Special Issue "Topical Pharmaceutical Products and Cosmetics"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Daniela Monti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Interests: drug delivery (cutaneous, ungual, ophthalmic, vaginal, and buccal); cell cultures (toxicity on corneal epithelium cells) and cosmetic formulations (cutaneous permeation and distribution of cosmetic ingredients)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims at focusing attention on the most modern formulation methods to direct the active ingredient at the site of action in or beyond the skin barrier for the treatment of localized or diffuse diseases. In the first case, we talk about topical administration with an effect on the surface of the skin or within the skin (epidermis and dermis) to treat cutaneous disorders or cutaneous manifestations of a general disease, also with cosmetic purposes; the second case refers to transdermal administration with a systemic effect. The skin can be considered a real organ covering the body, with different functions: Protective and barrier, sensorial, secretive, and temperature and blood pressure regulation. The extremely effective barrier effect against external substances, microorganisms, sunlight, heat, and electric current makes the skin difficult to penetrate and permeate. In fact, there are few molecules that easily permeate the cutaneous barrier, due to their chemical and physical characteristics. The formulation plays an essential role in the interaction between the active and the substrate and in reversibly modifying the permeability of the skin barrier.

In the last few years, research has focused on the development of particulate carriers as a new strategy to modulate the skin barrier and/or provide novel delivery systems for the active ingredient under study. Liposomes, solid lipid or polymeric nanoparticles (nanocapsules, nanosphere), niosomes, nanoemulsions, and nanomicelles belong to this category and, depending on the type of carrier chosen, allow the active ingredient to concentrate in the outermost skin layers or to be delivered more deeply in the skin strata, even when normal skin structure is altered due to different disorders. In addition to the intercellular route, which is the major penetration pathway, penetration through skin appendages (the shunt route) has gained renewed interest because it seems to be the predominant pathway for nanostructured delivery systems. Particulate carriers may facilitate active ingredient delivery by encapsulation of the molecules in order to increase drug localization into the hair follicles and keratinocytes in different layers of epidermis, and may provide depot into the skin through slow and sustained drug release.

Therefore, the aim of this Special issue is to provide an overview of the current knowledge in this field through original papers, reviews, and short communications.

Dr. Daniela Monti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cutaneous penetration/distribution
  • Particulate carriers
  • Transdermal permeation
  • Drug delivery
  • Cosmetics
  • Enhancers
  • Topical formulations

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Development and Characterization of New Topical Hydrogels Based on Alpha Lipoic Acid—Hydrotalcite Hybrids
Cosmetics 2019, 6(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6020035 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4992
Abstract
Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a well-known anti-aging compound. The activity of this molecule is limited by two important factors: (i) The low stability to oxidation and thermal processes and (ii) the low solubility. Particularly the latter limits ALA formulation in hydrophilic bases. [...] Read more.
Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a well-known anti-aging compound. The activity of this molecule is limited by two important factors: (i) The low stability to oxidation and thermal processes and (ii) the low solubility. Particularly the latter limits ALA formulation in hydrophilic bases. The purpose of this paper is to present a new technological approach to stabilize lipoic acid in topical hydrogels for cosmetic use. With this aim, ALA was intercalated in two different lamellar anionic clays (hydrotalcites), MgAl and ZnAl, obtaining the hybrids MgAl-ALA and ZnAl-ALA. The intercalation allows to obtain a more manageable product in comparison to raw ALA. After the preliminary characterization, hydrogels containing the hybrids were prepared and characterized, also in comparison to the commercial product Tiobec® in terms of rheological properties, stability to temperature and centrifugation, release, and cytotoxicity. The obtained results highlighted that the hydrogel containing MgAl-ALA is a suitable alternative to the products currently available on the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topical Pharmaceutical Products and Cosmetics)
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Article
Skin Retention of Sorbates from an After Sun Formulation for a Broad Photoprotection
Cosmetics 2019, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6010014 - 27 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5038
Abstract
Overexposure to sunlight is widely accepted as the underlying cause of cutaneous melanoma. UV radiation induces the formation of DNA photoproducts that, if unrepaired, can induce carcinogenic mutations. Recent data indicate that sorbates can be useful to widen the protection against UV radiation [...] Read more.
Overexposure to sunlight is widely accepted as the underlying cause of cutaneous melanoma. UV radiation induces the formation of DNA photoproducts that, if unrepaired, can induce carcinogenic mutations. Recent data indicate that sorbates can be useful to widen the protection against UV radiation by acting as a triplet-state quencher in the melanocyte. The aim of the present work was to prepare an after sun formulation containing ethylsorbate or sorbic acid in order to take advantage of the triplet-state quenching activity of these molecules and protect the skin from UV-induced damages. Ethylsorbate and sorbic acid were characterized in terms of solubility and partition coefficient, and their transdermal permeation and skin accumulation were studied in vitro from simple solutions and in the presence of cyclodextrins (alpha and hydroxypropylbeta) as a complexing agent. The goal was to reduce as much as possible sorbates permeation while sustaining their skin levels. The obtained results indicated that the addition of alphacyclodextrins determined a 6-folds (ethylsorbate ) or 4-folds (sorbic acid) reduction of the transdermal permeation. Sorbic acid and alphacyclodextrin (1:1 molar ratio) were then formulated in an after sun vehicle using 1.5% hyaluronic acid (sodium salt) as a thickener and hydrating agent. The addition of hyaluronic acid gave rise to a formulation with good cosmetic properties and good sorbate (0.2–0.3 µmol/cm2) skin levels (stratum corneum + viable epidermis) and thus a potential protection against post-exposure UV damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topical Pharmaceutical Products and Cosmetics)
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Review

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Review
Ascorbic Acid in Skin Health
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040058 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 7233
Abstract
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin and a recognized antioxidant drug that is used topically in dermatology to treat and prevent the changes associated with photoaging, as well as for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Ascorbic acid has neutralizing properties of free [...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin and a recognized antioxidant drug that is used topically in dermatology to treat and prevent the changes associated with photoaging, as well as for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Ascorbic acid has neutralizing properties of free radicals, being able to interact with superoxide, hydroxyl and free oxygen ions, preventing the inflammatory processes, carcinogens, and other processes that accelerate photoaging in the skin. Current research focuses on the search for stable compounds of ascorbic acid and new alternatives for administration in the dermis. Unlike plants and most animals, humans do not have the ability to synthesize our own ascorbic acid due to the deficiency of the enzyme L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, which catalyzes the passage terminal in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis. To deal with this situation, humans obtain this vitamin from the diet and/or vitamin supplements, thus preventing the development of diseases and achieving general well-being. Ascorbic acid is involved in important metabolic functions and is vital for the growth and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth, gums, ligaments, and blood vessels. Ascorbic acid is a very unstable vitamin and is easily oxidized in aqueous solutions and cosmetic formulations. Ascorbic acid is extensively used as an ingredient in anti-aging cosmetic products, as sodium ascorbate or ascorbyl palmitate. This review discusses and describes the potential roles for ascorbic acid in skin health and their clinical applications (antioxidative, photoprotective, anti-aging, and anti-pigmentary effects) of topical ascorbic acid on the skin and main mechanisms of action. Considering the instability and difficulty in administering ascorbic acid, we also discuss the importance of several factors involved in the formulation and stabilization of their topical preparations in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topical Pharmaceutical Products and Cosmetics)
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Review
Recent Advances on Topical Application of Ceramides to Restore Barrier Function of Skin
Cosmetics 2019, 6(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6030052 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6698
Abstract
Human skin is the largest organ of the body and is an effective physical barrier keeping it from environmental conditions. This barrier function of the skin is based on stratum corneum, located in the uppermost skin. Stratum corneum has corneocytes surrounded by [...] Read more.
Human skin is the largest organ of the body and is an effective physical barrier keeping it from environmental conditions. This barrier function of the skin is based on stratum corneum, located in the uppermost skin. Stratum corneum has corneocytes surrounded by multilamellar lipid membranes which are composed of cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides (CERs). Alterations in ceramide content of the stratum corneum are associated with numerous skin disorders. In recent years, CERs have been incorporated into conventional and novel carrier systems with the purpose of exogenously applying CERs to help the barrier function of the skin. This review provides an overview of the structure, function and importance of CERs to restore the barrier function of the skin following their topical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topical Pharmaceutical Products and Cosmetics)
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