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Cosmetics, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Monfortinho Thermal Water-Based Creams: Effects on Skin Hydration, Psoriasis, and Eczema in Adults
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030056 - 15 Sep 2019
Viewed by 410
Abstract
The use of mineral water for therapeutic purposes has varied from century to century and from country to country. Its effectiveness depends on the individual experiences of the population and their cultural traditions. Usually, the waters recommended for dermatological treatment are hot springs [...] Read more.
The use of mineral water for therapeutic purposes has varied from century to century and from country to country. Its effectiveness depends on the individual experiences of the population and their cultural traditions. Usually, the waters recommended for dermatological treatment are hot springs that contain sulfur or more recently, silicon. The mechanisms by which mineral waters actuate in dermatological disorders are still not clear but it is believed that they involve thermal, mechanical, chemical, immunologic, and anti-oxidant reactions and enzymatic activity. The aim of this study is to characterize the thermal waters of Monfortinho, one of the oldest Portuguese spas, their potential use for the preparation of dermatological formulations (creams), and their effectiveness on the treatment of skin disorders (psoriasis and eczema). To accomplish this, cream formulations with different contents of thermal water were developed. The formulations were characterized in terms of thermal water analysis and physicochemical properties and their effects were studied by skin biometrics in adults (mean age of 54.3 years old) through skin hydration evaluation and evaluated in clinical studies on 22 patients with psoriasis and eczema. The results showed that all the formulations improved the skin hydration and have beneficial effects in relieving the symptoms of psoriasis and other disorders, but no significant differences were observed when thermal water was used (compared to laboratory ultra-pure water). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phenol Content and Antioxidant and Antiaging Activity of Safflower Seed Oil (Carthamus Tinctorius L.)
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030055 - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 362
Abstract
The phenol content of vegetable oil and its antioxidant activity are of primary interest for human health. Oilseed species are considered important sources of these compounds with medicinal effects on a large scale. Total phenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) of safflower [...] Read more.
The phenol content of vegetable oil and its antioxidant activity are of primary interest for human health. Oilseed species are considered important sources of these compounds with medicinal effects on a large scale. Total phenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) of safflower oil were previously studied. Nevertheless, there is no report on genotypic differences and antiaging activity of safflower oil. The aim of this study was to determine the TPC, diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and antiaging activity on three respective accessions from Syria, France, and Algeria of seed oil of safflower grown under semi-arid conditions during 3 consecutive years (2015, 2016, and 2017). The results showed that phenol content as well as antioxidant and antiaging activity varied according to both genotype and years. In 2017, the mean value of TPC in oil seed was two times higher than in 2015 and 2016. Moreover, accessions presented different TPC values depending on the year. The highest antioxidant activity was observed among accessions in 2017 compared to 2015 and 2016. As expected, a positive correlation was found between TPC and antioxidant activity. The inhibition in the collagenase assay was between 47% and 72.1% compared to the positive control (83.1%), while inhibition in the elastase assay of TPC ranged from 32.2% to 70.3%, with the positive control being 75.8%. These results highlight the interest of safflower oil as a source of phenols with valuable antioxidant and antiaging activity, and uses for cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-oxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Natural Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Skin Characterizations by Using Opto-Thermal Depth-Resolved Detection Spectra
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030054 - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 246
Abstract
OTTER (opto-thermal transient emission radiometry) is an infrared remote sensing technology that has been extensively used in skin measurements. It is non-contact, non-invasive, and has a unique depth profiling capability. By selecting different detection wavelengths, OTTER can be used for different types of [...] Read more.
OTTER (opto-thermal transient emission radiometry) is an infrared remote sensing technology that has been extensively used in skin measurements. It is non-contact, non-invasive, and has a unique depth profiling capability. By selecting different detection wavelengths, OTTER can be used for different types of skin measurements, such as skin hydration measurements and skin topically applied substance measurements, etc. By plotting the results at different detection wavelengths, we can have an opto-thermal detection spectrum. Combining with OTTER’s unique depth profiling capability, we can get a depth-resolved opto-thermal detection spectrum. This is a powerful tool that can be used for many skin studies. Here we will present our latest study with details on the apparatus setup, theoretical background, as well as experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Phototoxicity Evaluation of Hair Cleansing Conditioners
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030053 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Photoactivation of cosmetic products and/or their ingredients may be associated with adverse skin reactions. Concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects associated with the use of WEN by Chaz Dean (WCD) hair-cleansing conditioners, including alleged symptoms of redness, burning sensation, and [...] Read more.
Photoactivation of cosmetic products and/or their ingredients may be associated with adverse skin reactions. Concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects associated with the use of WEN by Chaz Dean (WCD) hair-cleansing conditioners, including alleged symptoms of redness, burning sensation, and irritation. The objective of this study was to use a validated phototoxicity test to evaluate the phototoxic potential of WCD hair-cleansing conditioners, and to demonstrate this assay’s applicability to personal care and cosmetic products. Balb/c 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells were exposed to the test articles for one hour. Following the incubation, one set of treated 3T3 cells were irradiated with 5 J/cm2 Solar Simulated Light (SSL), while a duplicate set of treated 3T3 cells were kept in the dark. After UV irradiation, cell viability was determined by neutral red uptake. The difference in cell viability between the SSL exposed and non-exposed 3T3 cells were used to determine the phototoxic potential of the test articles. Under the conditions tested, WCD hair-cleansing conditioners were not phototoxic, while the positive control was significantly phototoxic. Taken together, these results demonstrate that that the use of WCD hair-cleansing conditioners would not be expected to cause phototoxicity in consumers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances on Topical Application of Ceramides to Restore Barrier Function of Skin
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030052 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Human skin is the largest organ of the body and is an effective physical barrier keeping it from environmental conditions. This barrier function of the skin is based on stratum corneum, located in the uppermost skin. Stratum corneum has corneocytes surrounded by [...] Read more.
Human skin is the largest organ of the body and is an effective physical barrier keeping it from environmental conditions. This barrier function of the skin is based on stratum corneum, located in the uppermost skin. Stratum corneum has corneocytes surrounded by multilamellar lipid membranes which are composed of cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides (CERs). Alterations in ceramide content of the stratum corneum are associated with numerous skin disorders. In recent years, CERs have been incorporated into conventional and novel carrier systems with the purpose of exogenously applying CERs to help the barrier function of the skin. This review provides an overview of the structure, function and importance of CERs to restore the barrier function of the skin following their topical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topical Pharmaceutical Products and Cosmetics)
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Open AccessCommunication
Calebin-A, a Curcuminoid Analog Inhibits α-MSH-Induced Melanogenesis in B16F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030051 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Hyperpigmentation skin disorders comprise melasma, age spots, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. They are characterized by an aberrant upregulation of melanin pigment and pose a significant burden aesthetically. Calebin-A (CBA) is a natural curcuminoid analog derived from turmeric root (Curcuma longa) but, unlike [...] Read more.
Hyperpigmentation skin disorders comprise melasma, age spots, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. They are characterized by an aberrant upregulation of melanin pigment and pose a significant burden aesthetically. Calebin-A (CBA) is a natural curcuminoid analog derived from turmeric root (Curcuma longa) but, unlike curcumin, it has not been explored yet for anti-melanogenic activity. Hence, in the current study, we studied CBA for its effects on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH)-stimulated melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Our results showed that CBA (20 μM) significantly suppressed αMSH-stimulated melanogenesis after 48 h treatment. The underlying mechanisms of CBA’s anti-melanogenic activity were studied, and it was shown that CBA did not affect either intracellular tyrosinase activity or the direct activity of tyrosinase enzyme. Additionally, CBA did not affect intracellular α-glucosidase activity but significantly inhibited direct α-glucosidase activity. CBA also directly scavenged 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, consistent with potent antioxidant activity but did not inhibit intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). CBA increased acidification of cellular organelles and inhibited maturation of melanosomes by significantly reducing the number of mature melanosomes. Our results indicate that CBA may hold promise as a pigmentation inhibitor for hyperpigmentation disorders for cosmetic use by targeting pathways other than tyrosinase inhibition. Further studies to delineate the molecular signaling mechanism of melanogenesis inhibition and test anti-melanogenesis efficacy of CBA in human skin melanocytes and skin equivalents are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanogenesis and Melanin-Related Compounds: A Cosmetic Perspective)
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Open AccessCommentary
The Influence of Facial Muscle Training on the Facial Soft Tissue Profile: A Brief Review
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030050 - 11 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1163
Abstract
In this review, we summarize recent literature investigating facial-exercise-induced changes in facial soft tissue. A literature search was performed in PubMed for the terms facial exercise, rejuvenation, muscle, skin, and aging. Four studies were identified from the search and were subject to further [...] Read more.
In this review, we summarize recent literature investigating facial-exercise-induced changes in facial soft tissue. A literature search was performed in PubMed for the terms facial exercise, rejuvenation, muscle, skin, and aging. Four studies were identified from the search and were subject to further assessment. Four studies were included in our analysis. Two of the four studies included compared the experimental (training) group to a control group. The other two studies had no control group. The participants were mainly middle-aged women. Training conditions varied; neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was used in two studies, the other two studies used an oscillatory movement device and voluntary facial isometric exercise. Two studies measured facial muscle size using ultrasonography before and after 12 weeks of NMES or 8 weeks of oscillatory movement of the face. One study assessed the changes in facial skin elasticity in a single group following 8 weeks of facial isometric exercise, while one study measured strength of labial and lingual muscles before and following 4 weeks of NMES. We found two studies that reported facial-exercise-induced increases in facial muscle size in middle-aged women. It was also reported that facial skin function may improve following facial isometric exercise. Future research is needed to clarify how these changes link with facial rejuvenation. Compared to extremity muscles, the facial muscles are small in size, their shapes are complex, and the boundaries with other tissues may be unclear. Future study is also necessary to examine the reliability of measurements of the facial muscles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitachelox: Protection of the Skin Against Blue Light-Induced Protein Carbonylation
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030049 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 789
Abstract
Protein carbonylation (PC) is a marker of reactive oxygen species-mediated alterations induced by external stimuli such as UV and blue light irradiation. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Vitachelox®, a mixture of three standardized natural extracts rich in [...] Read more.
Protein carbonylation (PC) is a marker of reactive oxygen species-mediated alterations induced by external stimuli such as UV and blue light irradiation. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Vitachelox®, a mixture of three standardized natural extracts rich in polyphenols, against PC induced by blue light irradiation in human keratinocytes. We tested eight experimental conditions, including Vitachelox® 0.01% and 0.005% w/v, used for 6 or 24 h before irradiation, and a solution of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as positive control of protection. PC was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy in situ and by absolute quantification (Carbonyl Score) upon protein extraction and separation. Both the in situ visualization study and the carbonyl score showed a considerable increase in protein oxidative damage upon blue light irradiation, and a decrease in PC in the presence of Vitachelox®. In particular, Vitachelox® 0.005% showed superior results compared to NAC in terms of carbonyl score and protein quality, and it was estimated to exert a protective action against blue-light irradiation ranging from 72% (24 h) to 82% (6 h). The protective antioxidant effect of Vitachelox®, together with the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties previously reported, make this natural active ingredient a valuable tool in the maintenance of healthy skin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Skin Improvement Effects of Gardeniae fructus Extract in HaCaT Keratinocytes, B16F10 Melanocytes, and CCD-986sk Fibroblast Cells
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030048 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 779
Abstract
The development of functional cosmetics with skin improvement effects from natural sources is necessary. In this study, the antioxidant, antiwrinkling, moisturizing, and whitening effects of Gardeniae fructus extract (GF) were investigated in keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblast cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by a [...] Read more.
The development of functional cosmetics with skin improvement effects from natural sources is necessary. In this study, the antioxidant, antiwrinkling, moisturizing, and whitening effects of Gardeniae fructus extract (GF) were investigated in keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblast cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by a DPPH free radical scavenging assay. MMP-1, MMP-9, HAS1, and filaggrin mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR in keratinocytes and fibroblast cells. MITF and tyrosinase protein levels were evaluated by blotting analysis in melanocytes. DPPH free radical activity was investigated to determine whether GF showed dose-dependent inhibitory activity. GF induced the upregulation of HAS1 and filaggrin mRNA expression in keratinocytes and fibroblast cells. GF led to the downregulation of MMP mRNA levels in keratinocytes and fibroblast cells. Western blotting was performed to confirm the whitening-related protein (MITF and tyrosinase) levels induced by GF in melanocytes, and the inhibitory activity was superior to that of the α-MSH used for the comparison test. GF showed marked antioxidant, antiwrinkling, skin moisturizing, and whitening activity in keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblast cells. Through the results of these experiments, the applicability of GF as a natural and functional cosmetic material was verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-aging Properties of Natural Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Potential Skin Sensitizers in Myrrh
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030047 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 876
Abstract
The exudate of Commiphora myrrha (myrrh) has been known for centuries as one of the most popular natural skin remedies. The characterization and safety assessment of myrrh ingredients are challenging due to the chemical variability of commercially available sources, as well as potential [...] Read more.
The exudate of Commiphora myrrha (myrrh) has been known for centuries as one of the most popular natural skin remedies. The characterization and safety assessment of myrrh ingredients are challenging due to the chemical variability of commercially available sources, as well as potential adulteration. Human and animal data have reported potential concerns about myrrh as a skin sensitizer, although no specific chemical entity has been identified as a potential culprit yet. In the present work, the in chemico high-throughput method using dansylated cysteamine (HTS-DCYA) was applied to extract and fractions of myrrh samples in an attempt to identify potential skin sensitizers. Nine oxo-furanogermacranes and the sesquiterpenoid alismol were isolated as major constituents. Five of the compounds were identified as weakly to moderately reactive in HTS-DCYA and could therefore trigger the molecular initiating event leading to skin sensitization. The reactive compounds were identified as 6-oxofuranodienones (2 and 5) and methoxyfuranogermacrenones (7 and 9). The reaction adducts of 2 with DCYA was confirmed by HPLC-DAD-MS and by HPLC-MS/MS experiments. A comparison of the chemical profile of myrrh samples available in-house confirmed a certain degree of chemical variability, with compounds 1, 7, and 9 occurring in four of the six samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics Contact Allergens)
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Open AccessArticle
The Beneficial Regulation of Extracellular Matrix and Heat Shock Proteins, and the Inhibition of Cellular Oxidative Stress Effects and Inflammatory Cytokines by 1α, 25 dihydroxyvitaminD3 in Non-Irradiated and Ultraviolet Radiated Dermal Fibroblasts
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030046 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Intrinsic skin aging and photoaging, from exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, are associated with altered regulation of genes associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and inflammation, as well as cellular damage from oxidative stress. The regulatory properties of 1α, 25dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D) [...] Read more.
Intrinsic skin aging and photoaging, from exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, are associated with altered regulation of genes associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and inflammation, as well as cellular damage from oxidative stress. The regulatory properties of 1α, 25dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D) include endocrine, ECM regulation, cell differentiation, photoprotection, and anti-inflammation. The goal of this research was to identify the beneficial effects of vitamin D in preventing intrinsic skin aging and photoaging, through its direct effects as well as its effects on the ECM, associated heat shock proteins (HSP-47, and -70), cellular oxidative stress effects, and inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-8] in non-irradiated, UVA-radiated, UVB-radiated dermal fibroblasts. With regard to the ECM, vitamin D stimulated type I collagen and inhibited cellular elastase activity in non-irradiated fibroblasts; and stimulated type I collagen and HSP-47, and inhibited elastin expression and elastase activity in UVA-radiated dermal fibroblasts. With regard to cellular protection, vitamin D inhibited oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and lipids in non-irradiated, UVA-radiated and UVB-radiated fibroblasts, and, in addition, increased cell viability of UVB-radiated cells. With regard to anti-inflammation, vitamin D inhibited expression of Il-1 and IL-8 in UVA-radiated fibroblasts, and stimulated HSP-70 in UVA-radiated and UVB-radiated fibroblasts. Overall, vitamin D is predominantly beneficial in preventing UVA-radiation induced photoaging through the differential regulation of the ECM, HSPs, and inflammatory cytokines, and protective effects on the cellular biomolecules. It is also beneficial in preventing UVB-radiation associated photoaging through the stimulation of cell viability and HSP-70, and the inhibition of cellular oxidative damage, and in preventing intrinsic aging through the stimulation of type I collagen and inhibition of cellular oxidative damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Selected Cosmetic Ingredients on Common Microorganisms of Healthy Human Skin
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030045 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1039
Abstract
Human skin is a complex ecosystem and is host to a large number of microorganisms. When the bacterial ecosystem is balanced and differentiated, skin remains healthy. However, the use of cosmetics can change this balance and promote the appearance of skin diseases. The [...] Read more.
Human skin is a complex ecosystem and is host to a large number of microorganisms. When the bacterial ecosystem is balanced and differentiated, skin remains healthy. However, the use of cosmetics can change this balance and promote the appearance of skin diseases. The skin’s microorganisms can utilize some cosmetic components, which either promote their growth, or produce metabolites that influence the skin environment. In this study, we tested the ability of the Malassezia species and some bacterial strains to assimilate substances frequently used in dermal formulations. The growth capability of microorganisms was determined and their lipase activity was analyzed. The growth of all Malassezia spp. in the presence of free acids, free acid esters, and fatty alcohols with a fatty chain length above 12 carbon atoms was observed. No growth was observed in the presence of fatty alcohol ethers, secondary fatty alcohols, paraffin- and silicon-based substances, polymers, polyethylene glycols, quaternary ammonium salts, hydroxy fatty acid esters, or fatty acids and fatty acid esters with a fatty chain length shorter than 12 carbon atoms. The hydrolysis of esters by Malassezia lipases was detected using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). The production of free fatty acids as well as fatty alcohols was observed. The growth promotion or inhibition of bacterial strains was only found in the presence of a few ingredients. Based on these results, formulations containing microbiome inert ingredients were developed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Global Sensory Landscape for Facial Cleansing/Makeup Remover Wipes
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030044 - 21 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Makeup chemistries have evolved over the recent years and have become more long-wearing, waterproof and difficult to remove. Thus, many changes have occurred among products designed to remove makeup. Specifically, the facial cleansing/makeup remover wipes category is challenged to establish new strategies and [...] Read more.
Makeup chemistries have evolved over the recent years and have become more long-wearing, waterproof and difficult to remove. Thus, many changes have occurred among products designed to remove makeup. Specifically, the facial cleansing/makeup remover wipes category is challenged to establish new strategies and adapt to the changing consumer needs and the evolving competitive landscape. A global product category review can provide the upfront understanding necessary to establish fundamental knowledge. That knowledge can in turn be leveraged when developing future products. A customized descriptive analysis method was applied to address the unique challenges of the category. The method leveraged existing methods and was augmented with new descriptive modalities, specific to the unique developments in the category. A total of seventy-one attributes were identified that spanned visual and tactile cues of the wipes, cleansing performance cues during use, as well as skin look and feel attributes after use. Thirteen facial cleansing/makeup remover wipes from global markets were selected for testing based on commercial and historical insights. Three sensorial perceptual maps were generated displaying the profiles of the thirteen products in three areas of product properties—visual and tactile, cleaning performance, and skin look and feel. These study results combined with existing consumer insights helped the R&D team to establish strategies to guide product development for this category. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Hair Structures Affecting Hair Appearance
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030043 - 11 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Optical factors affecting hair appearance are reviewed based on hair structures from macroscopic to microscopic viewpoints. Hair appearance is the result of optical events, such as reflection, refraction, scattering, and absorption. The effects of hair structures on such optical events are summarized and [...] Read more.
Optical factors affecting hair appearance are reviewed based on hair structures from macroscopic to microscopic viewpoints. Hair appearance is the result of optical events, such as reflection, refraction, scattering, and absorption. The effects of hair structures on such optical events are summarized and structural conditions for hair appearance are considered. Hair structures are classified into the following: the alignment of multiple hair fibers, the cross-sectional shape of the hair fiber, and the microstructures of hair fiber (cuticle, cortex, and medulla). The alignment of multiple hair fibers is easily affected by the existence of meandering fibers and their alignment along hair length becomes less-synchronized. The less-synchronized orientation of multiple fibers causes the broadening of the apparent reflection and luster-less dull impression. The cross-sectional shape of hair fiber affects light reflection behavior. Hair fibers with elliptical cross-section show glittering colored light based on total reflection in the hair. The scaly structures of cuticles at the surface of hair are often uplifted and cause light scattering, and then affect hair luster. The porous structure of the cortex and medulla in hair fiber can cause light scattering and affect hair luster and color. The above phenomena suggest that important factors for hair appearance are the alignment of multiple hair fibers, appropriate cross-sectional shape, ordered scaly structure, and pore-less internal structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Topical Sunscreen Application Preventing Skin Cancer: Systematic Review
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030042 - 11 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Background: Avoiding extended exposure to direct sunlight and the topical application of sunscreen when exposed are the main techniques used to protect the skin form sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer risk (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer). Preventive strategies could lead to a significant [...] Read more.
Background: Avoiding extended exposure to direct sunlight and the topical application of sunscreen when exposed are the main techniques used to protect the skin form sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer risk (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer). Preventive strategies could lead to a significant reduction of the excessive health system cost for the treatment of these conditions. Sunscreen employment and efficacy stay controversial despite decades of humane use with health benefits closely related. At the present, few studies still found a connection between the use of sunscreen and not significant long-term benefits from UV induced damages. Objectives: To assess the effects of sunscreens for preventing melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancer (basal or squamous carcinoma and melanoma) and precancerous skin lesions. Method: Published literature (1993–2017) was reviewed and eligible studies that reported the impact of sunscreen use in the prevention of melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancer, or precancerous skin lesion were selected. Result: Starting from 532 sources, a total of seven articles met the inclusion criteria and they have been subjected to a systematic review. All of the included studies suggest that sunscreen use is associated with a reduction in melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and precancerous skin lesions; however, the difficulties in evaluating the efficiency of sunscreen were pointed out. Conclusion: The review of the experimental evidence supports the topical application of sunscreen as an effective effort in preventing skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Safety and Risk Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
7,8-dimethoxycoumarin Attenuates the Expression of IL-6, IL-8, and CCL2/MCP-1 in TNF-α-Treated HaCaT Cells by Potentially Targeting the NF-κB and MAPK Pathways
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030041 - 08 Jul 2019
Viewed by 998
Abstract
7,8-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC, C11H10O4), a natural coumarin compound, is present in Citrus plants including Citrus decumana and grapefruit. It is known to have protective effects on the kidneys against Cisplatin and ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanisms of its inhibitory effects on skin inflammation [...] Read more.
7,8-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC, C11H10O4), a natural coumarin compound, is present in Citrus plants including Citrus decumana and grapefruit. It is known to have protective effects on the kidneys against Cisplatin and ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanisms of its inhibitory effects on skin inflammation have not been investigated in vitro. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is known to be one of the main causative agents of skin inflammation. It induces pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of DMC on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in TNF-α-treated human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Pretreatment with DMC inhibited TNF-α-treated cytokines (interleukin 6; IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). In addition, DMC significantly inhibited TNF-α-treated NF-κB activation and phosphorylation of MAPKs, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These results suggest that DMC may elicit an anti-inflammatory response by suppressing TNF-α-treated activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in keratinocytes. Hence, it might be a useful therapeutic drug against skin inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-aging Properties of Natural Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
The Secrets of Beautiful Hair: Why is it Flexible and Elastic?
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030040 - 06 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1178
Abstract
Beautiful hair, so called “SHINAYAKA” hair in Japanese, has a good appearance not only when stationary but also when in motion, and it is a highly desirable hair condition for Japanese consumers. We investigated such SHINAYAKA hair, which was selected by sensory evaluation, [...] Read more.
Beautiful hair, so called “SHINAYAKA” hair in Japanese, has a good appearance not only when stationary but also when in motion, and it is a highly desirable hair condition for Japanese consumers. We investigated such SHINAYAKA hair, which was selected by sensory evaluation, for the relationship between physical properties, such as flexibility and elasticity, and hair structure. It has already been reported that human hair cortical cells have two types, similar to wool: the ortho-like cortex and the para-like cortex. Microscopic observation revealed that the ortho-like cortex is distributed in the outer layer of the hair (near the hair surface) and the para-like cortex exists in the inner layer (near the center of the fiber). This cell distribution, a concentric double-layered structure, was deemed to be a characteristic of SHINAYAKA hair. Furthermore, analysis of physical properties showed the difference between the elasticity of the outer layer and inner layer, and that this difference was bigger in SHINAYAKA hair compared to other hair. This phenomenon was observed not only in Japanese hair, but also in Caucasian hair. In addition, we have developed a new technology for creating “SHINAYAKA” hair by treatment with succinic acid. Inflexible and inelastic hair can be changed by this treatment, and its flexibility and elasticity improve by selective reduction of stiffness of the outer layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficiency of Skin Whitening Cream Containing Etlingera elatior Flower and Leaf Extracts in Volunteers
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030039 - 06 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Our previous research demonstrated that Etlingera elatior possesses whitening and anti-aging properties and also contains bioactive ingredients for cosmeceuticals. Therefore, this research work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of whitening cream containing both the flower and leaf extracts of E. elatior in human [...] Read more.
Our previous research demonstrated that Etlingera elatior possesses whitening and anti-aging properties and also contains bioactive ingredients for cosmeceuticals. Therefore, this research work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of whitening cream containing both the flower and leaf extracts of E. elatior in human volunteers and their degree of skin irritation. Both the flower and leaf extracts were formulated as a cosmetic called “FL1 cream”, which was assessed for its physical properties and underwent an accelerated stability test. The FL1 cream was also evaluated for skin irritation and its skin whitening effect among 24 healthy volunteers who used it for four weeks. The FL1 cream demonstrated good physical stability under the various conditions for three months, along with six cycles of heating/cooling. The irritation analysis showed that irritation reactions were absent in all volunteers. The efficiency of FL1 cream in improving the appearance of skin whitening was demonstrated by a significant (p < 0.05) and continuous decrease in melanin content compared with the initial value. Additionally, the L* value was significantly and continuously increased after application of the FL1 cream. The highest melanin reduction was 6.67%. The FL1 cream containing E. elatior extracts can be used as a whitening cream in cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-oxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Natural Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Soothing and Protective Properties of a Lignin Hydrolyzate
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030038 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Lignins have shown remarkable antioxidant properties; acting as “scavengers” of free radicals physiologically produced by cell metabolisms; and exerting a protective action caused by the strong ability of these molecules to absorb UV radiation. Through preliminary Molecular Modeling studies and experimental studies in [...] Read more.
Lignins have shown remarkable antioxidant properties; acting as “scavengers” of free radicals physiologically produced by cell metabolisms; and exerting a protective action caused by the strong ability of these molecules to absorb UV radiation. Through preliminary Molecular Modeling studies and experimental studies in vivo and in vitro, a lignin hydrolysate compound has been shown to be an extremely versatile active ingredient, presenting soothing, anti-inflammatory, anti-itch, anti-oxidant, anti-aging and anti-pollution properties. The possible fields of application are therefore multiple; making this lignin hydrolysate a particularly interesting ingredient for topical dermatological compositions in the treatment of various skin disorders such as inflammation, edema, swelling, rash, redness, itching, chrono- and photo-induced skin aging. These manifestations are also the basis of more or less serious skin problems, making lignin hydrolysate capable of being used in cosmetic products for the eternal challenge of fighting skin aging, but also in medical devices that can be used to fight more painful and annoying symptoms, like those caused by dermatitis or psoriasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessReview
Halal Cosmetics: A Review on Ingredients, Production, and Testing Methods
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030037 - 01 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1397
Abstract
The demand for halal cosmetic products among the 2.4 billion Muslim consumers worldwide is increasing. However, the demand for halal cosmetics remains unmet because cosmetics production is dominated by non-halal cosmetic manufacturers, whose production methods may not conform with the requirements of halal [...] Read more.
The demand for halal cosmetic products among the 2.4 billion Muslim consumers worldwide is increasing. However, the demand for halal cosmetics remains unmet because cosmetics production is dominated by non-halal cosmetic manufacturers, whose production methods may not conform with the requirements of halal science. The development of halal cosmetics and the assessment of their product performance is still in its infancy. The integration of halal science in the manufacture of most cosmetic products remains inadequate. Moreover, there is a global dearth of guiding documents on the development and assessment techniques in the production of comprehensively halal cosmetics. This paper aims to abridge existing literature and knowledge of halal and cosmetic science in order to provide essential technical guidance in the manufacture of halal cosmetics. In addition, the adoption of these methods addresses the unique ethical issues associated with conformance of cosmetics’ product performance to religious practices and halal science. It highlights the applicability of established methods in skin science in the assessment of halal cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics: Feature Papers)
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