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Antibiotics, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 114 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Ayahuasca is a South American beverage commonly prepared from the leaves of the Psychotria viridis shrub and stem scraps from the Banisteriopsis caapi vine or another plants. The resulting brew may contain N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a powerful psychedelic drug, and harmala alkaloids, which allow making DMT orally active. Ayahuasca is used largely as an aid to spiritual practices, and some recent investigations have pointed to its potential therapeutic effects. This work allowed a more in-depth knowledge of the phytochemical composition of Ayahuasca samples. Their ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and the capability to scavenge free radicals were demonstrated, indicating antioxidant properties. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities were also tested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of this kind. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
Time Trends and Factors Associated with Antibiotic Prescribing in Swiss Primary Care (2008 to 2020)
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110837 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a major threat to public health, and the majority of antibiotics are prescribed in the outpatient setting, especially in primary care. Monitoring antibiotic consumption is one key measure in containing ABR, but Swiss national surveillance data are limited. We [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a major threat to public health, and the majority of antibiotics are prescribed in the outpatient setting, especially in primary care. Monitoring antibiotic consumption is one key measure in containing ABR, but Swiss national surveillance data are limited. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to characterise the patterns of antibiotic prescriptions, assess the time trends, and identify the factors associated with antibiotic prescribing in Swiss primary care. Using electronic medical records data, we analysed 206,599 antibiotic prescriptions from 112,378 patients. Based on 27,829 patient records, respiratory (52.1%), urinary (27.9%), and skin (4.8%) infections were the commonest clinical indications for antibiotic prescribing. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were broad-spectrum penicillins (BSP) (36.5%), fluoroquinolones (16.4%), and macrolides/lincosamides (13.8%). Based on the WHO AWaRe classification, antibiotics were 57.9% Core-Access and 41.7% Watch, 69% of which were fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Between 2008 and 2020, fluoroquinolones and macrolides/lincosamides prescriptions significantly declined by 53% and 51%; BSP prescriptions significantly increased by 54%. Increasing patients’ age, volume, and employment level were significantly associated with antibiotic prescribing. Our results may inform future antibiotic stewardship interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics Use in Primary Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni Biofilm Formation by D-Amino Acids
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110836 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 473
Abstract
The ability of bacterial pathogens to form biofilms is an important virulence mechanism in relation to their pathogenesis and transmission. Biofilms play a crucial role in survival in unfavorable environmental conditions, acting as reservoirs of microbial contamination and antibiotic resistance. For intestinal pathogen [...] Read more.
The ability of bacterial pathogens to form biofilms is an important virulence mechanism in relation to their pathogenesis and transmission. Biofilms play a crucial role in survival in unfavorable environmental conditions, acting as reservoirs of microbial contamination and antibiotic resistance. For intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, biofilms are considered to be a contributing factor in transmission through the food chain and currently, there are no known methods for intervention. Here, we present an unconventional approach to reducing biofilm formation by C. jejuni by the application of D-amino acids (DAs), and L-amino acids (LAs). We found that DAs and not LAs, except L-alanine, reduced biofilm formation by up to 70%. The treatment of C. jejuni cells with DAs changed the biofilm architecture and reduced the appearance of amyloid-like fibrils. In addition, a mixture of DAs enhanced antimicrobial efficacy of D-Cycloserine (DCS) up to 32% as compared with DCS treatment alone. Unexpectedly, D-alanine was able to reverse the inhibitory effect of other DAs as well as that of DCS. Furthermore, L-alanine and D-tryptophan decreased transcript levels of peptidoglycan biosynthesis enzymes alanine racemase (alr) and D-alanine-D-alanine ligase (ddlA) while D-serine was only able to decrease the transcript levels of alr. Our findings suggest that a combination of DAs could reduce biofilm formation, viability and persistence of C. jejuni through dysregulation of alr and ddlA. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Peri-Implant Diseases: Diagnosis, Clinical, Histological, Microbiological Characteristics and Treatment Strategies. A Narrative Review
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110835 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Since the use of dental implants is continuously increasing, it is imperative for dental practitioners to understand the nature and treatment of peri-implant diseases. The purpose of this manuscript is to comprehensively review peri-implant diseases, their characteristics, as well as their non-surgical and [...] Read more.
Since the use of dental implants is continuously increasing, it is imperative for dental practitioners to understand the nature and treatment of peri-implant diseases. The purpose of this manuscript is to comprehensively review peri-implant diseases, their characteristics, as well as their non-surgical and surgical treatment. To that end, the current literature was searched and a narrative review was conducted. It is essential that the case definitions described in the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions are used to diagnose and classify peri-implant health, peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. While recent epidemiologic studies on peri-implant diseases exist, there is great heterogeneity in the definition of these conditions. Several risk factors and indicators are reported in the literature, with smoking and diabetes being the most universally accepted. In peri-implant mucositis, non-surgical treatment seems to be sufficient. However, for the treatment of peri-implantitis, a surgical approach, which includes open-flap debridement, apically positioned flap and guided bone regeneration, is considered more appropriate. A great variety of adjuncts to mechanical treatment have been reported with controversial results. Finally, studies comparing results from different peri-implantitis treatments are warranted in randomized controlled clinical trials in order to provide stronger evidence-based approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Organic and Conventional Dairy Herds in Sweden
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110834 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Monitoring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and use (AMU) is important for control. We used Escherichia coli from healthy young calves as an indicator to evaluate whether AMR patterns differ between Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds and whether the patterns could be related to [...] Read more.
Monitoring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and use (AMU) is important for control. We used Escherichia coli from healthy young calves as an indicator to evaluate whether AMR patterns differ between Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds and whether the patterns could be related to AMU data. Samples were taken twice, in 30 organic and 30 conventional dairy herds. Selective culturing for Escherichia coli, without antibiotics and with nalidixic acid or tetracycline, was used to estimate the proportions of resistant isolates. Microdilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for thirteen antimicrobial substances. AMU data were based on collection of empty drug packages. Less than 8% of the bacterial growth on non-selective plates was also found on selective plates with tetracycline, and 1% on plates with nalidixic acid. Despite some MIC variations, resistance patterns were largely similar in both periods, and between organic and conventional herds. For most substances, only a few isolates were classified as resistant. The most common resistances were against ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. No clear association with AMU could be found. The lack of difference between organic and conventional herds is likely due to a generally good animal health status and consequent low AMU in both categories. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Can We Exploit β-Lactamases Intrinsic Dynamics for Designing More Effective Inhibitors?
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110833 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 439
Abstract
β-lactamases (BLs) represent the most frequent cause of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the continuous efforts in the development of BL inhibitors (BLIs), new BLs able to hydrolyze the last developed antibiotics rapidly emerge. Moreover, the insurgence rate of effective mutations is [...] Read more.
β-lactamases (BLs) represent the most frequent cause of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the continuous efforts in the development of BL inhibitors (BLIs), new BLs able to hydrolyze the last developed antibiotics rapidly emerge. Moreover, the insurgence rate of effective mutations is far higher than the release of BLIs able to counteract them. This results in a shortage of antibiotics that is menacing the effective treating of infectious diseases. The situation is made even worse by the co-expression in bacteria of BLs with different mechanisms and hydrolysis spectra, and by the lack of inhibitors able to hit them all. Differently from other targets, BL flexibility has not been deeply exploited for drug design, possibly because of the small protein size, for their apparent rigidity and their high fold conservation. In this mini-review, we discuss the evidence for BL binding site dynamics being crucial for catalytic efficiency, mutation effect, and for the design of new inhibitors. Then, we report on identified allosteric sites in BLs and on possible allosteric inhibitors, as a strategy to overcome the frequent occurrence of mutations in BLs and the difficulty of competing efficaciously with substrates. Nevertheless, allosteric inhibitors could work synergistically with traditional inhibitors, increasing the chances of restoring bacterial susceptibility towards available antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Targets and Mechanisms in Antimicrobial Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Sequential Hypertonic-Hypotonic Treatment Enhances Efficacy of Antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii Biofilm Communities
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110832 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Infections with bacterial biofilm communities are highly tolerant of antibiotics. This protection is attributed, in part, to a hydrated extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that surrounds the bacterial community and that limits antibiotic diffusion. In this study, we evaluated whether it is possible to [...] Read more.
Infections with bacterial biofilm communities are highly tolerant of antibiotics. This protection is attributed, in part, to a hydrated extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that surrounds the bacterial community and that limits antibiotic diffusion. In this study, we evaluated whether it is possible to dehydrate and then re-hydrate a biofilm as a means to increase antibiotic penetration and efficacy. Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms (24 h) were exposed to hypertonic concentrations of maltodextrin, sucrose or polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the dehydration step. These biofilms were then washed with deionized water containing 10 times the concentration of antibiotics needed to kill these bacteria in broth culture (50 µg/mL tobramycin, 300 µg/mL chloramphenicol, 20 µg/mL ciprofloxacin or 100 µg/mL erythromycin) as the rehydration step. Biofilms were then harvested, and the number of viable cells was determined. Sequential treatment with PEG and tobramycin reduced cell counts 4 to 7 log (p < 0.05) relative to combining PEG and tobramycin in a single treatment, and 3 to 7 log relative to tobramycin treatment alone (p < 0.05). Results were variable for other osmotic compounds and antibiotics depending on the concentrations used, likely related to mass and hydrophobicity. Our findings support future clinical evaluation of sequential regimens of hypertonic and hypotonic solutions to enhance antibiotic efficacy against chronic biofilm infections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Scorpion-Venom-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide Css54 Exerts Potent Antimicrobial Activity by Disrupting Bacterial Membrane of Zoonotic Bacteria
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110831 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is an important issue affecting humans and livestock. Antimicrobial peptides are promising alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, the antimicrobial peptide Css54, isolated from the venom of C. suffuses, was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Listeria [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is an important issue affecting humans and livestock. Antimicrobial peptides are promising alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, the antimicrobial peptide Css54, isolated from the venom of C. suffuses, was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus suis, Campylobacter jejuni, and Salmonella typhimurium that cause zoonotic diseases. Moreover, the cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity of Css54 was lower than that of melittin isolated from bee venom. Circular dichroism assays showed that Css54 has an α-helix structure in an environment mimicking that of bacterial cell membranes. We examined the effect of Css54 on bacterial membranes using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, 3,3′-dipropylthiadicarbbocyanine iodides, SYTOX green, and propidium iodide. Our findings suggest that the Css54 peptide kills bacteria by disrupting the bacterial membrane. Moreover, Css54 exhibited antibiofilm activity against L. monocytogenes. Thus, Css54 may be useful as an alternative to antibiotics in humans and animal husbandry. Full article
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Open AccessReview
African Plant-Based Natural Products with Antivirulence Activities to the Rescue of Antibiotics
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110830 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 567
Abstract
The worldwide emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the thread of widespread superbug infections have led researchers to constantly look for novel effective antimicrobial agents. Within the past two decades, there has been an increase in studies attempting to discover molecules with innovative properties [...] Read more.
The worldwide emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the thread of widespread superbug infections have led researchers to constantly look for novel effective antimicrobial agents. Within the past two decades, there has been an increase in studies attempting to discover molecules with innovative properties against pathogenic bacteria, notably by disrupting mechanisms of bacterial virulence and/or biofilm formation which are both regulated by the cell-to-cell communication mechanism called ‘quorum sensing’ (QS). Certainly, targeting the virulence of bacteria and their capacity to form biofilms, without affecting their viability, may contribute to reduce their pathogenicity, allowing sufficient time for an immune response to infection and a reduction in the use of antibiotics. African plants, through their huge biodiversity, present a considerable reservoir of secondary metabolites with a very broad spectrum of biological activities, a potential source of natural products targeting such non-microbicidal mechanisms. The present paper aims to provide an overview on two main aspects: (i) succinct presentation of bacterial virulence and biofilm formation as well as their entanglement through QS mechanisms and (ii) detailed reports on African plant extracts and isolated compounds with antivirulence properties against particular pathogenic bacteria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Resistance Risk Assessment Models and Database System for Animal-Derived Pathogens
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110829 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 387
Abstract
(1) Background: The high use of antibiotics has made the issue of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) increasingly serious, which poses a substantial threat to the health of animals and humans. However, there remains a certain gap in the AMR system and risk assessment models [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The high use of antibiotics has made the issue of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) increasingly serious, which poses a substantial threat to the health of animals and humans. However, there remains a certain gap in the AMR system and risk assessment models between China and the advanced world level. Therefore, this paper aims to provide advanced means for the monitoring of antibiotic use and AMR data, and take piglets as an example to evaluate the risk and highlight the seriousness of AMR in China. (2) Methods: Based on the principal component analysis method, a drug resistance index model of anti-E. coli drugs was established to evaluate the antibiotic risk status in China. Additionally, based on the second-order Monte Carlo methods, a disease risk assessment model for piglets was established to predict the probability of E. coli disease within 30 days of taking florfenicol. Finally, a browser/server architecture-based visualization database system for animal-derived pathogens was developed. (3) Results: The risk of E. coli in the main area was assessed and Hohhot was the highest risk area in China. Compared with the true disease risk probability of 4.1%, the result of the disease risk assessment model is 7.174%, and the absolute error was 3.074%. Conclusions: Taking E. coli as an example, this paper provides an innovative method for rapid and accurate risk assessment of drug resistance. Additionally, the established system and assessment models have potential value for the monitoring and evaluating AMR, highlight the seriousness of antimicrobial resistance, advocate the prudent use of antibiotics, and ensure the safety of animal-derived foods and human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Animals)
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Open AccessCommunication
Impact of Tigecycline’s MIC in the Outcome of Critically Ill Patients with Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteraemia Treated with Tigecycline Monotherapy—Validation of 2019′s EUCAST Proposed Breakpoint Changes
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110828 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Background: Tigecycline is a therapeutic option for carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp). Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the tigecycline’s minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the outcome of patients with CP-Kp bacteraemia treated with tigecycline monotherapy. Methods: Patients with monomicrobial bacteraemia due [...] Read more.
Background: Tigecycline is a therapeutic option for carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp). Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the tigecycline’s minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the outcome of patients with CP-Kp bacteraemia treated with tigecycline monotherapy. Methods: Patients with monomicrobial bacteraemia due to CP-Kp that received appropriate targeted monotherapy or no appropriate treatment were included. Primary outcome was 30-day mortality. MICs of meropenem, tigecycline, and ceftazidime/avibactam were determined by Etest, whereas for colistin, the broth microdilution method was applied. PCR for blaKPC, blaVIM, blaNDM, and blaOXA genes was applied. Results: Among 302 CP-Kp bacteraemias, 32 isolates (10.6%) showed MICs of tigecycline ≤ 0.5 mg/L, whereas 177 (58.6%) showed MICs that were 0.75–2 mg/L. Colistin and aminoglycoside susceptibility was observed in 43.0% and 23.8% of isolates, respectively. The majority of isolates carried blaKPC (249; 82.5%), followed by blaVIM (26; 8.6%), both blaKPC and blaVIM (16; 5.3%), and blaNDM (11; 3.6%). Fifteen patients with tigecycline MIC ≤ 0.5 mg/L and 55 with MIC 0.75–2 mg/L were treated with tigecycline monotherapy; 30-day mortality was 20.0% and 50.9%, respectively (p = 0.042). Mortality of 150 patients that received other antimicrobials was 24.7%; among 82 patients that received no appropriate treatment, mortality was 39.0%. No difference in 30-day mortality was observed between patients that received tigecycline (MIC ≤ 0.5 mg/L) or other antimicrobials. Conclusion: Tigecycline monotherapy was as efficacious as other antimicrobials in the treatment of bloodstream infections due to CP-Kp isolates with a tigecycline’s MIC ≤ 0.5 mg/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: The Final Frontier)
Open AccessPerspective
Phage Therapy: Towards a Successful Clinical Trial
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110827 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 583
Abstract
While phage therapy carried out as compassionate use (experimental therapy) has recently flourished, providing numerous case reports of supposedly healed patients, clinical trials aiming to formally prove their value in accord with current regulatory requirements have failed. In light of the current issue [...] Read more.
While phage therapy carried out as compassionate use (experimental therapy) has recently flourished, providing numerous case reports of supposedly healed patients, clinical trials aiming to formally prove their value in accord with current regulatory requirements have failed. In light of the current issue of increasing antibiotic resistance, the need for a final say regarding the place of phage therapy in modern medicine is evident. We analyze the possible factors that may favor success or lead to the failure of phage therapy: quality of phage preparations, their titer and dosage, as well as external factors that could also contribute to the outcome of phage therapy. Hopefully, better control of these factors may eventually bring about long-awaited positive results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Plasmid-Mediated Ampicillin, Quinolone, and Heavy Metal Co-Resistance among ESBL-Producing Isolates from the Yamuna River, New Delhi, India
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110826 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is one of the major current global health crises. Because of increasing contamination with antimicrobials, pesticides, and heavy metals, the aquatic environment has become a hotspot for emergence, maintenance, and dissemination of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes among bacteria. The [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is one of the major current global health crises. Because of increasing contamination with antimicrobials, pesticides, and heavy metals, the aquatic environment has become a hotspot for emergence, maintenance, and dissemination of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes among bacteria. The aim of the present study was to determine the co-resistance to quinolones, ampicillin, and heavy metals among the bacterial isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) genes. Among 73 bacterial strains isolated from a highly polluted stretch of the Yamuna River in Delhi, those carrying blaCTX-M, blaTEM, or blaSHV genes were analyzed to detect the genetic determinants of resistance to quinolones, ampicillin, mercury, and arsenic. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene qnrS was found in 22 isolates; however, the qnrA, B, C, and qnrD genes could not be detected in any of the bacteria. Two variants of CMY, blaCMY-2 and blaCMY-42, were identified among eight and seven strains, respectively. Furthermore, merB, merP, merT, and arsC genes were detected in 40, 40, 44, and 24 bacterial strains, respectively. Co-transfer of different resistance genes was also investigated in a transconjugation experiment. Successful transconjugants had antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes with similar tolerance toward antibiotics and heavy metals as did their donors. This study indicates that the aquatic environment is a major reservoir of bacteria harboring resistance genes to antibiotics and heavy metals and emphasizes the need to study the genetic basis of resistant microorganisms and their public health implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanism and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Absence of mgrB Alleviates Negative Growth Effects of Colistin Resistance in Enterobacter cloacae
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110825 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Colistin is an important last-line antibiotic to treat highly resistant Enterobacter infections. Resistance to colistin has emerged among clinical isolates but has been associated with a significant growth defect. Here, we describe a clinical Enterobacter isolate with a deletion of mgrB, a [...] Read more.
Colistin is an important last-line antibiotic to treat highly resistant Enterobacter infections. Resistance to colistin has emerged among clinical isolates but has been associated with a significant growth defect. Here, we describe a clinical Enterobacter isolate with a deletion of mgrB, a regulator of colistin resistance, leading to high-level resistance in the absence of a growth defect. The identification of a path to resistance unrestrained by growth defects suggests colistin resistance could become more common in Enterobacter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Inhibitory Effect of Apis mellifera’s Venom and of Its Two Main Components—Melittin and PLA2—on Escherichia coli F1F0-ATPase
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110824 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Bacterial resistance has become a worrying problem for human health, especially since certain bacterial strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) can cause very serious infections. Thus, the search for novel natural inhibitors with new bacterial targets would be crucial to overcome [...] Read more.
Bacterial resistance has become a worrying problem for human health, especially since certain bacterial strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) can cause very serious infections. Thus, the search for novel natural inhibitors with new bacterial targets would be crucial to overcome resistance to antibiotics. Here, we evaluate the inhibitory effects of Apis mellifera bee venom (BV-Am) and of its two main components -melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2)- on E. coli F1F0-ATPase enzyme, a crucial molecular target for the survival of these bacteria. Thus, we optimized a spectrophotometric method to evaluate the enzymatic activity by quantifying the released phosphate from ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by E. coli F1F0-ATPase. The protocol developed for inhibition assays of this enzyme was validated by two reference inhibitors, thymoquinone (IC50 = 57.5 μM) and quercetin (IC50 = 30 μM). Results showed that BV-Am has a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on E. coli F1F0-ATPase with 50% inhibition at 18.43 ± 0.92 μg/mL. Melittin inhibits this enzyme with IC50 = 9.03 ± 0.27 µM, emphasizing a more inhibitory effect than the two previous reference inhibitors adopted. Likewise, PLA2 inhibits E. coli F1F0-ATPase with a dose-dependent effect (50% inhibition at 2.11 ± 0.11 μg/mL) and its combination with melittin enhanced the inhibition extent of this enzyme. Crude venom and mainly melittin and PLA2, inhibit E. coli F1F0-ATPase and could be considered as important candidates for combating resistant bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Antibiotics from Microbes and Venomous Animals)
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns and Wild-Type MIC Distributions of Anaerobic Bacteria at a German University Hospital: A Five-Year Retrospective Study (2015–2019)
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110823 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 440
Abstract
Local antimicrobial susceptibility surveys are crucial for optimal empirical therapy guidelines and for aiding in antibiotic stewardship and treatment decisions. For many laboratories, a comprehensive overview of local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria is still lacking due to the long incubation time [...] Read more.
Local antimicrobial susceptibility surveys are crucial for optimal empirical therapy guidelines and for aiding in antibiotic stewardship and treatment decisions. For many laboratories, a comprehensive overview of local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria is still lacking due to the long incubation time and effort involved. The present study investigates the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and related clinical and demographic data of 2856 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria that were submitted for analysis to the Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene of the Freiburg University Medical Center (a tertiary university medical center in Southern Germany) between 2015 and 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing has been carried out according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guideline. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)50 and MIC90 for penicillin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, and clindamycin were established for Gram-positive anaerobes and for ampicillin-sulbactam, meropenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, and clindamycin for Gram-negative anaerobes. The distribution of MIC-values for various antibiotics against anaerobic bacteria was also established, especially for those having no specific breakpoints according to EUCAST guidelines. Most clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria originated from general surgery, neurological, and orthopedic wards. A high proportion of isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin and clindamycin indicating the importance of their susceptibility testing before administration. Based on our study metronidazole and other β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations such as ampicillin-sulbactam remain suitable for empirical treatment of infections with anaerobic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of a Rapid Diagnostic Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel on Antimicrobial Use and Clinical Outcomes in Children
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110822 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Rapid molecular diagnostic assays are increasingly used to guide effective antimicrobial therapy. Data on their effectiveness to decrease antimicrobial use in children have been limited and varied. We aimed to assess the impact of the implementation of the FilmArray Meningitis Encephalitis Panel (MEP) [...] Read more.
Rapid molecular diagnostic assays are increasingly used to guide effective antimicrobial therapy. Data on their effectiveness to decrease antimicrobial use in children have been limited and varied. We aimed to assess the impact of the implementation of the FilmArray Meningitis Encephalitis Panel (MEP) on antimicrobial use and outcomes in children. In an observational retrospective study performed at Atlantic Health System (NJ), we sought to evaluate the duration of intravenous antibiotic treatment (days of therapy (DoT)) for patients <21 years of age hospitalized and evaluated for presumptive meningitis or encephalitis before and after the introduction of the MEP. A secondary analysis was performed to determine if recovery of a respiratory pathogen influenced DoT. The median duration of antibiotic therapy prior to the implementation of the MEP was 5 DoT (interquartile range (IQR): 3–6) versus 3 DoT (IQR: 1–5) (p < 0.001) when MEP was performed. The impact was greatest on intravenous third-generation cephalosporin and ampicillin use. We found a reduction in the number of inpatient days associated with the MEP. In the regression analysis, a positive respiratory pathogen panel (RPP) was not a significant predictor of DoT (p = 0.08). Furthermore, we found no significant difference between DoT among patients with negative and positive RPP (p = 0.12). Our study supports the implementation of rapid diagnostics to decrease the utilization of antibiotic therapy among pediatric patients admitted with concerns related to meningitis or encephalitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Prescribing and Stewardship)
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Open AccessReview
Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Medical Students on Antimicrobial Stewardship
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110821 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is an ongoing threat to modern medicine throughout the world. The World Health Organisation has emphasized the importance of adequate and effective training of medical students in wise prescribing of antibiotics Furthermore, Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) has been recognized as a [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is an ongoing threat to modern medicine throughout the world. The World Health Organisation has emphasized the importance of adequate and effective training of medical students in wise prescribing of antibiotics Furthermore, Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) has been recognized as a rapidly growing field in medicine that sets a goal of rational use of antibiotics in terms of dosing, duration of therapy and route of administration. We undertook the current review to systematically summarize and present the published data on the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of medical students on AMS. We reviewed all studies published in English from 2007 to 2020. We found that although medical students recognize the problem of AMR, they lack basic knowledge regarding AMR. Incorporating novel and effective training methods on all aspects of AMS and AMR in the Medical Curricula worldwide is of paramount importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Prescribing and Stewardship)
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Open AccessArticle
Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Resistant Determinants among Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae from Beef Cattle in the North West Province, South Africa: A Critical Assessment of Their Possible Public Health Implications
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110820 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Carbapenems are considered to be the last resort antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. The purpose of this study was to assess antimicrobial resistance profile of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolated from cattle faeces and determine the presence [...] Read more.
Carbapenems are considered to be the last resort antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. The purpose of this study was to assess antimicrobial resistance profile of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolated from cattle faeces and determine the presence of carbapenemase and ESBL encoding genes. A total of 233 faecal samples were collected from cattle and analysed for the presence of CRE. The CRE isolates revealed resistance phenotypes against imipenem (42%), ertapenem (35%), doripenem (30%), meropenem (28%), cefotaxime, (59.6%) aztreonam (54.3%) and cefuroxime (47.7%). Multidrug resistance phenotypes ranged from 1.4 to 27% while multi antibiotic resistance (MAR) index value ranged from 0.23 to 0.69, with an average of 0.40. Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and Salmonella (34.4, 43.7, 1.3 and 4.6%, respectively) were the most frequented detected species through genus specific PCR analysis. Detection of genes encoding carbapenemase ranged from 3.3% to 35% (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaGES, blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaOXA-23). Furthermore, CRE isolates harboured ESBL genes (blaSHV (33.1%), blaTEM (22.5%), blaCTX-M (20.5%) and blaOXA (11.3%)). In conclusion, these findings indicate that cattle harbour CRE carrying ESBL determinants and thus, proper hygiene measures must be enforced to mitigate the spread of CRE strains to food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales)
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Open AccessArticle
Pangenome Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals Core-Drug Targets and Screening of Promising Lead Compounds for Drug Discovery
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110819 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), is one of the leading causes of human deaths globally according to the WHO TB 2019 report. The continuous rise in multi- and extensive-drug resistance in M. tuberculosis broadens the challenges to control tuberculosis. [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), is one of the leading causes of human deaths globally according to the WHO TB 2019 report. The continuous rise in multi- and extensive-drug resistance in M. tuberculosis broadens the challenges to control tuberculosis. The availability of a large number of completely sequenced genomes of M. tuberculosis has provided an opportunity to explore the pangenome of the species along with the pan-phylogeny and to identify potential novel drug targets leading to drug discovery. We attempt to calculate the pangenome of M. tuberculosis that comprises a total of 150 complete genomes and performed the phylo-genomic classification and analysis. Further, the conserved core genome (1251 proteins) is subjected to various sequential filters (non-human homology, essentiality, virulence, physicochemical parameters, and pathway analysis) resulted in identification of eight putative broad-spectrum drug targets. Upon molecular docking analyses of these targets with ligands available at the DrugBank database shortlisted a total of five promising ligands with projected inhibitory potential; namely, 2′deoxy-thymidine-5′-diphospho-alpha-d-glucose, uridine diphosphate glucose, 2′-deoxy-thymidine-beta-l-rhamnose, thymidine-5′-triphosphate, and citicoline. We are confident that with further lead optimization and experimental validation, these lead compounds may provide a sound basis to develop safe and effective drugs against tuberculosis disease in humans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Increased Intraspecies Diversity in Escherichia coli Biofilms Promotes Cellular Growth at the Expense of Matrix Production
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110818 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Intraspecies diversity in biofilm communities is associated with enhanced survival and growth of the individual biofilm populations. Studies on the subject are scarce, namely, when more than three strains are present. Hence, in this study, the influence of intraspecies diversity in biofilm populations [...] Read more.
Intraspecies diversity in biofilm communities is associated with enhanced survival and growth of the individual biofilm populations. Studies on the subject are scarce, namely, when more than three strains are present. Hence, in this study, the influence of intraspecies diversity in biofilm populations composed of up to six different Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine was evaluated in conditions mimicking the ones observed in urinary tract infections and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. In general, with the increasing number of strains in a biofilm, an increase in cell cultivability and a decrease in matrix production were observed. For instance, single-strain biofilms produced an average of 73.1 µg·cm−2 of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), while six strains biofilms produced 19.9 µg·cm−2. Hence, it appears that increased genotypic diversity in a biofilm leads E. coli to direct energy towards the production of its offspring, in detriment of the production of public goods (i.e., matrix components). Apart from ecological implications, these results can be explored as another strategy to reduce the biofilm burden, as a decrease in EPS matrix production may render these intraspecies biofilms more sensitive to antimicrobial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on Biofilm Antimicrobial Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
Biofilm-Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Clinical Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110817 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 497
Abstract
In order to understand the role of biofilm in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, a total of 104 clinical Acinetobacter baumannii strains were investigated for their biofilm-forming capacities and genes associated with biofilm formation. Selected biofilm-formers were tested for antibiotic susceptibilities when grown [...] Read more.
In order to understand the role of biofilm in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, a total of 104 clinical Acinetobacter baumannii strains were investigated for their biofilm-forming capacities and genes associated with biofilm formation. Selected biofilm-formers were tested for antibiotic susceptibilities when grown in biofilm phase. Reversibility of antibiotic susceptibility in planktonic cells regrown from biofilm were investigated. We found 59.6% of the strains were biofilm-formers, among which, 66.1% were non-multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. Presence of virulence genes bap, csuE, and abaI was significantly associated with biofilm-forming capacities. When strains were grown in biofilm state, the minimum biofilm eradication concentrations were 44, 407, and 364 times higher than the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for colistin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem, respectively. Persisters were detected after treating the biofilm at 32–256 times the MBC of planktonic cells. Reversibility test for antibiotic susceptibility showed that biofilm formation induced reversible antibiotic tolerance in the non-MDR strains but a higher level of irreversible resistance in the extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strain. In summary, we showed that the non-MDR strains were strong biofilm-formers. Presence of persisters in biofilm contributed to the reduced antibiotic susceptibilities. Biofilm-grown Acinetobacter baumannii has induced antibiotic tolerance in non-MDR strains and increased resistance levels in XDR strains. To address the regulatory mechanisms of biofilm-specific resistance, thorough investigations at genome and transcription levels are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on Biofilm Antimicrobial Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Antimicrobial Consumption and Hospital-Acquired Candidemia and Multidrug-Resistant Bloodstream Infections
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110816 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship strategies has been recommended. This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care Spanish hospital with an active ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP). For a 20-week period, we [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship strategies has been recommended. This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care Spanish hospital with an active ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP). For a 20-week period, we weekly assessed antimicrobial consumption, incidence density, and crude death rate per 1000 occupied bed days of candidemia and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI). We conducted a segmented regression analysis of time series. Antimicrobial consumption increased +3.5% per week (p = 0.016) for six weeks after the national lockdown, followed by a sustained weekly reduction of −6.4% (p = 0.001). The global trend for the whole period was stable. The frequency of empirical treatment of patients with COVID-19 was 33.7%. No change in the global trend of incidence of hospital-acquired candidemia and MDR bacterial BSI was observed (+0.5% weekly; p = 0.816), nor differences in 14 and 30-day crude death rates (p = 0.653 and p = 0.732, respectively). Our work provides quantitative data about the pandemic effect on antimicrobial consumption and clinical outcomes in a centre with an active ongoing institutional and education-based ASP. However, assessing the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial resistance is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship)
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Open AccessBrief Report
The Case for Intermittent Carbapenem Dosing in Stable Haemodialysis Patients
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110815 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Purpose: Antimicrobial resistant infections are common in patients on haemodialysis, often needing long courses of carbapenems. This results in a longer hospital stay and risk of iatrogenic complications. However, carbapenems can be given intermittently to allow for earlier discharge. We aim to describe [...] Read more.
Purpose: Antimicrobial resistant infections are common in patients on haemodialysis, often needing long courses of carbapenems. This results in a longer hospital stay and risk of iatrogenic complications. However, carbapenems can be given intermittently to allow for earlier discharge. We aim to describe the clinical outcomes of intermittent versus daily meropenem in stable, intermittently haemodialysed patients. Methods: In total, 103 records were examined retrospectively. Data collected include demographics, clinical interventions and outcomes such as hospital length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission rates and adverse events. Findings: Mean age 61.6 ± 14.2 years, 57.3% male. Most common bacteria cultured were Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.5%). The most common indication was pneumonia (27.2%). Mean duration of therapy on meropenem was 12.4 ± 14.4 days; eight patients needed more than 30 days of meropenem. In total, 55.3% did not have intervention for source control; 86.4% received daily dosing of meropenem; 7.8% patients received intermittent dosing of meropenem only, and 5.8 patients received both types of dosing regimens. LOS of the index admission was shorter for the intermittent arm (15.5 ± 7.6 days versus daily: 30.2 ± 24.5 days), though 30-day readmission was higher (50% versus daily: 38.2%). Implications: We recommend further rigorous randomised controlled trials to investigate the clinical utility of intermittent meropenem dosing in patients on stable haemodialysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Use)
Open AccessArticle
Genetic Profiles and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Salmonella Infantis Strains Isolated in Italy in the Food Chain of Broiler Meat Production
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110814 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 510
Abstract
This work aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 87 Salmonella Infantis strains isolated in Italy from 2016 to 2019 along the food chain of broiler meat production and in humans and to determine the genetic profiles of the strains in order to [...] Read more.
This work aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 87 Salmonella Infantis strains isolated in Italy from 2016 to 2019 along the food chain of broiler meat production and in humans and to determine the genetic profiles of the strains in order to establish a possible correlation with the antimicrobial pattern. All isolates were tested by the disk diffusion method to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility toward sixteen antimicrobials, and the broth microdilution method was used to confirm extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production. PCR and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were applied to characterize ESBL-encoding and AmpC β-lactamase genes and to analyze the S. Infantis strains genetic profiles respectively. S. Infantis isolates showed high prevalence of resistance, in particular toward nalidixic acid (97.7%), tetracycline (96.5%), sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (91%) and cefepime (72.4%). The 80.5% of isolates were ESBL, cefotaxime-resistant, carrying the blaCTX-M1 gene. The most prevalent PFGE profile was XbaI.0126 (35.6%). The remaining strains had a genetic homology from 81% to 97% with the XbaI.0126 profile. The strains belonging to these profiles were isolated from different matrices collected along the broiler food chain independently on the year and from the region and there was no correlation between the PFGE profiles and resistance patterns. We found two ESBL-producing S. Infantis strains with the same XbaI.2621 profile isolated from humans and from poultry feces, not yet reported in Italy. Our findings confirmed the diffusion of ESBL-multi drug resistant (MDR) S. Infantis along the broiler food chain and in humans and underlined the importance of continuous monitoring to control and to reduce the prevalence of this bacterium, applying a global One Health approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial-Resistance of Food-Borne Pathogens)
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Open AccessReview
Marine Bioactive Compounds against Aspergillus fumigatus: Challenges and Future Prospects
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110813 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 543
Abstract
With the mortality rate of invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus reaching almost 100% among some groups of patients, and with the rapidly increasing resistance of A. fumigatus to available antifungal drugs, new antifungal agents have never been more desirable than now. Numerous [...] Read more.
With the mortality rate of invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus reaching almost 100% among some groups of patients, and with the rapidly increasing resistance of A. fumigatus to available antifungal drugs, new antifungal agents have never been more desirable than now. Numerous bioactive compounds were isolated and characterized from marine resources. However, only a few exhibited a potent activity against A. fumigatus when compared to the multitude that did against some other pathogens. Here, we review the marine bioactive compounds that display a bioactivity against A. fumigatus. The challenges hampering the discovery of antifungal agents from this rich habitat are also critically analyzed. Further, we propose strategies that could speed up an efficient discovery and broaden the dimensions of screening in order to obtain promising in vivo antifungal agents with new modes of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section The Global Need for Effective Antibiotics)
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Open AccessPerspective
Antifungal Drug Repurposing
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110812 - 15 Nov 2020
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Control of fungal pathogens is increasingly problematic due to the limited number of effective drugs available for antifungal therapy. Conventional antifungal drugs could also trigger human cytotoxicity associated with the kidneys and liver, including the generation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, increased incidences [...] Read more.
Control of fungal pathogens is increasingly problematic due to the limited number of effective drugs available for antifungal therapy. Conventional antifungal drugs could also trigger human cytotoxicity associated with the kidneys and liver, including the generation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, increased incidences of fungal resistance to the classes of azoles, such as fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole, or echinocandins, including caspofungin, anidulafungin, or micafungin, have been documented. Of note, certain azole fungicides such as propiconazole or tebuconazole that are applied to agricultural fields have the same mechanism of antifungal action as clinical azole drugs. Such long-term application of azole fungicides to crop fields provides environmental selection pressure for the emergence of pan-azole-resistant fungal strains such as Aspergillus fumigatus having TR34/L98H mutations, specifically, a 34 bp insertion into the cytochrome P450 51A (CYP51A) gene promoter region and a leucine-to-histidine substitution at codon 98 of CYP51A. Altogether, the emerging resistance of pathogens to currently available antifungal drugs and insufficiency in the discovery of new therapeutics engender the urgent need for the development of new antifungals and/or alternative therapies for effective control of fungal pathogens. We discuss the current needs for the discovery of new clinical antifungal drugs and the recent drug repurposing endeavors as alternative methods for fungal pathogen control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drugs Repurposing for the Treatment of Bacterial Infections)
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Open AccessReview
Antimicrobial Activity of Bee-Collected Pollen and Beebread: State of the Art and Future Perspectives
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110811 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Bee-collected pollen (BCP) is a well-known functional food. Honey bees process the collected pollen and store it in the hive, inside the comb cells. The processed pollen is called bee- bread or ambrosia and it is the main source of proteins, lipids, vitamins, [...] Read more.
Bee-collected pollen (BCP) is a well-known functional food. Honey bees process the collected pollen and store it in the hive, inside the comb cells. The processed pollen is called bee- bread or ambrosia and it is the main source of proteins, lipids, vitamins, macro-and micro-elements in honey bee nutrition. During storage, beebread undergoes solid state fermentation which preserves it and increases the bioavailability of nutrients. Research on beebread has been rather limited until now. In recent years, there is an increasing interest regarding the antimicrobial properties of BCP and beebread, due to emerging antimicrobial resistance by pathogens. Both BCP and beebread exhibit antimicrobial properties against diverse pathogens, like bacteria and fungi. As is the case with other bee products, lack of antimicrobial resistance might be attributed to the synergy of more than one antimicrobial compounds within BCP and beebread. Furthermore, BCP and bee bread exert targeted activity against pathogens and affect the host microbiome in a prebiotic manner. This review aims to present up to date research findings regarding these aspects as well as to discuss current challenges and future perspectives in the field. Full article
Open AccessPerspective
Healthcare Challenges and Future Solutions in Dental Practice: Assessing Oral Antibiotic Resistances by Contemporary Point-Of-Care Approaches
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110810 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance poses a global threat, which is being acknowledged at several levels, including research, clinical implementation, regulation, as well as by the World Health Organization. In the field of oral health, however, the issue of antibiotic resistances, as well as of accurate [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance poses a global threat, which is being acknowledged at several levels, including research, clinical implementation, regulation, as well as by the World Health Organization. In the field of oral health, however, the issue of antibiotic resistances, as well as of accurate diagnosis, is underrepresented. Oral diseases in general were ranked third in terms of expenditures among the EU-28 member states in 2015. Yet, the diagnosis and patient management of oral infections, in particular, still depend primarily on empiric means. On the contrary, on the global scale, the field of medical infections has more readily adopted the integration of molecular-based systems in the diagnostic, patient management, and antibiotic stewardship workflows. In this perspective review, we emphasize the clinical significance of supporting in the future antibiotic resistance screening in dental practice with novel integrated and point-of-care operating tools that can greatly support the rapid, accurate, and efficient administration of oral antibiotics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Species Distribution, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Enterotoxigenicity of Non-aureus Staphylococci in Retail Chicken Meat
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110809 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), including coagulase-negative staphylococci, have emerged as important causes of opportunistic infections in humans and animals and a potential cause of staphylococcal food poisoning. In this study, we investigated (i) the staphylococcal species profiles of NAS in in retail chicken [...] Read more.
Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), including coagulase-negative staphylococci, have emerged as important causes of opportunistic infections in humans and animals and a potential cause of staphylococcal food poisoning. In this study, we investigated (i) the staphylococcal species profiles of NAS in in retail chicken meat, (ii) the phenotypic and genotypic factors associated with antimicrobial resistance in the NAS isolates, and (iii) the prevalence of classical and newer staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes. A total of 58 NAS of nine different species were isolated from retail raw chicken meat samples. The occurrence of multidrug resistance in the NAS, particularly S. agnetis and S. chromogenes, with high resistance rates against tetracycline or fluoroquinolones were confirmed. The tetracycline resistance was associated with the presence of tet(L) in S. chromogenes and S. hyicus or tet(K) in S. saprophyticus. The occurrence of fluoroquinolone resistance in S. agnetis and S. chromogenes was usually associated with mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. In addition, the frequent presence of SE genes, especially seh, sej, and sep, was detected in S. agnetis and S. chromogenes. Our findings suggest that NAS in raw chicken meat can have potential roles as reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance and enterotoxin genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: The Final Frontier)
Open AccessArticle
Stress-Based High-Throughput Screening Assays to Identify Inhibitors of Cell Envelope Biogenesis
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110808 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 498
Abstract
The structural integrity of the Gram-negative cell envelope is guarded by several stress responses, such as the σE, Cpx and Rcs systems. Here, we report on assays that monitor these responses in E. coli upon addition of antibacterial compounds. Interestingly, compromised [...] Read more.
The structural integrity of the Gram-negative cell envelope is guarded by several stress responses, such as the σE, Cpx and Rcs systems. Here, we report on assays that monitor these responses in E. coli upon addition of antibacterial compounds. Interestingly, compromised peptidoglycan synthesis, outer membrane biogenesis and LPS integrity predominantly activated the Rcs response, which we developed into a robust HTS (high-throughput screening) assay that is suited for phenotypic compound screening. Furthermore, by interrogating all three cell envelope stress reporters, and a reporter for the cytosolic heat-shock response as control, we found that inhibitors of specific envelope targets induce stress reporter profiles that are distinct in quality, amplitude and kinetics. Finally, we show that by using a host strain with a more permeable outer membrane, large-scaffold antibiotics can also be identified by the reporter assays. Together, the data suggest that stress profiling is a useful first filter for HTS aimed at inhibitors of cell envelope processes. Full article
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