Next Article in Journal
Calebin-A, a Curcuminoid Analog Inhibits α-MSH-Induced Melanogenesis in B16F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
In Vivo Skin Characterizations by Using Opto-Thermal Depth-Resolved Detection Spectra
Previous Article in Journal
Vitachelox: Protection of the Skin Against Blue Light-Induced Protein Carbonylation
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Beneficial Regulation of Extracellular Matrix and Heat Shock Proteins, and the Inhibition of Cellular Oxidative Stress Effects and Inflammatory Cytokines by 1α, 25 dihydroxyvitaminD3 in Non-Irradiated and Ultraviolet Radiated Dermal Fibroblasts
Open AccessCommentary

The Influence of Facial Muscle Training on the Facial Soft Tissue Profile: A Brief Review

Department of Health, Exercise Science, & Recreation Management, Kevser Ermin Applied Physiology Laboratory, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030050
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 11 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics: Feature Papers)
In this review, we summarize recent literature investigating facial-exercise-induced changes in facial soft tissue. A literature search was performed in PubMed for the terms facial exercise, rejuvenation, muscle, skin, and aging. Four studies were identified from the search and were subject to further assessment. Four studies were included in our analysis. Two of the four studies included compared the experimental (training) group to a control group. The other two studies had no control group. The participants were mainly middle-aged women. Training conditions varied; neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was used in two studies, the other two studies used an oscillatory movement device and voluntary facial isometric exercise. Two studies measured facial muscle size using ultrasonography before and after 12 weeks of NMES or 8 weeks of oscillatory movement of the face. One study assessed the changes in facial skin elasticity in a single group following 8 weeks of facial isometric exercise, while one study measured strength of labial and lingual muscles before and following 4 weeks of NMES. We found two studies that reported facial-exercise-induced increases in facial muscle size in middle-aged women. It was also reported that facial skin function may improve following facial isometric exercise. Future research is needed to clarify how these changes link with facial rejuvenation. Compared to extremity muscles, the facial muscles are small in size, their shapes are complex, and the boundaries with other tissues may be unclear. Future study is also necessary to examine the reliability of measurements of the facial muscles. View Full-Text
Keywords: facial exercise; facial muscle; facial soft tissue; ultrasonography facial exercise; facial muscle; facial soft tissue; ultrasonography
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Abe, T.; Loenneke, J.P. The Influence of Facial Muscle Training on the Facial Soft Tissue Profile: A Brief Review. Cosmetics 2019, 6, 50.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop