Special Issue "Cosmetics Contact Allergens"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Cristina Avonto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS 38677, USA
Interests: alternative methods; skin sensitization; essential oils; green ingredients; botanicals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decade, the number of non-animal approaches for skin sensitization risk assessment has risen dramatically. With the final adoption of tests for the activation of dendritic cells by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), a combination of complementary techniques is now available to characterize three of the four main key events involved in skin sensitization. Along with the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay and the ARE-Nrf2 luciferase test method, the OECD Test Guideline No. 442E is part of the ‘golden triad’ of validated alternatives. These guidelines are destined to remain a reference point for the 3R paradigm (reduce, replace and refine the use of animal experimentation) for years to come. With further methods at various validation stages and new approaches constantly emerging, it is an exciting moment for dermatotoxicological research. However, the safety testing of cosmetics still faces challenges, including potency assessment and the testing of complex mixtures, which includes essentially the entire cosmetic realm.

To complicate things further, increasing consumer demand for ‘natural’ formulations is driving the industry back to green. This driving force is partly related to the (potentially deceptive) association of ‘natural’ with safe and sustainable. Conversely, new scientific evidence and a combination of traditional wisdom with new technological advances have pushed botanicals back into the limelight as promising active ingredients. This return to nature poses major challenges to ensure consumer safety.

This Cosmetic Contact Allergens Special Issue aims to provide a collection of trending topics in the field of skin sensitization. Critical reviews and articles covering the state-of-the-art and future of alternative methods, industrial and regulatory perspectives will be the main focus of this special edition. Articles covering the applicability of computational, in chemico and in vitro methods, especially to complex formulations and botanicals, will be particularly welcomed.

Dr. Cristina Avonto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Alternative methods
  • Skin sensitization
  • Formulations
  • Botanical ingredients

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Chemical Compounds Responsible for Skin Allergy to Complex Mixtures: How to Identify Them?
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040071 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3554
Abstract
In the cosmetics industry, various natural complex mixtures such as botanical extracts and essential oils are used. In addition, finished consumer products may contain a number of constituents of natural origin but many products are derived from organic synthesis too. Hence, finding skin [...] Read more.
In the cosmetics industry, various natural complex mixtures such as botanical extracts and essential oils are used. In addition, finished consumer products may contain a number of constituents of natural origin but many products are derived from organic synthesis too. Hence, finding skin sensitizers within this myriad of chemicals is an arduous task. Nowadays, methods validated by European dedicated instances to evaluate the allergenicity of chemicals are incapable of predicting the sensitization potential of complex mixtures, although research has progressed a lot in this direction recently. In this context, precisely identifying the culprit(s) responsible for skin sensitization in these mixtures is essential for risk assessment. This review is a short summary of approaches that identify allergens in chemical mixtures such as bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, structure–activity relationship studies, and recent methods allowing identification of reactive intermediates in natural extracts exposed to air oxidation. It is shown that substantial progress has been made, although the identification of sensitizers in complex mixtures continues to be puzzling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics Contact Allergens)
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Article
Identification of Potential Skin Sensitizers in Myrrh
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030047 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4215
Abstract
The exudate of Commiphora myrrha (myrrh) has been known for centuries as one of the most popular natural skin remedies. The characterization and safety assessment of myrrh ingredients are challenging due to the chemical variability of commercially available sources, as well as potential [...] Read more.
The exudate of Commiphora myrrha (myrrh) has been known for centuries as one of the most popular natural skin remedies. The characterization and safety assessment of myrrh ingredients are challenging due to the chemical variability of commercially available sources, as well as potential adulteration. Human and animal data have reported potential concerns about myrrh as a skin sensitizer, although no specific chemical entity has been identified as a potential culprit yet. In the present work, the in chemico high-throughput method using dansylated cysteamine (HTS-DCYA) was applied to extract and fractions of myrrh samples in an attempt to identify potential skin sensitizers. Nine oxo-furanogermacranes and the sesquiterpenoid alismol were isolated as major constituents. Five of the compounds were identified as weakly to moderately reactive in HTS-DCYA and could therefore trigger the molecular initiating event leading to skin sensitization. The reactive compounds were identified as 6-oxofuranodienones (2 and 5) and methoxyfuranogermacrenones (7 and 9). The reaction adducts of 2 with DCYA was confirmed by HPLC-DAD-MS and by HPLC-MS/MS experiments. A comparison of the chemical profile of myrrh samples available in-house confirmed a certain degree of chemical variability, with compounds 1, 7, and 9 occurring in four of the six samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics Contact Allergens)
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Article
Sensitization to Fragrance mix-1 in Patients with Contact Dermatitis in Nord-East of Italy: 1996–2016 Time Trend and Gender Effect
Cosmetics 2019, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6020022 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3824
Abstract
(1) Background: Fragrance sensitization is common in Italy and their constituents are used in many cosmetics and detergents. The objective of the study was to analyze the temporal trend of sensitivity to fragrance mix-1 in northeastern Italy and to evaluate gender differences; (2) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Fragrance sensitization is common in Italy and their constituents are used in many cosmetics and detergents. The objective of the study was to analyze the temporal trend of sensitivity to fragrance mix-1 in northeastern Italy and to evaluate gender differences; (2) Methods: From 1996 to 2016, 27,381 consecutive patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested. Individual characteristics were collected through a standardized questionnaire in six departments of dermatology or occupational medicine; (3) Results: The overall prevalence of sensitization to fragrance mix-1 was 7.3%; the prevalence was significantly higher in women (7.7%) than in men (6.3%). From 1996 to 2016, we observed an increase of this sensitization, ranging from 6.2% to 7.7% in males and from 7.2% to 9.1% in females; (4) Conclusions: Our study showed that contact allergy to fragrance mix-1 is important in both sexes and prevalence is increasing over time, despite the introduction of new fragrances with lower sensitization potential. There is the need to reduce the use of fragrances mix-1 to stop the increase of sensitization in exposed subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics Contact Allergens)
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