the causal relationship between Saudi stock market index (TASI) and sectoral indices throughout the period from 2016–2020. The study data were extracted through the main index of the Saudi market and the indices of the available data of [...] Read more.
This study aims to test the causal relationship between Saudi stock market index (TASI) and sectoral indices throughout the period from 2016–2020. The study data were extracted through the main index of the Saudi market and the indices of the available data of 19 sectors out of 21 sectors. The unit root test was used along with the Granger causality test, in addition to multiple regression tests in order to analyze the study hypotheses. The study shows that all index series were stationary at the zero level I (0), and the results also show that there were bidirectional and unidirectional causal relationships between TASI and sectoral indices, and that TASI effectively mirrors all the changes that occur in the Saudi stock market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Financial Markets and Monetary Policy)
Article
Measuring Technological Change through an Extended Structural Decomposition Analysis: An Application to EU-28 Primary Sectors (2010–2015)
Economies 2022, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010015 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 714
Abstract
This paper addresses the input–output structural decomposition for an economic analysis. The objective is to determine the causes of changes in production in these sectors with a particular focus on disaggregating the technological change by distribution factors associated with a specific normalization of [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the input–output structural decomposition for an economic analysis. The objective is to determine the causes of changes in production in these sectors with a particular focus on disaggregating the technological change by distribution factors associated with a specific normalization of the Leontief inverse. In calculating the net multipliers, an attempt was made to exclude each sectors’ own consumption in a satisfactory manner. However, the treatment of own consumption when introducing a time factor requires further investigation to avoid questionable measurements. An empirical application is presented regarding agriculture, forestry, and fishing sectors in six EU-28 countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain) over the 2010–2015 period. In general, a typical characteristic of primary sectors is the accumulation of a significant amount of their own consumption, facilitated by the design of their own symmetric accounting methods. Therefore, attention is focused on these sectors so as to reveal possible analysis techniques that will provide nuance or validate existing techniques. Full article
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Article
Log Periodic Power Analysis of Critical Crashes: Evidence from the Portuguese Stock Market
Economies 2022, 10(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010014 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 725
Abstract
The study of critical phenomena that originated in the natural sciences has been extended to the financial economics’ field, giving researchers new approaches to risk management, forecasting, the study of bubbles and crashes, and many kinds of problems involving complex systems with self-organized [...] Read more.
The study of critical phenomena that originated in the natural sciences has been extended to the financial economics’ field, giving researchers new approaches to risk management, forecasting, the study of bubbles and crashes, and many kinds of problems involving complex systems with self-organized criticality (SOC). This study uses the theory of self-similar oscillatory time singularities to analyze stock market crashes. We test the Log Periodic Power Law/Model (LPPM) to analyze the Portuguese stock market, in its crises in 1998, 2007, and 2015. Parameter values are in line with those observed in other markets. This is particularly interesting since if the model performs robustly for Portugal, which is a small market with liquidity issues and the index is only composed of 20 stocks, we provide consistent evidence in favor of the proposed LPPM methodology. The LPPM methodology proposed here would have allowed us to avoid big loses in the 1998 Portuguese crash, and would have permitted us to sell at points near the peak in the 2007 crash. In the case of the 2015 crisis, we would have obtained a good indication of the moment where the lowest data point was going to be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Economics: Theory and Applications)
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Article
Hexagon Fraud: Detection of Fraudulent Financial Reporting in State-Owned Enterprises Indonesia
Economies 2022, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010013 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
This study aims to detect fraudulent financial reporting using hexagon fraud analysis, including seven factors: financial stability, external pressures, ineffective monitoring, auditor changes, change in director, arrogance, and collusion. The subject of this research is a public company consolidated audit report of state-owned [...] Read more.
This study aims to detect fraudulent financial reporting using hexagon fraud analysis, including seven factors: financial stability, external pressures, ineffective monitoring, auditor changes, change in director, arrogance, and collusion. The subject of this research is a public company consolidated audit report of state-owned enterprises. The existence of conflicting results, the phenomenon of fraudulent financial reporting, and limited research using the hexagon of fraud theory prompted this research to examine the factors that influence fraudulent financial reporting. The sample was selected using a sampling technique, with the criteria of state-owned enterprises listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2016–2020. The method used is quantitative, and the analytical method used is logistic regression analysis. The sampling technique used was purposeful sampling, so the number of samples was 125. The results of this study indicate that financial stability and external pressures have a positive effect on fraudulent financial reporting. However, ineffective monitoring, auditor changes, change in director, arrogance, and collusion do not affect fraudulent financial reporting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Macroeconomics, Monetary Economics, and Financial Markets)
Article
The Effect of Management Characteristics on Audit Report Readability
Economies 2022, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010012 - 01 Jan 2022
Viewed by 834
Abstract
The present study investigates the relationship between management characteristics (managerial entrenchment, CEO narcissism, overconfidence, board effort, real and accrual-based earnings management) and the audit report readability of listed firms. In other words, this paper seeks to answer the question of “whether management characteristics [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the relationship between management characteristics (managerial entrenchment, CEO narcissism, overconfidence, board effort, real and accrual-based earnings management) and the audit report readability of listed firms. In other words, this paper seeks to answer the question of “whether management characteristics can have a favourable effect on the audit report readability or not.” The multivariate regression model is used for this study. Research hypotheses were also examined using a sample of 1004 observations on the Tehran Stock Exchange during 2012–2018 and by employing multiple regression patterns based on a panel data technique and fixed effects model. The results show a negative and significant relationship between managerial entrenchment and real and accrual-based earnings management and the audit report readability, based on the FOG index, and a positive and significant relationship between management narcissism, CEO overconfidence, and board effort and the audit report readability, based on the FOG index. Moreover, a negative and significant relationship exists between management entrenchment, CEO overconfidence, real and accrual-based earnings management, and audit report readability based on text length and Flesch indices. A positive and significant relationship was evident between CEO narcissism and board effort and audit report readability based on the same indices. Besides, research models were also examined for more confidence using other additional methods, including FE, T + 1, ABB, and GMM, which confirm the study’s preliminary results. Since the present study is the first paper to investigate such a topic in the emergent markets, it provides valuable information about intrinsic and acquisitive characteristics of management for users, analysts, and legal institutions that contribute significantly to financial statement readability. Full article
Article
The Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on Corporate Dividend Policy in Indonesia: The Static and Dynamic Panel Data Approaches
Economies 2022, 10(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010011 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
This research examines the effect of the crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic on dividend policy in Indonesia. The purposive sampling method was used to collect data from corporates listed on the IDX from 2014 to 2020 and analyzed using static and dynamic [...] Read more.
This research examines the effect of the crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic on dividend policy in Indonesia. The purposive sampling method was used to collect data from corporates listed on the IDX from 2014 to 2020 and analyzed using static and dynamic panel data approaches. The fixed-effect models (FEM) were selected for the static panel data regression. Meanwhile, the first difference-generalized method of moments (FD-GMM) and system-generalized method of moments (SYS-GMM) were used for determine the robustness of the estimated dynamic panel data. The results showed that the crisis due to the pandemic led to higher dividend distribution on SYS-GMM. Furthermore, companies maintained the dividend level as a positive signal for investors which lifted the sluggish trade condition in the capital market. Profitability and previous year dividends positively affect dividend policy robustly. Furthermore, the results showed that age affects dividend policy on FD-GMM. Financial leverage has a robust effect, and firm size has an effect on FD-GMM in different directions, while investment opportunity does not affect dividend policy. Statistically, the FEM selected that violates the best linear unbiased estimation was proven to form parameters that were not much different from the estimates produced by the dynamic model, both from the coefficient of influence direction and significance, and the omitted variable bias occurs as evidenced in the robust test with dynamic model was solved. This research is also used as a reference for considering investors’ investment decisions in the new normal condition. Therefore, dividend policy can be considered as a positive signal to investors with the ability to stock trading activities in the capital market. Full article
Article
Impact of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Motivation on Micro and Small Business Success for Food and Beverage Sector in East Java, Indonesia
Economies 2022, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010010 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
The research aims to examine the impact of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial motivation on the success of the food and beverage (F&B) sector’s micro and small enterprises (MSEs). The sample was selected using purposive sampling techniques from 267 MSE owners in the F&B [...] Read more.
The research aims to examine the impact of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial motivation on the success of the food and beverage (F&B) sector’s micro and small enterprises (MSEs). The sample was selected using purposive sampling techniques from 267 MSE owners in the F&B businesses in Madiun City, Madiun Regency, and Magetan Regency, East Java, Indonesia. The test results of the hypothesis showed that: (1) partially, self-efficacy entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial motivation are significantly positive on business success in micro and small F&B businesses in East Java, Indonesia; (2) entrepreneurial motivation acts as a partial mediation of the influence of self-efficacy entrepreneurship on the business success of micro and small businesses in the field of food and beverage in East Java, Indonesia; abd (3) simultaneously, self-efficacy entrepreneurship and the influence of entrepreneurial motivation are significantly positive on business success in micro and small businesses in the food and beverage fields of East Java, Indonesia. The results showed that self-efficacy and motivation in entrepreneurship are necessary because they affect business success, particularly in micro and small F&B businesses in Indonesia. Further research can explore other factors that influence business success by expanding the research area and other types of creative industry businesses. Further research could explore other factors influencing business success by expanding research areas, such as entrepreneurial leadership and innovative work behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Economics and Sustainable Growth)
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Article
The Market Structure Simulation of Heterogenous Firms
Economies 2022, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010009 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 385
Abstract
The paper aims at the need for economic policy evaluators to assess how and whether specific measures can influence the development of markets in a way that achieves greater wealth. Therefore, this study concentrates on well-documented firms’ heterogeneity that significantly impact their ability [...] Read more.
The paper aims at the need for economic policy evaluators to assess how and whether specific measures can influence the development of markets in a way that achieves greater wealth. Therefore, this study concentrates on well-documented firms’ heterogeneity that significantly impact their ability to compete, influence the market structure, and decide to participate in trade. For the initial attributes and features of the simulated model, we chose Ottaviano demand function. However, we took a different approach regarding demand and its elasticities in the market by employing distributional functions to model the market demand and the demand for each firm’s product. Allowing for the evolution of the market structure, the model reveals the importance of endowment factors and suggests the crucial role of firms’ abilities to compete. What is more important—it affects the time needed for the market structure formation. Although the model does not track all the aspects of a firm’s heterogeneity, it might guide economic policy makers to not only support the business in increasing its capabilities but keep it struggling over the competition to impede the collecting of Ricardian rents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Determinants of Firm Performance in Developing Countries)
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Article
Analysis of Factors Influencing Credit Access of Vietnamese Informal Labors in the Time of COVID-19 Pandemic
Economies 2022, 10(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010008 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
Credit is considered as an essential tool to make informal labor’s income better. In order to improve quality of their life, the state should have some supports them in credit access. This study analyzes factors causing credit access of informal labors to be [...] Read more.
Credit is considered as an essential tool to make informal labor’s income better. In order to improve quality of their life, the state should have some supports them in credit access. This study analyzes factors causing credit access of informal labors to be changed in the time of COVID-19 pandemic. Using survey data collected from 2020 VHSSL (2019–2020), this approach has two models including a binary logit model and a multinomial logit model (MLM). The results revealed that the positive factors including education, material, collateral, credit size, credit source, credit debt which are likely to affect to credit access, however age, family size, ethnicity, interest, paid money are negative. Besides, it also concludes that quality of life of informal labor is considerably influenced by credit access, collateral, credit source, credit debt from the observed samples. Additionally, this paper recommends some policies to enhance informal labor’s access to credit and their quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of COVID-19 on Financial Markets and the Real Economy)
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Article
External and Internal Shocks and the Movement of Palm Oil Price: SVAR Evidence from Malaysia
Economies 2022, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010007 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 831
Abstract
Movements in palm oil price give important signals to various stakeholders of the palm oil industry in Malaysia. Thus, understanding external and internal factors that may affect the palm oil price is vital to the industry players for sustainability of their activities. This [...] Read more.
Movements in palm oil price give important signals to various stakeholders of the palm oil industry in Malaysia. Thus, understanding external and internal factors that may affect the palm oil price is vital to the industry players for sustainability of their activities. This study investigates relative importance of external and internal shocks on the movement of palm oil price in Malaysia. Employing a structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) model on quarterly data from 1990 to 2019, the findings reveal that external shocks are more dominant in affecting the palm oil price. Shocks to the crude oil price, the prices of substitution goods (soybeans oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil), the world palm oil price, and foreign income significantly affect the palm oil price in the short and medium run. The results also indicate that a shock to soybean oil price has a more profound effect on the palm oil price than a shock to rapeseed oil or sunflower oil prices, respectively. Likewise, shocks to incomes from India as well as from Netherlands create greater impacts on the palm oil price than a shock to income from the other trading partners, respectively. The study has shown the importance of external factors in affecting the palm oil industry. Full article
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Article
Early Warning Early Action for the Banking Solvency Risk in the COVID-19 Pandemic Era: A Case Study of Indonesia
Economies 2022, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010006 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people’s lives and increased the banking solvency risk. This research aimed to build an early warning and early action simulation model to mitigate the solvency risk using the system dynamics methodology and the Powersim Studio 10© software. The [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people’s lives and increased the banking solvency risk. This research aimed to build an early warning and early action simulation model to mitigate the solvency risk using the system dynamics methodology and the Powersim Studio 10© software. The addition of an early action simulation updates the existing early warning model. Through this model, the effect of policy design and options on potential solvency risks is known before implementation. The trials conducted at Bank BRI (BBRI) and Bank Mandiri (BMRI) showed that the model had the ability to provide an early warning of the potential increase in bank solvency risk when the loan restructuring policy is revoked. It also simulates the effectiveness of management’s policy options to mitigate these risks. This research used publicly accessible banking data and analysis. Bank management could also take advantage of this model through a self-stimulation facility developed in this study to accommodate their needs using the internal data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of COVID-19 on Financial Markets and the Real Economy)
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Article
Structural and Logical Model of Transport Maritime Functioning Based on Modeling Information Technology
Economies 2022, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010005 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 782
Abstract
The article presents the sectoral structure of cruise (maritime) tourism and identifies the factors influencing the level of demand and supply of cruise tourism products. The sources of the influence of the cruise industry on the economic growth of the state and the [...] Read more.
The article presents the sectoral structure of cruise (maritime) tourism and identifies the factors influencing the level of demand and supply of cruise tourism products. The sources of the influence of the cruise industry on the economic growth of the state and the welfare of its citizens are also considered. On the basis of specific features of cruise tourism functioning and the peculiarities of creating a cruise tourism product, a model of the functioning of a cruise (maritime) tourism complex has been built. Representation of the relationship of tourist needs according to the hierarchy of needs and a species classification of cruise tourism and the industries involved in its development is also given. The model of indicators and the structural components described are built in an environment of geoinformation modeling. Full article
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Article
Econometric Approach to Assessing the Transfer Fees and Values of Professional Football Players
Economies 2022, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010004 - 23 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Billions of euros are invested every year by professional football clubs for the recruitment of players. How do market actors decide prices? This paper presents an econometric model unveiling the key factors coming into play in determining fees on the transfer market for [...] Read more.
Billions of euros are invested every year by professional football clubs for the recruitment of players. How do market actors decide prices? This paper presents an econometric model unveiling the key factors coming into play in determining fees on the transfer market for professional football (soccer) players. The statistical technique used to build the model is multiple linear regression (MLR), with fees paid by clubs as an independent variable. The sample comprises over 2000 transactions of players transferred for money from clubs in the five major European leagues during the period stretching from July 2012 to November 2021. This paper notably highlights the importance of taking into consideration the remaining duration of contracts binding players with the club to which they belong, a factor often neglected in the existing literature. It also shows that a statistical model can explain over 80% of the differences in the transfer fees paid for players. This paper reveals various applications of the approach developed for the football industry to both assess and predict football players’ transfer fees and values: transfer negotiations, club sales or purchases, bank credit, fund raising, financial planning and communication, legal disputes, etc. Full article
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Article
Stock Market Reactions during Different Phases of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cases of Italy and Spain
Economies 2022, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010003 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic and pandemic-induced lockdowns and quarantine establishments have inevitably affected individuals, businesses, and governments. At the same time, the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic had a dramatic impact on financial markets all over the world and caused an increased level of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic and pandemic-induced lockdowns and quarantine establishments have inevitably affected individuals, businesses, and governments. At the same time, the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic had a dramatic impact on financial markets all over the world and caused an increased level of uncertainty; the stock markets were no exception either. Most of the studies on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stock markets are based either on the analysis of a relatively short period (the beginning of pandemic) or a longer period, which, in turn, is very heterogeneous in terms of both the information available on the COVID-19 virus and the measures taken to contain the virus and address the consequences of the pandemic. However, it is very important to assess the impact not only at the beginning of the pandemic but also in the subsequent periods and to compare the nature of this impact; the studies of this type are still fragmentary. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stock markets of two of the most severely affected European countries—Italy and Spain. To reach the aim of the research OLS regression models, heteroscedasticity-corrected models, GARCH (1,1) models, and VAR-based impulse response functions are employed. The results reveal that the stock market reaction to the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic differs depending on the country and period analyzed: OLS regression and heteroscedasticity-corrected models have not revealed the statistically significant impact of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, while impulse response functions demonstrated the non-zero primary response of analyzed markets to the COVID-19 shock, and GARCH models (in the case of Spain) confirmed that the COVID-19 pandemic increased the volatility of stock market return. This research contributes to the literature by providing a comprehensive impact assessment both during the whole pre-vaccination period of the pandemic and during different stages of this period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of COVID-19 on Financial Markets and the Real Economy)
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Article
The Impact of COVID-19 on the US Economy: The Multiplier Effects of Tourism
Economies 2022, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010002 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
This article explores the multiplier effects on domestic product, employment, and the external sector of the US economy due to the decline of tourism activities during the pandemic. For this purpose, we use an input-output model and the latest available input-output data from [...] Read more.
This article explores the multiplier effects on domestic product, employment, and the external sector of the US economy due to the decline of tourism activities during the pandemic. For this purpose, we use an input-output model and the latest available input-output data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD’s) database. It was found that for every USD million decrease in tourism receipts, the net output decreases about USD 1.53 million, the level of employment decreases about 16.86 persons, imports decrease about USD 0.20 million, while the comparative analysis of these results with the economy’s average multipliers indicates that tourism constitutes a key sector of the US economy. From the evaluation of the results, it is deduced that the decline of tourism activities recorded in the year 2020 accounts for about one-fourth of the observed recession in the US economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of COVID-19 on Financial Markets and the Real Economy)
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Article
Tourism Demand Elasticities by Income and Prices of International Market Regions: Evidence Using Vietnam’s Data
Economies 2022, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010001 - 21 Dec 2021
Viewed by 947
Abstract
This study aims to determine tourism demand elasticities by income and prices of regions, as well as total international markets. It is deployed to a total of 10 major source markets and two separate regions, from Asia and intercontinental to Vietnam. The results [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine tourism demand elasticities by income and prices of regions, as well as total international markets. It is deployed to a total of 10 major source markets and two separate regions, from Asia and intercontinental to Vietnam. The results of data analysis for the period 1995–2019 and using a nonlinear panel ARDL approach show that tourism demand from major Asian markets to Vietnam is strongly income elastic, but tourism demand from major intercontinental markets to Vietnam is relatively price inelastic. Tourism demand in intercontinental markets is less elastic to price, but in Asian markets it is quite price sensitive, especially own price elasticities. In addition, different effects of income and prices are found in most of the major markets. Study results have provided useful insights into different types of tourism goods and price sensitivity between market regions, as well as the degree of substitute destinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Macroeconomics, Monetary Economics, and Financial Markets)
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