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Open AccessArticle

Inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni Biofilm Formation by D-Amino Acids

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast QLD 4222, Australia
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Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110836
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 20 November 2020 / Accepted: 20 November 2020 / Published: 23 November 2020
The ability of bacterial pathogens to form biofilms is an important virulence mechanism in relation to their pathogenesis and transmission. Biofilms play a crucial role in survival in unfavorable environmental conditions, acting as reservoirs of microbial contamination and antibiotic resistance. For intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, biofilms are considered to be a contributing factor in transmission through the food chain and currently, there are no known methods for intervention. Here, we present an unconventional approach to reducing biofilm formation by C. jejuni by the application of D-amino acids (DAs), and L-amino acids (LAs). We found that DAs and not LAs, except L-alanine, reduced biofilm formation by up to 70%. The treatment of C. jejuni cells with DAs changed the biofilm architecture and reduced the appearance of amyloid-like fibrils. In addition, a mixture of DAs enhanced antimicrobial efficacy of D-Cycloserine (DCS) up to 32% as compared with DCS treatment alone. Unexpectedly, D-alanine was able to reverse the inhibitory effect of other DAs as well as that of DCS. Furthermore, L-alanine and D-tryptophan decreased transcript levels of peptidoglycan biosynthesis enzymes alanine racemase (alr) and D-alanine-D-alanine ligase (ddlA) while D-serine was only able to decrease the transcript levels of alr. Our findings suggest that a combination of DAs could reduce biofilm formation, viability and persistence of C. jejuni through dysregulation of alr and ddlA. View Full-Text
Keywords: D-amino acids; Campylobacter jejuni; biofilm; alanine racemase; confocal laser scanning microscopy D-amino acids; Campylobacter jejuni; biofilm; alanine racemase; confocal laser scanning microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elgamoudi, B.A.; Taha, T.; Korolik, V. Inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni Biofilm Formation by D-Amino Acids. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 836.

AMA Style

Elgamoudi BA, Taha T, Korolik V. Inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni Biofilm Formation by D-Amino Acids. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(11):836.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elgamoudi, Bassam A.; Taha, Taha; Korolik, Victoria. 2020. "Inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni Biofilm Formation by D-Amino Acids" Antibiotics 9, no. 11: 836.

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