Special Issue "Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Kenzo Koike
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Kao Corporation, Hair-Care Research Laboratories, Tokyo, Japan
Interests: Structure; Curvature; Physical properties; Aging; Local difference; Chemical treatment; Damages; Repair; Coloring; Shampoo; Styling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am editing a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies" of Cosmetics  (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/cosmetics/special_issues), which is an open access peer-reviewed journal. 

This Special Issue will be focused on all aspects of hair research for science and technology; for example, hair appearance, physical properties measurement, microstructure analysis, hair curvature, coloring, pigmentation, decoloration, hair damage and repair, and so on. We have noticed that there are many advances in recent research on hair science and hair care technologies. Based on your reputation and excellent contributions to these fields, I would like to invite you to contribute either an original research or a review article within the focused area of this issue.

Thank you in advance for your kind consideration. Please let us know if you have any questions.

Dr. Kenzo Koike
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Structure
  • Curvature
  • Physical properties
  • Aging
  • Local difference
  • Chemical treatment
  • Damages
  • Repair
  • Coloring
  • Shampoo
  • Styling

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Secrets of Beautiful Hair: Why is it Flexible and Elastic?
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030040 - 06 Jul 2019
Abstract
Beautiful hair, so called “SHINAYAKA” hair in Japanese, has a good appearance not only when stationary but also when in motion, and it is a highly desirable hair condition for Japanese consumers. We investigated such SHINAYAKA hair, which was selected by sensory evaluation, [...] Read more.
Beautiful hair, so called “SHINAYAKA” hair in Japanese, has a good appearance not only when stationary but also when in motion, and it is a highly desirable hair condition for Japanese consumers. We investigated such SHINAYAKA hair, which was selected by sensory evaluation, for the relationship between physical properties, such as flexibility and elasticity, and hair structure. It has already been reported that human hair cortical cells have two types, similar to wool: the ortho-like cortex and the para-like cortex. Microscopic observation revealed that the ortho-like cortex is distributed in the outer layer of the hair (near the hair surface) and the para-like cortex exists in the inner layer (near the center of the fiber). This cell distribution, a concentric double-layered structure, was deemed to be a characteristic of SHINAYAKA hair. Furthermore, analysis of physical properties showed the difference between the elasticity of the outer layer and inner layer, and that this difference was bigger in SHINAYAKA hair compared to other hair. This phenomenon was observed not only in Japanese hair, but also in Caucasian hair. In addition, we have developed a new technology for creating “SHINAYAKA” hair by treatment with succinic acid. Inflexible and inelastic hair can be changed by this treatment, and its flexibility and elasticity improve by selective reduction of stiffness of the outer layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Unique Hair Properties that Emerge from Combinations of Multiple Races
Cosmetics 2019, 6(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6020036 - 21 Jun 2019
Abstract
The fusion of ethnicity in human populations is becoming increasingly common, so the conventional definition of ethnicity is going to become deficient. The aim of this study was to investigate the hair properties which emerge from combinations of multiple races. Hair fibers collected [...] Read more.
The fusion of ethnicity in human populations is becoming increasingly common, so the conventional definition of ethnicity is going to become deficient. The aim of this study was to investigate the hair properties which emerge from combinations of multiple races. Hair fibers collected from mixed-race subjects were investigated and classifications of hair shape as well as measurements of thickness, ellipticity and surface damage were carried out. The results show that hair shapes varied widely: straight hair and very curly hair often existed together on the heads of individuals with mixed ethnicity. Curly hair tended to be thicker than loose wavy hair. As for damage to the hair surface, the hairs of mixed-race subjects showed a very unique property in that they were much more severely damaged near the root (the proximal end) than the hairs of monoracial subjects. The hair shape (curly or loose wavy) was not related to the level of damage. The severe damage near the proximal end is thought to be caused by entanglement, due to the presence of various curl phases. This study reports the unique characteristics of hairs of subjects with mixed ethnicity, which have never been noted in the previous studies on subjects with a monoracial background. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Stiffness of Human Hair Correlates with the Fractions of Cortical Cell Types
Cosmetics 2019, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6020024 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
(1) Background: The objective of this work was to elucidate the hair microstructure which correlates with the stiffness of human hair fibers. (2) Methods: Bending moduli of hair fibers were evaluated for the hair samples from 156 Japanese female subjects. Hair transverse sections [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The objective of this work was to elucidate the hair microstructure which correlates with the stiffness of human hair fibers. (2) Methods: Bending moduli of hair fibers were evaluated for the hair samples from 156 Japanese female subjects. Hair transverse sections were dual-stained with fluorescent dyes which can stain para- and ortho-like cortical cells separately, and observed under a fluorescence light microscope. Atomic force microscopy nanoindentation measurements were performed to examine the modulus inside macrofibrils. (3) Results: The difference in bending moduli between the maximum and the minimum values was more than double. The hair of high bending modulus was rich in para-like cortical cells and the bending modulus significantly correlated with the fraction of para-like cortical cells to the whole cortex. On the other hand, the elastic moduli inside macrofibrils were almost same for the para- and ortho-like cortical cells. (4) Conclusions: Hair bending modulus depends on the fractions of the constitutional cortical cell types. The contribution of the intermacrofibrillar materials, which differed in their morphologies and amounts of para- and ortho-like cortical cells, is plausible as a cause of the difference in the modulus of the cortical cell types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of the Physicochemical Properties of Stabilized Oil-In-Water Emulsions Using Different Cationic Surfactant Blends for Potential Use in the Cosmetic Industry
Cosmetics 2019, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6010012 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
One of the most complex problems in hair care formulations is the duality of the surfactants used. In this regard, such surfactants must be cationic so as to interact with the negatively charged cuticle surface of hair. However, these interdependencies typically lead to [...] Read more.
One of the most complex problems in hair care formulations is the duality of the surfactants used. In this regard, such surfactants must be cationic so as to interact with the negatively charged cuticle surface of hair. However, these interdependencies typically lead to non-ideal values for the required hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) in the oil phase. This study was designed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of several oil-in-water emulsion prototypes for the potential use in hair conditioners. Here, a base formulation was utilized, incorporating binary mixtures of cationic surfactants in different proportions. The cationic surfactants employed were hydroxyethyl-behenamidopropyl-diammonium chloride, behentrimonium methosulphate, cetrimonium chloride, and (iv) Polyquaterniumpolyquaternium-70. The surfactants were evaluated for their capability to decrease the surface tension in an aqueous solution through contact angle measurements between the oily phase and the aqueous phase. The required HLB of the oil phase was also determined. The emulsification process was developed using standard preparation methods. For three months, the prototypes with high viscosity were packed in containers and stored in a stability chamber at accelerated conditions (40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% RH). During this time, the size, size polydispersity, zeta potential, viscosity, rheological profile, and creaming index were all evaluated monthly. The results showed a slight change in the physical stability of the prototypes, where the droplet size increased moderately, however, did little to destabilize the formulations. This suggests that the mixtures of cationic surfactants used could be useful for technological developments in hair conditioning products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Hair Structures Affecting Hair Appearance
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030043 - 11 Jul 2019
Abstract
Optical factors affecting hair appearance are reviewed based on hair structures from macroscopic to microscopic viewpoints. Hair appearance is the result of optical events, such as reflection, refraction, scattering, and absorption. The effects of hair structures on such optical events are summarized and [...] Read more.
Optical factors affecting hair appearance are reviewed based on hair structures from macroscopic to microscopic viewpoints. Hair appearance is the result of optical events, such as reflection, refraction, scattering, and absorption. The effects of hair structures on such optical events are summarized and structural conditions for hair appearance are considered. Hair structures are classified into the following: the alignment of multiple hair fibers, the cross-sectional shape of the hair fiber, and the microstructures of hair fiber (cuticle, cortex, and medulla). The alignment of multiple hair fibers is easily affected by the existence of meandering fibers and their alignment along hair length becomes less-synchronized. The less-synchronized orientation of multiple fibers causes the broadening of the apparent reflection and luster-less dull impression. The cross-sectional shape of hair fiber affects light reflection behavior. Hair fibers with elliptical cross-section show glittering colored light based on total reflection in the hair. The scaly structures of cuticles at the surface of hair are often uplifted and cause light scattering, and then affect hair luster. The porous structure of the cortex and medulla in hair fiber can cause light scattering and affect hair luster and color. The above phenomena suggest that important factors for hair appearance are the alignment of multiple hair fibers, appropriate cross-sectional shape, ordered scaly structure, and pore-less internal structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Degradation of Hair Surface: Importance of 18-MEA and Epicuticle
Cosmetics 2019, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6020031 - 09 May 2019
Abstract
In this paper, surface degradation of hair is reviewed. Surface properties such as hydrophobicity and surface friction change as surface structures of hair fiber, that is, 18-methyleicosanoic acid (18-MEA) and epicuticle, degrade. Comparison of contact angle and amount of 18-MEA from root to [...] Read more.
In this paper, surface degradation of hair is reviewed. Surface properties such as hydrophobicity and surface friction change as surface structures of hair fiber, that is, 18-methyleicosanoic acid (18-MEA) and epicuticle, degrade. Comparison of contact angle and amount of 18-MEA from root to tip of the sampled hair fibers clarified the contribution of not only 18-MEA but also epicuticle to surface properties. It was found that chemical treatment by itself, such as bleaching, is not enough to cause complete loss of hydrophobic nature even after 18-MEA is removed. Additional weathering processes, such as repeatedly shampooing, are required. A technology for the deposition of a persistent hydrophobicity to bleached and weathered hair surfaces using 18-MEA is presented. Combination of 18-MEA with specific cationic surfactants (Stearoxypropyldimethylamine: SPDA) made the bleached and weathered hair surface hydrophobic, and its hydrophobicity was maintained even after shampooing. Characterization of adsorbed layers of 18-MEA/SPDA on a mica surface, as a possible hydrophilic surface model, was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). The effects of the anteiso-branch moiety of 18-MEA to create a persistent hydrophobicity with 18-MEA/SPDA were investigated using controlled AFM. It was revealed that the anteiso-branch moiety of 18-MEA in the 18-MEA/SPDA system produces a persistent hydrophobicity by providing higher fluidity to the upper region of the 18-MEA/SPDA layer. The contribution to hair beauty and sensory feeling as one of the practical functions of the hair surface is described in this paper. The hydrophobic nature of the hair surface reduces surface friction in a wet state, which reduces hair disorder alignment. It is also revealed that the moisturized or dried out feeling strongly depends on the hair shape (meandering and diameter) which depends on hair surface properties in a wet environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Hair Care Cosmetics: From Traditional Shampoo to Solid Clay and Herbal Shampoo, A Review
Cosmetics 2019, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6010013 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hair is an important part of the body appeal and its look is a health indicator. Accordingly, recent advances in hair science and hair care technologies have been reported in literature claiming innovations and strategies for hair treatments and cosmetic products. The treatment [...] Read more.
Hair is an important part of the body appeal and its look is a health indicator. Accordingly, recent advances in hair science and hair care technologies have been reported in literature claiming innovations and strategies for hair treatments and cosmetic products. The treatment of hair and scalp, primarily, involved the use of shampoo for an effective, but gentle cleansing; however, for years, the shampoo is considered not only as a cosmetic product having the purifying purpose, but it is also responsible for maintaining the health and the beauty of hair, imparting gloss and improving manageability. For meeting the needs of a multitasking formulation, following also the recent marketing-trend addressed to the "natural world", new challenges for cosmetic technology are aimed towards the research of natural ingredients, as well as new techniques for shampoo formulation. Regarding the recent development of solid shampoos, little information is available about their use, formulation and advantages. This review is largely focused on the description of solid shampoos, mainly based on the use of clays, herbs or flours as washing bases alternative to the traditional ones, consisting of a combination of synthetic surfactants, together with other usual ingredients expected in a shampoo formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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Other

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Open AccessCommentary
Known and Unknown Features of Hair Cuticle Structure: A Brief Review
Cosmetics 2019, 6(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6020032 - 09 May 2019
Abstract
The cuticle is the outermost layer of overlapping flattened cells of hair and has been subjected to many years of study to understand its structure and how it develops in the follicle. The essential function of the cuticle with its tough inelastic protein [...] Read more.
The cuticle is the outermost layer of overlapping flattened cells of hair and has been subjected to many years of study to understand its structure and how it develops in the follicle. The essential function of the cuticle with its tough inelastic protein content is to protect the inner cortex that provides the elastic properties of hair. Progress in our knowledge of hair came from studies with the electron microscope, initially transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for internal structure and later the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for cuticle surface shape and for investigating changes caused by various environmental influences such as cosmetic treatments and industrial processing of wool. Other physical techniques have been successfully applied in conjunction with proteomics. The outstanding internal features of the cuticle cells are the internal layers consisting of keratin filament proteins and the keratin-associated proteins. The stability and physical toughness of the cuticle cell is partly accounted for by the high content of disulphide crosslinking. The material between the cells that holds them tightly together, the cell membrane complex, consists of a layer of lipid on both sides of a central protein layer. The lipid contains 18-methyleicosanoic acid that is part of the hydrophobic lipid surface of hair. For the past decade there have been aspects that remained unanswered because they are difficult to study. Some of these are discussed in this brief review with suggestions for experimental approaches to shed more light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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