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Cosmetics, Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 15 articles

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Article
Chemical Compounds Responsible for Skin Allergy to Complex Mixtures: How to Identify Them?
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040071 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3266
Abstract
In the cosmetics industry, various natural complex mixtures such as botanical extracts and essential oils are used. In addition, finished consumer products may contain a number of constituents of natural origin but many products are derived from organic synthesis too. Hence, finding skin [...] Read more.
In the cosmetics industry, various natural complex mixtures such as botanical extracts and essential oils are used. In addition, finished consumer products may contain a number of constituents of natural origin but many products are derived from organic synthesis too. Hence, finding skin sensitizers within this myriad of chemicals is an arduous task. Nowadays, methods validated by European dedicated instances to evaluate the allergenicity of chemicals are incapable of predicting the sensitization potential of complex mixtures, although research has progressed a lot in this direction recently. In this context, precisely identifying the culprit(s) responsible for skin sensitization in these mixtures is essential for risk assessment. This review is a short summary of approaches that identify allergens in chemical mixtures such as bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, structure–activity relationship studies, and recent methods allowing identification of reactive intermediates in natural extracts exposed to air oxidation. It is shown that substantial progress has been made, although the identification of sensitizers in complex mixtures continues to be puzzling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics Contact Allergens)
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Article
Glycerolipid Composition and Advanced Physicochemical Considerations of Sacha Inchi Oil toward Cosmetic Products Formulation
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040070 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3588
Abstract
Sacha inchi oil is a premier raw material with highly nutritional and functional features for the foodstuff, pharmaceutical, beauty, and personal care industries. One of the most important facts about this oil is the huge chemical content of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. [...] Read more.
Sacha inchi oil is a premier raw material with highly nutritional and functional features for the foodstuff, pharmaceutical, beauty, and personal care industries. One of the most important facts about this oil is the huge chemical content of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the current available information on the characterization of the triglyceride composition and the advance physicochemical parameters relevant to emulsion development is limited. Therefore, this research focused on providing a detailed description of the lipid composition using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry and thorough physicochemical characterization to find the value of the required hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB). For this, a study in the interfacial tension was evaluated, followed by the assessment of different parameters such as creaming index, droplet size, viscosity, zeta potential, pH, and electrical conductivity for a series emulsified at thermal stress condition. The results show that fatty acids are arranged into glycerolipids and the required HLB to achieve the maximum physical stability is around 8. Full article
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Article
Characterization of Reactive and Sensitive Skin Microbiota: Effect of Halymenia durvillei (HD) Extract Treatment
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040069 - 07 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3191
Abstract
After characterization of the reactive skin microbiota, we investigated whether the active Halymenia durvillei (HD), rich in polysaccharides, could modulate this microbiota after 28 days of treatment, act on neuroinflammation parameters, and calm feelings of discomfort and redness. Skin microbiota was assessed [...] Read more.
After characterization of the reactive skin microbiota, we investigated whether the active Halymenia durvillei (HD), rich in polysaccharides, could modulate this microbiota after 28 days of treatment, act on neuroinflammation parameters, and calm feelings of discomfort and redness. Skin microbiota was assessed using next-generation sequencing experiments (16S RNA gene fragment sequencing) on samples collected from 30 volunteers suffering from reactive, sensitive skin. To evaluate the effect of the HD extract on neuroinflammation, we used an ex vivo model. Finally, an in vivo study was performed using a clinical assessment (blood microcirculation via videocapillaroscopy) of functional signs employing the Sensitive Scale and the soothing effect was evaluated and compared to a placebo treatment. At the phylum level, the samples were mostly composed of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, which accounted for more than 97% of the total sequencing read in all samples, with no differences before or after treatment with the HD active ingredient. The Shannon Diversity index indicated lower microbial communities compared to healthy skin. Maintenance of the Shannon Diversity index was reported after 28 days of HD active ingredient treatment, wherein microbial communities continued to decrease in number during treatment with the placebo. The average taxonomic composition of associated skin microbial communities showed that reactive skin is characterized by a low proportion of the Chryseobacterium genus compared to a high proportion of the Corynebacterium genus. At the species level, Actinobacteria are mainly represented by Propionibacterium acnes (72.13%) and Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (13.23%), representing species typically observed in clinical cases of redness, the main criteria for volunteer inclusion. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, with increased levels being associated with skin redness, decreased with HD treatment. This decrease coincided with the clinical improvement observed after 7 weeks of treatment. The ex vivo study revealed that the HD extract induced a significant decrease in the expression of TRPV-1 (−67%; p < 0.001) and NK1-R (−43%; p < 0.01) compared to the control after 6 days of treatment. These data support the use of polysaccharides, found in red alga, in the treatment of reactive and sensitive skin related to the modulation of skin microbiota. Full article
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Article
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Active Compounds of Sanguisorbae Radix In Macrophages and in Vivo Toxicity Evaluation in Zebrafish
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040068 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2881
Abstract
Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is the root of the Sanguisorba officinalis L., a plant native to Asian countries and used in traditional medicine. We isolated the active components of SR and investigated their anti-inflammatory potential. Quercetin (QC), (+)-catechin (CC), and gallic acid (GA) were [...] Read more.
Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is the root of the Sanguisorba officinalis L., a plant native to Asian countries and used in traditional medicine. We isolated the active components of SR and investigated their anti-inflammatory potential. Quercetin (QC), (+)-catechin (CC), and gallic acid (GA) were isolated from acetone extracts of SR. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which these compounds suppress inflammation, we analyzed the transcriptional up-regulation of inflammatory mediators, such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and its target genes, inducible NOS (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Notably, QC, CC, and GA were found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and prostaglandin in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot results indicate that the compounds decreased the expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Furthermore, the compounds decreased phosphorylation of IKK, IκB, ERK, p-38, and JNK proteins in LPS-induced cells. The results support the notion that QC, CC, and GA can potently inhibit the inflammatory response, with QC showing the highest anti-inflammatory activity. In in vivo toxicity studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio), QC showed no toxicity up to 25 μg/mL. Therefore, QC has non-toxic potential as a skin anti-inflammatory biomaterial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-oxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Natural Compounds)
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Editorial
Special Issue “Anti-Aging Properties of Natural Compounds”
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040067 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3073
Abstract
Aging is defined as the progressive loss of an organism’s homeostatic balance [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-aging Properties of Natural Compounds)
Article
Hair Growth Promotion by Extracts of Inula Helenium and Caesalpinia Sappan Bark in Patients with Androgenetic Alopecia: A Pre-clinical Study Using Phototrichogram Analysis
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040066 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3379
Abstract
Inula helenium (IH) is known to possess antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-helminthic, and anti-proliferation activities. Caesalpinia Sappan (CS) is known to reduce inflammation and improve blood circulation. Based on their folkloric use, these plants are expected to be promising candidates for promoting hair growth and [...] Read more.
Inula helenium (IH) is known to possess antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-helminthic, and anti-proliferation activities. Caesalpinia Sappan (CS) is known to reduce inflammation and improve blood circulation. Based on their folkloric use, these plants are expected to be promising candidates for promoting hair growth and preventing hair loss. Moreover, these plants are rich sources of certain phytochemicals, which have been reported to promote hair growth. In this clinical trial, we investigate the efficacy of a scalp shampoo formulated by mixing extracts of IH and CS in preventing hair loss and promoting hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia. Using a phototrichogram (Folliscope 2.8, LeadM, Korea), we compared the hair density and total hair counts in patients receiving the scalp shampoo at baseline, and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after use of the shampoo. We found a statistically significant increase in the total hair count in the test group (n = 23) after 16 and 24 weeks of using the scalp shampoo (2.17 n/cm2 ± 5.72, p < 0.05; and 4.30 n/cm2 ± 6.37, p < 0.01, respectively) as compared to the control subjects. Based on the results of this clinical study, we conclude that the IH and CS extract complex is a promising remedy for preventing hair loss and promoting hair growth. Full article
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Article
Assessments of Facial Muscle Thickness by Ultrasound in Younger Adults: Absolute and Relative Reliability
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040065 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4155
Abstract
The absolute reliability (i.e., standard error of measurement and minimal difference) of a measurement is important to consider when assessing training effects. However, the absolute reliability for ultrasound measured facial muscle thickness had not been investigated. In order to examine the absolute and [...] Read more.
The absolute reliability (i.e., standard error of measurement and minimal difference) of a measurement is important to consider when assessing training effects. However, the absolute reliability for ultrasound measured facial muscle thickness had not been investigated. In order to examine the absolute and relative reliability of measuring facial muscles, 98 healthy, young, and middle-aged adults (18–40 years) had ultrasound measurements taken twice, separated by an average of three days. Six facial muscles were selected to determine the reliability of facial muscle thickness. The relative reliability (ICC3,1) ranged from 0.425 for the orbicularis oris (inferior) to 0.943 for the frontalis muscle. The absolute reliability (minimal difference) ranged from 0.25 mm for the orbicularis oculi to 1.82 mm for the masseter. The percentage minimal difference was 22%, 25%, 26%, 29%, 21%, and 10% for the frontalis, orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris (superior), orbicularis oris (inferior), depressor anguli oris, and masseter, respectively. Our results indicated that the relative reliability was similar to that observed previously. The absolute reliability indicated that the measurement error associated with measuring muscle thickness of the face may be greater than that of the trunk/limb muscles. This may be related to the difficulty of accurately determining the borders of each muscle. Full article
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Review
Recent Trends of Sunscreen Cosmetic: An Update Review
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040064 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5672
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been demonstrated to cause skin disorders, including sunburn and relative symptoms of prolonged exposure. It has been reported that sunscreens have beneficial effects in reducing the incidence of skin disorders (sunburn, skin aging, and immunosuppression) through their ability to [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been demonstrated to cause skin disorders, including sunburn and relative symptoms of prolonged exposure. It has been reported that sunscreens have beneficial effects in reducing the incidence of skin disorders (sunburn, skin aging, and immunosuppression) through their ability to absorb, reflect, and scatter UV. Many commercial products have recently been manufactured from not only usual organic and inorganic UV filters, but also hybrid and botanical ingredients using typical formulations (emulsion, gel, aerosol, and stick). Particularly, these products have been supplemented with several preeminent properties to protect against the negative effects of not only UVB, but also UVA. However, the use of sunscreen has faced many challenges, including inducing photoallergic dermatitis, environment pollution, and deficiency of vitamin D production. Therefore, consumers should efficiently apply suitable products to improve sun protection. as well as to avoid the side effects of sunscreen. Full article
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Review
Traditional and Modern Uses of Saffron (Crocus Sativus)
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040063 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6059
Abstract
The Aromatic and Medicinal Plants sector has undergone a remarkable evolution, especially during the last decade. The global market is moving more and more towards products of natural origin. Indeed, of the 4200-existing plant in Morocco, 800 are listed as aromatic and medicinal [...] Read more.
The Aromatic and Medicinal Plants sector has undergone a remarkable evolution, especially during the last decade. The global market is moving more and more towards products of natural origin. Indeed, of the 4200-existing plant in Morocco, 800 are listed as aromatic and medicinal plants. Among these plants, saffron is a source of income for many areas of Morocco. Saffron, the dried stigma of the Crocus sativus flower, is considered among the main terroir products of Morocco. Saffron has accompanied all civilizations, whether for its culinary role, for its quality of dye or its ancestral virtues rooted in folk medicine. This review highlights the main components of saffron, and the pharmacological activities that result from it and make this product a serious therapeutic hope. Then, a classification of uses of saffron was carried out according to its uses, traditional, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfumery without forgetting its use a spice incorporated in many dishes around the world. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Filming and Protective Properties of a New Trehalose and Ceramides Based Ingredient
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040062 - 25 Oct 2019
Viewed by 3290
Abstract
The aim of this study is showing the filming and skin barrier protective properties of a new ingredient based on ceramides and trehalose and carried in lipophilic vesicles composed of lecithin and cholesterol (or phytosterols). Through an in vivo study, the restructuring and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is showing the filming and skin barrier protective properties of a new ingredient based on ceramides and trehalose and carried in lipophilic vesicles composed of lecithin and cholesterol (or phytosterols). Through an in vivo study, the restructuring and hydrating properties of this trehalose and ceramides compound have been evaluated. Furthermore, this new ingredient has been used in a topical formulation for atopic dermatitis, proving to be effective in the alterations of skin barrier. This evidence makes it an interesting ingredient for topical dermatological compositions in the treatment of dermatitis and all manifestations correlated to these skin disorders, such as edema, swelling, rash, redness, and itching. Its soothing and protective action against the painful and annoying symptoms like those given by dermatitis makes this trehalose and ceramides based ingredient for topical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics: Feature Papers)
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Editorial
Special Issue “Recent Advances in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies”
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040061 - 22 Oct 2019
Viewed by 3227
Abstract
Scalp hair is very important for men and women especially in terms of fashion and appearance [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
Communication
Pleurochrysis carterae Hot-Water Extract Inhibits Melanogenesis in Murine Melanoma Cells
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040060 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 3100
Abstract
In this study, we examined the effect of a hot-water extract of coccolithophore Pleurochrysis carterae on melanogenesis in B16F1 and B16F10 melanoma cells. P. carterae extract inhibited the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-enhanced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. P. carterae also inhibited unstimulated melanin [...] Read more.
In this study, we examined the effect of a hot-water extract of coccolithophore Pleurochrysis carterae on melanogenesis in B16F1 and B16F10 melanoma cells. P. carterae extract inhibited the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-enhanced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. P. carterae also inhibited unstimulated melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Western blotting showed that the P. carterae extract inhibited tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in a dose-dependent manner. The reporter assay also revealed a decline in the tyrosinase promoter activity in the presence of P. carterae extract. Furthermore, quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that P. carterae extract downregulated the mRNA levels of tyrosinase and MITF. Finally, our study demonstrated that the hot-water extract of P. carterae inhibits melanin synthesis via the down-regulation of MITF mRNA level. Our findings indicate that P. carterae extract could be a possible cosmetic ingredient. Full article
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Article
Studies on Novel Methods for Formulating Novel Cross-Linked Hydrogel Films of Hyaluronic Acid
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040059 - 01 Oct 2019
Viewed by 3608
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural polysaccharide with promising applications in modern cosmetic and nutricosmetic products due to its high-water affinity, which is essential for skin hydration, as well as its biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and non-immunogenic nature. In this study, we investigated and [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural polysaccharide with promising applications in modern cosmetic and nutricosmetic products due to its high-water affinity, which is essential for skin hydration, as well as its biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and non-immunogenic nature. In this study, we investigated and optimized the method of crosslinking for formulating novel HA hydrogel films. We used Pentaerythritol Tetra-acrylate (PT) as the cross-linking agent over a range of pH values and used different cross-linking methods (Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, microwaving, and oven heating). The efficacy of the cross-linking reaction was evaluated using swelling studies and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the characterization of the xerogel HA-PT film formulations. We found that HA-PT cross-linked hydrogels are produced under alkaline conditions (pH 11) but not under neutral or acidic conditions. Cross-linked HA-PT xerogel films using UV-irradiation showed excessive swelling indicative of inadequate cross-linking. The oven and microwaving methods produced HA-PT films with high cross-linking density. FTIR data suggest formation of ester bond between the carbonyl of the HA and hydroxyl group of the PT acrylate group. Overall, the oven method was considered better and easier than UV-radiation/microwave methods because it is safer, user-friendly and eco-friendly, and can process larger batches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delivery Systems for Cosmetics)
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Review
Ascorbic Acid in Skin Health
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040058 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5920
Abstract
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin and a recognized antioxidant drug that is used topically in dermatology to treat and prevent the changes associated with photoaging, as well as for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Ascorbic acid has neutralizing properties of free [...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin and a recognized antioxidant drug that is used topically in dermatology to treat and prevent the changes associated with photoaging, as well as for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Ascorbic acid has neutralizing properties of free radicals, being able to interact with superoxide, hydroxyl and free oxygen ions, preventing the inflammatory processes, carcinogens, and other processes that accelerate photoaging in the skin. Current research focuses on the search for stable compounds of ascorbic acid and new alternatives for administration in the dermis. Unlike plants and most animals, humans do not have the ability to synthesize our own ascorbic acid due to the deficiency of the enzyme L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, which catalyzes the passage terminal in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis. To deal with this situation, humans obtain this vitamin from the diet and/or vitamin supplements, thus preventing the development of diseases and achieving general well-being. Ascorbic acid is involved in important metabolic functions and is vital for the growth and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth, gums, ligaments, and blood vessels. Ascorbic acid is a very unstable vitamin and is easily oxidized in aqueous solutions and cosmetic formulations. Ascorbic acid is extensively used as an ingredient in anti-aging cosmetic products, as sodium ascorbate or ascorbyl palmitate. This review discusses and describes the potential roles for ascorbic acid in skin health and their clinical applications (antioxidative, photoprotective, anti-aging, and anti-pigmentary effects) of topical ascorbic acid on the skin and main mechanisms of action. Considering the instability and difficulty in administering ascorbic acid, we also discuss the importance of several factors involved in the formulation and stabilization of their topical preparations in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topical Pharmaceutical Products and Cosmetics)
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Review
Natural and Bioinspired Phenolic Compounds as Tyrosinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Skin Hyperpigmentation: Recent Advances
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040057 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4175
Abstract
One of the most common approaches for control of skin pigmentation involves the inhibition of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme which catalyzes the key steps of melanogenesis. This review focuses on the tyrosinase inhibition properties of a series of natural and synthetic, bioinspired phenolic [...] Read more.
One of the most common approaches for control of skin pigmentation involves the inhibition of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme which catalyzes the key steps of melanogenesis. This review focuses on the tyrosinase inhibition properties of a series of natural and synthetic, bioinspired phenolic compounds that have appeared in the literature in the last five years. Both mushroom and human tyrosinase inhibitors have been considered. Among the first class, flavonoids, in particular chalcones, occupy a prominent role as natural inhibitors, followed by hydroxystilbenes (mainly resveratrol derivatives). A series of more complex phenolic compounds from a variety of sources, first of all belonging to the Moraceae family, have also been described as potent tyrosinase inhibitors. As to the synthetic compounds, hydroxycinnamic acids and chalcones again appear as the most exploited scaffolds. Several inhibition mechanisms have been reported for the described inhibitors, pointing to copper chelating and/or hydrophobic moieties as key structural requirements to achieve good inhibition properties. Emerging trends in the search for novel skin depigmenting agents, including the development of assays that could distinguish between inhibitors and potentially toxic substrates of the enzyme as well as of formulations aimed at improving the bioavailability and hence the effectiveness of well-known inhibitors, have also been addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanogenesis and Melanin-Related Compounds: A Cosmetic Perspective)
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