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Open AccessArticle

Ayahuasca Beverages: Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Properties

Centro de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde (CICS-UBI), Universidade da Beira Interior, Av. Infante D. Henrique, 6200-506 Covilhã, Portugal
Laboratório de Fármaco-Toxicologia, UBI Medical, Universidade da Beira Interior, Estrada Municipal 506, 6200-284 Covilhã, Portugal
CEMBIO, Center for Metabolomics and Bioanalysis, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo CEU, CEU Universities, Campus Monteprincipe, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain
Cátedra de Toxicología y Química Legal, Laboratorio de Asesoramiento Toxicológico Analítico (CENATOXA), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Buenos Aires, Argentina
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 731;
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 22 October 2020 / Published: 24 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils)
Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage, originally consumed by indigenous Amazon tribes, of which consumption has been increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical profile, as well as the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of decoctions of four individual plants, a commercial mixture and four mixtures of two individual plants used in the Ayahuasca preparation. For this purpose, a phytochemical characterization was performed, determining the content of flavonoids, total phenolic compounds, and analyzing the phenolic profile. Besides, 48 secondary metabolites were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS) and their concentration estimated with real standards when present. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by both the β-carotene bleaching test and DPPH free radical scavenging assay, and the anti-inflammatory activity was determined by a protein denaturation method. Finally, the antimicrobial properties were evaluated using the disc diffusion assay, resazurin microtiter method, anti-quorum sensing and anti-biofilm activity assays. The obtained results showed that, in general, the samples have a high content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids with noticeable differences, reflecting on remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Significant antimicrobial properties were also observed, with emphasis on the effect of B. caapi and P. harmala on planktonic and biofilm cells of A. baumannii, inhibiting both the biofilm formation and the production of violacein pigment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ayahuasca; phytochemical characterization; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; antimicrobial properties Ayahuasca; phytochemical characterization; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; antimicrobial properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gonçalves, J.; Luís, Â.; Gradillas, A.; García, A.; Restolho, J.; Fernández, N.; Domingues, F.; Gallardo, E.; Duarte, A.P. Ayahuasca Beverages: Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Properties. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 731.

AMA Style

Gonçalves J, Luís Â, Gradillas A, García A, Restolho J, Fernández N, Domingues F, Gallardo E, Duarte AP. Ayahuasca Beverages: Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Properties. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(11):731.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gonçalves, Joana; Luís, Ângelo; Gradillas, Ana; García, Antonia; Restolho, José; Fernández, Nicolás; Domingues, Fernanda; Gallardo, Eugenia; Duarte, Ana P. 2020. "Ayahuasca Beverages: Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Properties" Antibiotics 9, no. 11: 731.

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