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Cosmetics, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 19 articles

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Open AccessArticle
A Cosmetically Acceptable Dye Product to Improve Detection of Head Louse Eggs and Nits
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010019 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 164
Abstract
Removing head louse eggshells and nits after a successful pediculicide treatment is often made more difficult because it is not easy to see them all amongst the hairs. Therefore, a treatment that makes louse eggs more visible potentially makes the task of removal [...] Read more.
Removing head louse eggshells and nits after a successful pediculicide treatment is often made more difficult because it is not easy to see them all amongst the hairs. Therefore, a treatment that makes louse eggs more visible potentially makes the task of removal easier and reduces the risk that children would be sent home from school or over-treated. This project involved the development of a hair treatment gel concept that was easy to apply, wash out, and that stained louse eggs and nits but without staining the hair and skin. A series of food-grade dyes were evaluated for their ability to stain the eggshells, and various copolymer-based rheology modifiers were tested for dye compatibility and stability. Several dyes were rejected because either they failed to stain louse eggshells or else stained skin too easily. Two dyes, Patent Blue and Ponceau 4R, were eventually selected for different product developments, one specifically for post-treatment nit removal and the other for pre-treatment diagnosis. In clinical field studies, both were found to make the treated eggshells contrast sufficiently with the hair to enable identification of persistent nits. Use of a nit stain product can enable easier detection of louse eggs and nits, thus facilitating the removal process and reducing the risk that persistent eggshells could be mistaken for signs of a continuing infestation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Age, Sex, Disease, and Exercise Training on Lip Muscle Strength
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010018 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Lip muscle strength has been shown to influence daily functional activities such as facial expression, speech production, and eating. In this review, recent literature regarding lip strength and exercise training responses are summarized, highlighting the influence of sex, age, and disease (e.g., stroke). [...] Read more.
Lip muscle strength has been shown to influence daily functional activities such as facial expression, speech production, and eating. In this review, recent literature regarding lip strength and exercise training responses are summarized, highlighting the influence of sex, age, and disease (e.g., stroke). A search using five electronic databases was conducted. Twelve studies were identified from the search, which included five studies using healthy adults and seven studies using patients with diseases or chronic ailments. Regardless of the population, lip strength training multiple times a day for a relatively short term (<24 weeks) has resulted in improvements of lip muscle strength. This change in lip strength has been observed in both young and old participants. Although changes in strength have been observed in both men and women, we are unaware of any studies that have tested whether there are sex differences in this response. The same directional change can be expected for patients with stroke and patients with lip incompetence, but the magnitude of the training effect seems to be higher in healthy people. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Symurban Nanocrystals for Advanced Anti-Pollution Skincare
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010017 - 11 Mar 2020
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Several of most common dermatoses worldwide, e.g., psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are worsened in their clinical picture when the skin is regularly exposed to an increased air pollution level, e.g., particulate matter. This is explainable by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor [...] Read more.
Several of most common dermatoses worldwide, e.g., psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are worsened in their clinical picture when the skin is regularly exposed to an increased air pollution level, e.g., particulate matter. This is explainable by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the skin, which results in an increased release of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Symurban is a competitive AhR antagonist and thus allows the effective protection of skin. In order to improve its dermal bioavailability as a poorly soluble active agent (0.25 µg/mL), nanocrystals were prepared and evaluated. Nanocrystals are pure active crystals reduced in particle size to the submicron range of 100 to 1000 nm. They feature the properties of nanocrystals, such as increased saturation solubility and dissolution velocity, without having to be declared as nanomaterial. Production methods and parameters were systematically investigated. Wet bead milling at 2000 rpm for 30 min yielded the best results. A z-average of 280 nm was achieved for a 10% Symurban suspension with a polydispersity index of 0.20, indicating a narrow size distribution. For the long-term stabilization of the nanocrystal suspension, the performance of 15 surfactants of different categories and HLB values were investigated and evaluated. It was found that non-ionic surfactants in general were better able to stabilize the system than anionic or amphoteric surfactants. Highest stability of over 12 months at 25 °C was achieved with 2% Plantacare 810 UP, an ECOCERT surfactant with high skin tolerance. The suspension was also chemically long-term stable with >97% of remaining Symurban over 12 months. The saturation solubility of Symurban as nanocrystals was significantly increased from 0.25 to 2.9 μg/mL, which corresponds to a factor of >11. In a case study of one male volunteer with healthy skin conditions, penetration profiles of Symurban nanocrystal hydrogel and commercial anti-pollution serum containing an identical amount of Symurban were determined and compared. After 20 min of exposure, the relative Symurban concentration in the deeper skin layers (tape 19-30) was more than two times higher for nanocrystal hydrogel (16%) than the commercial serum (7%). These results suggest that nanocrystals are a promising delivery system for the poorly soluble anti-pollution agent Symurban. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
A Randomized Study to Determine the Sun Protection Factor of Natural Pterostilbene from Pterocarpus Marsupium
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010016 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) rays and its harmful effects have always been a concern to skin health. Sunscreen and sunblock prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation on the skin. Sun Protection Factor (SPF) is an indication of the sun-protective capacity of an ingredient. There [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV) rays and its harmful effects have always been a concern to skin health. Sunscreen and sunblock prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation on the skin. Sun Protection Factor (SPF) is an indication of the sun-protective capacity of an ingredient. There is an ever increasing interest in the cosmetic industry for developing novel functional ingredients from natural sources. The purpose of this study was to determine in-vitro and in vivo SPF of natural 90% pterostilbene extracted from the dried heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium (Indian Kino). The SPF of purified pterostilbene and a formulation containing 0.4% pterostilbene was determined In Vitro using a UV spectrophotometer. Pterostilbene had an SPF of 21.73 ± 0.06, while the cream formulation had an SPF of 8.84 ± 0.01. The in vivo SPF of the 0.4% pterostilbene cream in humans was found to be 6.2 ± 1.30. Primary skin irritation tests in human subjects showed the formulation was safe and had no irritation potential. Pterostilbene was also found to have significant antioxidant activity as determined by free radical scavenging assays in vitro. These results suggest that natural pterostilbene is an antioxidant and shows SPF value both in-vitro and in the human clinical study and thus could be used as an ingredient in topical sun-protective formulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Calcium and Silicon Delivery to Artificial and Human Nails from Nail Polish Formulations
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010015 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 388
Abstract
A deteriorating nail standard is a growing problem as the global prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Systemic treatment with mineral supplements may not be recommended, mainly due to the high doses required to deliver optimal therapeutic concentrations. In this work, we evaluate nail [...] Read more.
A deteriorating nail standard is a growing problem as the global prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Systemic treatment with mineral supplements may not be recommended, mainly due to the high doses required to deliver optimal therapeutic concentrations. In this work, we evaluate nail polish formulations for the local delivery of strengthening elements to the nail plate. Specifically, we assess calcium and silicon release from nail polish base coat formulations containing three different concentrations of White Portland Cement to water, as well as to artificial and human nails. The delivery of calcium and silicon to the dorsal nail plate was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that such dual elemental delivery to human nails can be achieved from nail polish formulations. Hence, this work may form the basis for new inventions where therapeutic functionalities can be integrated with the mechanical and cosmetic properties of a base coat nail polish. Future permeability studies are required to verify long-term effects on the nail standard, induced by the formulations under study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Sunscreen Boosting Effect by Solid Lipid Nanoparticles-Loaded Fucoxanthin Formulation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010014 - 06 Mar 2020
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Fucoxanthin is a bioactive compound that is a kind of natural carotenoid. Fucoxanthin is known to protect against UV-B-induced cell damage in hairless mice, even though it is physiochemically unstable to heat and acid due to its polyunsaturated structure, indicating that fucoxanthin possesses [...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin is a bioactive compound that is a kind of natural carotenoid. Fucoxanthin is known to protect against UV-B-induced cell damage in hairless mice, even though it is physiochemically unstable to heat and acid due to its polyunsaturated structure, indicating that fucoxanthin possesses a low bioavailability, and this disadvantage limits its application in the cosmetic industry. Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) systems are known to be suitable as carriers for sunscreen agents. In this research work, the sunscreen-boosting effect of SLN, as a deliverer of functional ingredient, especially fucoxanthin, has been developed and evaluated by comparing the sunburn protection factors (SPF) of macroemulsion (cream and lotion type) and an SLN formula containing various kinds of sunscreen agents, respectively. Several results such as stability test, particle size, DSC analysis, and X-ray analysis show that the SLN formula loading fucoxanthin has the possibility of being a stable and high-functioning ingredient delivery system. Moreover, the SLN formula has shown a higher SPF value than others, meaning that the SLN formula exhibits a good sunscreen-boosting effect. This study indicates that the use of SLN as a carrier enhanced the bioavailability of fucoxanthin and shows that SLN could be a promising carrier for the production of sunscreen products by allowing the scaling-up of production. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Beast of Beauty: Environmental and Health Concerns of Toxic Components in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010013 - 28 Feb 2020
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Cosmetic products are used in large quantities across the world. An increasing number of chemical compounds are being added to the formulation of cosmetic products as additives, fragrances, preservatives, stabilizers, surfactants, dye and shine to potentiate their quality, property and shelf life. Owing [...] Read more.
Cosmetic products are used in large quantities across the world. An increasing number of chemical compounds are being added to the formulation of cosmetic products as additives, fragrances, preservatives, stabilizers, surfactants, dye and shine to potentiate their quality, property and shelf life. Owing to their widespread use, active residues of cosmetic products are continuously introduced into the environment in several ways. Many of these chemicals are bioactive and are characterized by potential bioaccumulation ability and environmental persistence, thus exerting a major risk to humans and the health of ecosystems. Hence, the indiscriminate consumption of cosmetics may present a looming issue with significant adverse impacts on public health. This review intends to spotlight a current overview of toxic ingredients used in formulating cosmetics such as parabens, triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, 1,4-dioxane, plastic microbeads, formaldehyde, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, sunscreen elements (organic and inorganic UV filters) and trace metals. Specific focus is given to illustrate the biological risks of these substances on human health and aquatic system in terms of genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, neurotoxicity mutagenicity, and estrogenicity. In addition to conclusive remarks, future directions are also suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
A Promising View of Kudzu Plant, Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep: Flavonoid Phytochemical Compounds, Taxonomic Data, Traditional Uses and Potential Biological Activities for Future Cosmetic Application
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010012 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Pueraria montana var. lobata is widely known as kudzu especially in Japan, China, Korea, and other Asian countries. This plant is an ingredient for traditional food and an herbal ingredient for traditional medicines, particular in Japan and China. There are a few reports [...] Read more.
Pueraria montana var. lobata is widely known as kudzu especially in Japan, China, Korea, and other Asian countries. This plant is an ingredient for traditional food and an herbal ingredient for traditional medicines, particular in Japan and China. There are a few reports on its cosmetic uses. Interestingly, many phytochemical compounds from this plant have been continuously reported, particularly flavonoid compounds, which are well-known as potential bioactive ingredients for cosmetics. This work aims to illustrate promising views of kudzu plant, focusing on the diversity of flavonoid phytochemical compounds, taxonomic data, traditional uses, and potential biological activities for future cosmetic applications, i.e., antioxidant, antiglycation, skin regeneration, and melanogenesis inhibitory activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multivariate Analysis of Olfactory Profiles for 140 Perfumes as a Basis to Derive a Sensory Wheel for the Classification of Feminine Fragrances
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010011 - 12 Feb 2020
Viewed by 527
Abstract
In order to guide consumers in their purchase of a new fragrance, one approach is to visualize the spectrum of men’s or women’s fragrances on a two-dimensional plot. One of such sensory maps available is the Hexagon of Fragrance Families. It displays 91 [...] Read more.
In order to guide consumers in their purchase of a new fragrance, one approach is to visualize the spectrum of men’s or women’s fragrances on a two-dimensional plot. One of such sensory maps available is the Hexagon of Fragrance Families. It displays 91 women’s perfumes inside a polygon, so that each side accounts for a different olfactory class. In order to discuss this chart, odor profiles were obtained for these fragrances and additional feminine ones (140 in total, launched from 1912 to 1990). An olfactory dataset was arranged by coding numerically the descriptions obtained from Fragrantica and Osmoz websites, as well as from a perfume guide. By applying principal component analysis, a sensory map was obtained that properly reflected the similarities between odor descriptors. Such representation was equivalent to the map of feminine fragrances called Givaudan Analogies, comprised of five major categories. Based on the results, a modified version of the Hexagon based on 14 categories was proposed. The first principal component explained preference for daytime versus nighttime wear, and regression models were fitted in order to estimate such preferences according to the odor profiles. The second component basically discriminated floral versus chypre (mossy–woody) fragrances. Results provide a fundamental basis to develop standard sensory maps of women’s fragrances. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Non-Traditional and Non-Invasive Approaches in Facial Rejuvenation: A Brief Review
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010010 - 12 Feb 2020
Viewed by 582
Abstract
While injectables, lasers, and surgical interventions have traditionally been used to reverse the changes associated with facial aging, other alternative therapies such as facial acupuncture and facial exercises are now being studied for facial rejuvenation. In this paper, we both summarize the concepts [...] Read more.
While injectables, lasers, and surgical interventions have traditionally been used to reverse the changes associated with facial aging, other alternative therapies such as facial acupuncture and facial exercises are now being studied for facial rejuvenation. In this paper, we both summarize the concepts of facial acupuncture and facial exercises, and review seven studies that evaluate the efficacy of these modalities. Data from these studies suggest that both facial acupuncture and facial exercises have the potential to improve the skin laxity, wrinkle length, muscle thickness, and pigmentary changes associated with aging. Patients frequently reported improvement and experienced very few side effects. However, further research is necessary before these modalities are widely accepted as effective by the medical community, though the results of these studies may ultimately make providers less hesitant when patients seek out these services. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Potential Application of Ecklonia cava Extract in Scalp Protection
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010009 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 873
Abstract
The scalp is exposed to environmental hazards including airborne pollutants, which exert adverse effects on skin health. Therefore, compounds for defending skin from pollutants have attracted interest in the cosmeceutical community. We investigated whether Ecklonia cava exhibited prophylactic effects against urban pollutants by [...] Read more.
The scalp is exposed to environmental hazards including airborne pollutants, which exert adverse effects on skin health. Therefore, compounds for defending skin from pollutants have attracted interest in the cosmeceutical community. We investigated whether Ecklonia cava exhibited prophylactic effects against urban pollutants by measuring cell viability and cell cycle distribution in human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPC). The effect of E. cava on pollutant-induced damage to skin barrier was determined by measuring filaggrin and MMP-1 expression in both keratinocytes and in a skin explant model. In a clinical trial, the effect of E. cava on scalp skin of patients with scalp scale was observed by evaluating hydration and redness after 4 weeks of daily treatment with a shampoo containing E. cava extract. E. cava extract recovered the loss of cell viability and abnormal cell cycle distribution induced by urban pollutants in HFDPCs. It also attenuated pollutant-induced damage to skin barrier by decreasing MMP-1 and increasing filaggrin expression in keratinocytes and the epidermis of skin explants. Moreover, E. cava showed soothing effects on human scalp by increasing hydration and decreasing redness in a clinical trial. Collectively, E. cava extract may be a good candidate for therapeutic applications designed to repair or protect hair scalp. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in 2019
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010008 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 909
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities, and Irritation Properties of Sripanya Punica granatum Peel Extract
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010007 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 992
Abstract
This is the first study to investigate the effect of ethanol concentrations on the phenolic content and biological activities of Sripanya Punica granatum peel extract. Various concentrations of ethanol, (20 to 80% v/v), were used in the maceration process. Extracts were investigated for [...] Read more.
This is the first study to investigate the effect of ethanol concentrations on the phenolic content and biological activities of Sripanya Punica granatum peel extract. Various concentrations of ethanol, (20 to 80% v/v), were used in the maceration process. Extracts were investigated for total phenolic content by the Folin–Ciocalteu method, antioxidant activities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and anti-tyrosinase activity by a spectrophotometric method. The chemical composition was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The irritation of the extracts was determined by Hen’s egg test–chorioallantoic membrane assay. The results demonstrated that E60, which was extracted using 60% v/v ethanol, had the highest yield (66.23 ± 0.38% w/w), the highest total phenolic content (490.42 ± 7.20 μg GAE/g), and the highest antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities. IC50 values on DPPH and ABTS•+ inhibition were 10.97 ± 0.97 and 6.48 ± 0.06 µg/mL, respectively. The 60% v/v ethanol extract (E60) possessed strong tyrosinase inhibition with an IC50 value of 0.10 ± 0.13 µg/mL, which is more potent than kojic acid. The major constituents were punicalagin (4.05 ± 0.26% w/w) and ellagic acid (0.63 ± 0.04% w/w). E60 was safe for topical application since it did not induce irritation. Therefore, we suggest that E60 is a promising agent for further product development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Innovative and Eco-Friendly UV Radiation Absorber, Based on Furan Moieties
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010006 - 08 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
The increasing concern about the environmental impact of ingredients largely used as sunscreens today is pushing research towards new frontiers for the synthesis and degradation potential of innovative sun protection structures. This study deals with the design, synthesis, efficacy evaluation, and environmental impact [...] Read more.
The increasing concern about the environmental impact of ingredients largely used as sunscreens today is pushing research towards new frontiers for the synthesis and degradation potential of innovative sun protection structures. This study deals with the design, synthesis, efficacy evaluation, and environmental impact of new photo-stable molecules at extended electronic conjugation and which have the ‘charge-transfer’ type of optical transition (push and pull). They efficiently perform absorption of electro-magnetic radiation in the UVB and UVA regions. A preliminary screening, dealing with a whole series of aromatic donors, led to the selection of a key substrate derived from waste material, provided with low environmental impact and largely available on the market. As far as the acceptor was concerned, an ester with cyan-acrylic structure and functionalized with aliphatic chains emerged as the most suitable. This allowed a shift of the λ of absorption in the range of the ultraviolet wavelengths. The synthesis procedures include an acid-catalyst-fitted esterification, condensation, and cold crystallization. It was continuously monitored with suitable characterization instruments (GC-MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR), in order to avoid by-products and parasitic reactions. The resulting structures (patent pending) are composed by a furan core condensed with cyano-acrylic esters, derivatized with branched chains of hydrocarbons of medium length. The obtained structures are capable of good absorption in the range of wavelengths between 300 and 400 nm. Because of their structures, the new molecules are largely soluble in many common oils and cosmetic ingredients. The new molecules have been successively evaluated in terms of photo-stability, biodegradability, compatibility, and UVB-UVA protection capability, both in-vivo and in-vitro, in comparison with existing sunscreens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Practical Method for Assessing Lip Compression Strengthening in Healthy Adults
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010005 - 03 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
There is no practical and accessible assessment method to evaluate lip muscle compression strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the standard method (i.e., Iowa Oral Performance Instrument) and a practical method in healthy adults. In order to [...] Read more.
There is no practical and accessible assessment method to evaluate lip muscle compression strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the standard method (i.e., Iowa Oral Performance Instrument) and a practical method in healthy adults. In order to achieve our research purpose, ninety-eight healthy adults (18–40 years) completed lip compression strength measurements (standard method) and lip grasping performance tests using a standard recyclable plastic water bottle (practical method). In the overall sample, the mean and standard deviation for standard method and practical method was 26.7 (7.0) kPa and 255 (119) g, respectively. For the overall sample (n = 98), there was a positive relationship between the two strength tasks [r = 0.56 (0.41, 0.68)]. When separated by sex, positive correlations were observed for men and women with no differences between the observed correlations [difference of 0.06 (−0.2646, 0.3917)]. This result indicates that those individuals who are strong in the standard task will often be strong in the practical task. Future research is needed to determine how well changes in each test track with each other in response to a lip strength training program. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Isothiazolinones Quantification in Shampoo Matrices: A Matter of Method Optimization or Stability Driven by Interactions?
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010004 - 01 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is one of the most used preservatives in shampoos and also one of the most effective. A preservative mixture known as Kathon™ CG is commercially available. It contains 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMI) and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MI) (3:1) and stabilizers. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is one of the most used preservatives in shampoos and also one of the most effective. A preservative mixture known as Kathon™ CG is commercially available. It contains 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMI) and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MI) (3:1) and stabilizers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of formulation factors in the quantification and stability of isothiazolinones in shampoos. Two shampoo bases containing Kathon™ CG as a preservative were prepared. Some ingredients that are at risk of interfering with the preservative stability were added to these formulations. The preservative was quantified by HPLC-DAD (High-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector) after preparation of the formulation and after storage at room temperature and at 40 °C. The addition of magnesium silicate proved to be essential for the breakdown of the interaction between the matrix and the analytes in the extraction procedure. The content of CMI/MI decreased right after preparation indicating that immediate interactions between CMI/MI and the ingredients may have occurred after preparation resulting in a decrease in the preservative concentration. Detrimental interactions between the ingredients, regarding the stability of the isothiazolinones were detected immediately after preparation and over time resulting in the reduction of CMI/MI concentration in these cosmetic shampoos. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Perceptual Spectrum of Commercial Perfumes as a Basis for a Standard Sensory Wheel of Fragrances
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010003 - 25 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Given the enormous number of perfumes available on the market, it is of interest to guide consumers in their purchase of a new fragrance. One approach is to project the multidimensional perceptual space of scents on a two-dimensional sensory map based on meaningful [...] Read more.
Given the enormous number of perfumes available on the market, it is of interest to guide consumers in their purchase of a new fragrance. One approach is to project the multidimensional perceptual space of scents on a two-dimensional sensory map based on meaningful dimensions. One of the pioneering studies on this issue mapped 94 commercial perfumes according to two axes. Such an odor map is discussed here in detail by applying Principal Component Analysis to the numeric odor description of 176 fragrances. Quantitative odor profiles were obtained from Fragrantica’s website and three fragrances guides published by Haarmann & Reimer, Michael Edwards, and the French Society of Perfumers. A sensory map was obtained that reflected the similarities and dissimilarities between those odor descriptors most commonly used in perfumery. This representation was consistent with other related plots that have been previously reported. One dimension discriminated between fragrances targeted at men versus women. An orthogonal factor distinguished perfumes for daytime versus nighttime wear. These ratings, as well as seasonal preferences, could be estimated based on the main odor character attributes applied to describe the scent. The results provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive classification of commercial perfumes compiled by Edwards according to his famous “Fragrance Wheel”. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Sensory Interpretation of Rheological Parameters of a Cream Formulation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010002 - 20 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
As the popularity of a cosmetic product on the market extensively depends on consumers’ perception, it is important for the sensory evaluation to be accurate during the product developmental stage. The focus of this study was to develop a generic method for the [...] Read more.
As the popularity of a cosmetic product on the market extensively depends on consumers’ perception, it is important for the sensory evaluation to be accurate during the product developmental stage. The focus of this study was to develop a generic method for the quantitative assessment of the sensory attributes of cosmetic creams. Four 100 g oil-in-water (O/W) model creams, containing loaded niosomes and their baselines (without niosomes), were formulated. Quantitative sensory evaluation of the formulated oil-in-water products were performed in three different stages: (a) appearance—pourability (b) pick-up—firmness and elasticity/stretchability (c) rub-out—spreadability and stickiness, using rheological measurements. All measurements were carried out at skin temperature, 32 ± 1 °C, and a relative humidity (RH) of 33%. The quantitative analysis showed all cream models exhibited shear-thinning, non-Newtonian behavior. Rheological parameters from the yield stress, amplitude sweep and frequency sweep tests were found to provide realistic correlations for the sensory characteristics of pourability and spreadability, firmness, elasticity/stretchability and stickiness, respectively. This novel quantitative assessment method of the sensory characteristics of a cream proved to be highly effective and can be universally applied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ethanolic Extract of Hippocampus abdominalis Exerts Anti-Melanogenic Effects in B16F10 Melanoma Cells and Zebrafish Larvae by Activating the ERK Signaling Pathway
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1146
Abstract
The big belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis), a well-known ingredient of traditional medicine, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-fatigue, and anti-thrombotic properties, and also increases male fertility. This study demonstrates that the ethanolic extract of dried H. abdominalis (EEHA) has anti-melanogenic effects in B16F10 [...] Read more.
The big belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis), a well-known ingredient of traditional medicine, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-fatigue, and anti-thrombotic properties, and also increases male fertility. This study demonstrates that the ethanolic extract of dried H. abdominalis (EEHA) has anti-melanogenic effects in B16F10 melanoma cells and zebrafish larvae. EEHA significantly reduced the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells without causing cytotoxicity. At a concentration of 200 µg/mL, EEHA had significant anti-melanogenic activity in zebrafish larvae, accompanied by a severe reduction in the heart rate (118 ± 17 heartbeats/min) compared to that of the untreated group (185 ± 8 heartbeats/min), indicating that EEHA induces cardiotoxicity at high concentrations. Below 100 µg/mL, EEHA significantly reduced melanogenesis in zebrafish larvae in the presence or absence of α-MSH, while the heart rate remained unaltered. Additionally, EEHA downregulated the release of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in B16F10 melanoma cells, which inhibited microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), leading to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity. EEHA also increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK). The ERK inhibitor PD98059 interfered with the anti-melanogenic activity of EEHA in B16F10 melanoma cells and zebrafish larvae, indicating that the ERK signaling pathway might regulate the anti-melanogenic properties of EEHA. Altogether, we conclude that EEHA represses the cAMP–CREB–MITF axis, which consequently inhibits tyrosinase-mediated melanogenesis. We propose that at low concentrations, EEHA can serve as a promising anti-melanogenic agent that could be used to prepare whitening cosmetics and for treating melanogenic disorders. Full article
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