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Antibiotics, Volume 13, Issue 4 (April 2024) – 91 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Ideally, wound dressings should be hydrogels containing broad-spectrum antibiotics. This project aimed to investigate the combined use of gallates (EGCG, Tannic acid, or Quercetin) to crosslink PVA hydrogels and provide a synergistic antibiotic action with silver. Quercetin and EGCG crosslinked PVA for more than 24 hours. All three gallates were synergistic in combination with silver nanoparticles against both gram-positive and negative bacteria. In PVA hydrogel films, silver nanoparticles with EGCG or Quercetin more effectively inhibit bacterial growth in CFU counts over 24 hours than films containing single agents. These biocompatible natural product antibiotics, EGCG or Quercetin, may play a dual role in providing stable PVA hydrogel films and a powerful synergistic antibiotic effect in combination with silver nanoparticles. View this paper
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10 pages, 888 KiB  
Article
Incidence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors for Isoniazid-Resistant Tuberculosis from 2012 to 2022 in Eastern China
by Yan Shao, Wenlei Song, Honghuan Song, Guoli Li, Limei Zhu, Qiao Liu and Cheng Chen
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040378 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Background: Isoniazid-resistant, rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis (Hr-TB) is the most frequent drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in the world, and unfavorable outcomes of Hr-TB are more common compared to drug-susceptible TB. Considering there is no optimal regimen accepted worldwide, we undertook a retrospective cohort study in eastern [...] Read more.
Background: Isoniazid-resistant, rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis (Hr-TB) is the most frequent drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in the world, and unfavorable outcomes of Hr-TB are more common compared to drug-susceptible TB. Considering there is no optimal regimen accepted worldwide, we undertook a retrospective cohort study in eastern China to estimate incidence trends and risk factors associated with unfavorable outcomes of Hr-TB. Methods: Between January 2012 and December 2022, all Hr-TB patients’ information was extracted from the Tuberculosis Information Management System (TIMS), which is a national electronic information platform, to record TB patients’ clinical information in this study. The incidence of Hr-TB was determined by the mid-year population according to census data published by the government. We categorized treatment regimens depending on fluoroquinolone (FQ) use, and potential risk factors were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: A total of 3116 Hr-TB patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in this study. The average annual rate of Hr-TB in the 11 years under investigation was 0.34 per 100,000 and increased to 0.53 per 100,000 until 2019. In total, six different treatment regimens were utilized in the study sites, and less than 1% of regimens adopted FQ. There was no difference in the unfavorable outcomes between the FQ-included and FQ-excluded groups (p = 0.22). The average treatment duration was 7.06 months, and the longest treatment was 26 months. Approximately 20% (637/3116) of Hr-TB patients had unfavorable outcomes, and 60.13% (383/637) of them proceeded to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Treatment duration and a positive smear at the end of the 5th month were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The unfavorable treatment outcomes of Hr-TB are still high in eastern China, and the efficacy of FQ-containing regimens needs to be validated for Hr-TB treatment. Full article
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13 pages, 1569 KiB  
Article
The Epidemiology, Management and Therapeutic Outcomes of Subdural Empyema in Neonates with Acute Bacterial Meningitis
by Wei-Ju Lee, Ming-Horng Tsai, Jen-Fu Hsu, Shih-Ming Chu, Chih-Chen Chen, Peng-Hong Yang, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Miao-Ching Chi, Chiang-Wen Lee and Mei-Chen Ou-Yang
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040377 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Background: Subdural empyema is one of the more serious complications of bacterial meningitis and therapeutic challenges to clinicians. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of subdural empyema in neonates with bacterial meningitis. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted [...] Read more.
Background: Subdural empyema is one of the more serious complications of bacterial meningitis and therapeutic challenges to clinicians. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of subdural empyema in neonates with bacterial meningitis. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in two medical centers in Taiwan that enrolled all cases of neonates with subdural empyema after bacterial meningitis between 2003 and 2020. Results: Subdural empyema was diagnosed in 27 of 153 (17.6%) neonates with acute bacterial meningitis compared with cases of meningitis without subdural empyema. The demographics and pathogen distributions were comparable between the study group and the controls, but neonates with subdural empyema were significantly more likely to have clinical manifestations of fever (85.2%) and seizure (81.5%) (both p values < 0.05). The cerebrospinal fluid results of neonates with subdural empyema showed significantly higher white blood cell counts, lower glucose levels and higher protein levels (p = 0.011, 0.003 and 0.006, respectively). Neonates with subdural empyema had a significantly higher rate of neurological complications, especially subdural effusions and periventricular leukomalacia. Although the final mortality rate was not increased in neonates with subdural empyema when compared with the controls, they were often treated much longer and had a high rate of long-term neurological sequelae. Conclusions: Subdural empyema is not uncommon in neonates with acute bacterial meningitis and was associated with a high risk of neurological complications, although it does not significantly increase the final mortality rate. Close monitoring of the occurrence of subdural empyema is required, and appropriate long-term antibiotic treatment after surgical intervention may lead to optimized outcomes. Full article
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19 pages, 1832 KiB  
Article
Rabbits as a Reservoir of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli: Clonal Lineages and Public Health Impact
by Adriana Silva, Vanessa Silva, Teresa Tavares, María López, Beatriz Rojo-Bezares, José Eduardo Pereira, Virgílio Falco, Patrícia Valentão, Gilberto Igrejas, Yolanda Sáenz and Patrícia Poeta
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040376 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Escherichia coli, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing strains, poses a global health threat due to multidrug resistance, compromising food safety and environmental integrity. In industrial settings, rabbits raised for meat have the highest consumption of antimicrobial agents compared to other food-producing animals. The [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing strains, poses a global health threat due to multidrug resistance, compromising food safety and environmental integrity. In industrial settings, rabbits raised for meat have the highest consumption of antimicrobial agents compared to other food-producing animals. The European Union is facing challenges in rabbit farming as rabbit consumption declines and antibiotic-resistant strains of E. coli cause enteric diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance profile, genetic diversity, and biofilm formation in cefotaxime-resistant E. coli strains isolated from twenty rabbit farms in Northern Portugal to address the effect of the pressing issue of antibiotic resistance in the rabbit farming industry. Resistance to critically antibiotics was observed, with high levels of resistance to several categories, such as tetracycline, ampicillin, aztreonam, and streptomycin. However, all isolates were susceptible to cefoxitin and imipenem. Multidrug resistance was common, with strains showing resistance to all antibiotics tested. The blaCTX-M variants (blaCTX-3G and blaCTX-M9), followed by the tetracycline resistance genes, were the most frequent resistance genes found. ST10 clones exhibiting significant resistance to various categories of antibiotics and harboring different resistance genes were detected. ST457 and ST2325 were important sequence types due to their association with ESBL-E. coli isolates and have been widely distributed in a variety of environments and host species. The strains evaluated showed a high capacity for biofilm formation, which varied when they were grouped by the number of classes of antibiotics to which they showed resistance (i.e., seven different classes of antibiotics, six classes of antibiotics, and three/four/five classes of antibiotics). The One Health approach integrates efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance in rabbit farming through interdisciplinary collaboration of human, animal, and environmental health. Our findings are worrisome and raise concerns. The extensive usage of antibiotics in rabbit farming emphasizes the urgent need to establish active surveillance systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases: Pathogen Detection and Antimicrobial Treatment)
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12 pages, 266 KiB  
Review
Antimicrobial De-Escalation in Critically Ill Patients
by Eloisa Sofia Tanzarella, Salvatore Lucio Cutuli, Gianmarco Lombardi, Fabiola Cammarota, Alessandro Caroli, Emanuele Franchini, Elena Sancho Ferrando, Domenico Luca Grieco, Massimo Antonelli and Gennaro De Pascale
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040375 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Antimicrobial de-escalation (ADE) is defined as the discontinuation of one or more antimicrobials in empirical therapy, or the replacement of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial with a narrower-spectrum antimicrobial. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the available literature on the [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial de-escalation (ADE) is defined as the discontinuation of one or more antimicrobials in empirical therapy, or the replacement of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial with a narrower-spectrum antimicrobial. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the available literature on the effectiveness and safety of ADE in critically ill patients, with a focus on special conditions such as anti-fungal therapy and high-risk categories. Although it is widely considered a safe strategy for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS), to date, there has been no assessment of the effect of de-escalation on the development of resistance. Conversely, some authors suggest that prolonged antibiotic treatment may be a side effect of de-escalation, especially in high-risk categories such as neutropenic critically ill patients and intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). Moreover, microbiological documentation is crucial for increasing ADE rates in critically ill patients with infections, and efforts should be focused on exploring new diagnostic tools to accelerate pathogen identification. For these reasons, ADE can be safely used in patients with infections, as confirmed by high-quality and reliable microbiological samplings, although further studies are warranted to clarify its applicability in selected populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Resistance and Infection Control in ICU)
12 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Hospital Wastes as Potential Sources for Multi-Drug-Resistant ESBL-Producing Bacteria at a Tertiary Hospital in Ethiopia
by Mulatu Gashaw, Esayas Kebede Gudina, Wondwossen Tadesse, Guenter Froeschl, Solomon Ali, Thomas Seeholzer, Arne Kroidl and Andreas Wieser
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040374 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1066
Abstract
The hospital environment is increasingly becoming an important reservoir for multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria, posing serious challenges to efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This study aimed to investigate the role of hospital waste as a potential source of MDR ESBL-producing bacteria. Samples [...] Read more.
The hospital environment is increasingly becoming an important reservoir for multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria, posing serious challenges to efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This study aimed to investigate the role of hospital waste as a potential source of MDR ESBL-producing bacteria. Samples were collected from multiple sources within a hospital and its vicinity, including surface swabs, houseflies, and sewage samples. The samples were subsequently processed in a microbiology laboratory to identify potential pathogenic bacteria and confirmed using MALDI-TOF MS. Bacteria were isolated from 87% of samples, with the predominant isolates being E. coli (30.5%), Klebsiella spp. (12.4%), Providencia spp. (12.4%), and Proteus spp. (11.9%). According to the double disc synergy test (DDST) analysis, nearly half (49.2%) of the bacteria were identified as ESBL producers. However, despite exhibiting complete resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, 11.8% of them did not test positive for ESBL production. The characterization of E. coli revealed that 30.6% and 5.6% of them carried blaCTX-M group 1 type-15 and blaNDM genes, respectively. This finding emphasizes the importance of proper hospital sanitation and waste management practices to mitigate the spread of AMR within the healthcare setting and safeguard the health of both patients and the wider community. Full article
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10 pages, 3102 KiB  
Article
No Sequestration of Commonly Used Anti-Infectives in the Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) Circuit—An Ex Vivo Study
by Hendrik Booke, Benjamin Friedrichson, Lena Draheim, Thilo Caspar von Groote, Otto Frey, Anka Röhr, Kai Zacharowski and Elisabeth Hannah Adam
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040373 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) often require therapy with anti-infective drugs. The pharmacokinetics of these drugs may be altered during ECMO treatment due to pathophysiological changes in the drug metabolism of the critically ill and/or the ECMO therapy itself. This study investigates [...] Read more.
Patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) often require therapy with anti-infective drugs. The pharmacokinetics of these drugs may be altered during ECMO treatment due to pathophysiological changes in the drug metabolism of the critically ill and/or the ECMO therapy itself. This study investigates the latter aspect for commonly used anti-infective drugs in an ex vivo setting. A fully functional ECMO device circulated an albumin–electrolyte solution through the ECMO tubes and oxygenator. The antibiotic agents cefazolin, cefuroxim, cefepime, cefiderocol, linezolid and daptomycin and the antifungal agent anidulafungin were added. Blood samples were taken over a period of four hours and drug concentrations were measured via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. Subsequently, the study analyzed the time course of anti-infective concentrations. The results showed no significant changes in the concentration of any tested anti-infectives throughout the study period. This ex vivo study demonstrates that the ECMO device itself has no impact on the concentration of commonly used anti-infectives. These findings suggest that ECMO therapy does not contribute to alterations in the concentrations of anti-infective medications in severely ill patients. Full article
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16 pages, 3404 KiB  
Article
Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Gentamicin C1, C1a and C2 in Healthy and Infected Piglets
by Eun-Young Kim, Tae-Won Kim, Elias Gebru Awji, Eon-Bee Lee and Seung-Chun Park
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040372 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is a mixture of therapeutically active C1, C1a, C2 and other minor components. Despite its decades-long use in pigs and other species, its intramuscular (IM) pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PKs/PDs) are unknown in piglets. Furthermore, the PKs [...] Read more.
Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is a mixture of therapeutically active C1, C1a, C2 and other minor components. Despite its decades-long use in pigs and other species, its intramuscular (IM) pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PKs/PDs) are unknown in piglets. Furthermore, the PKs of many drugs differ between healthy and sick animals. Therefore, we investigated the PKs of gentamicin after a single IM dose (10 mg/kg) in healthy piglets and piglets that were intranasally co-infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida (PM). The plasma concentrations were measured using validated liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The gentamicin exposure was 36% lower based on the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and 16% lower based on the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) in the infected piglets compared to the healthy piglets, while it was eliminated faster (shorter half-life and larger clearance) in the infected piglets compared to the healthy piglets. The clearance and volume of distribution were the highest for the C1 component. C1, C1a and C2 accounted for 22–25%, 33–37% and 40–42% of the total gentamicin exposure, respectively. The PK/PD target for the efficacy of aminoglycosides (Cmax/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 10) could be exceeded for PM, with a greater magnitude in the healthy piglets. We suggest integrating this PK information with antibiotic susceptibility data for other bacteria to make informed antibiotic and dosage regimen selections against piglet infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Use of Antibiotics in Veterinary Medicine)
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15 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Activity of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Essential Oil Vapors against Microbial Contaminants of Food-Contact Surfaces
by Loris Pinto, Salvatore Cervellieri, Thomas Netti, Vincenzo Lippolis and Federico Baruzzi
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040371 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1360
Abstract
The antimicrobial effect of eight essential oils’ vapors against pathogens and spoilage bacteria was assayed. Oreganum vulgare L. essential oil (OVO) showed a broad antibacterial effect, with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values ranging from 94 to 754 µg cm−3 air, depending on [...] Read more.
The antimicrobial effect of eight essential oils’ vapors against pathogens and spoilage bacteria was assayed. Oreganum vulgare L. essential oil (OVO) showed a broad antibacterial effect, with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values ranging from 94 to 754 µg cm−3 air, depending on the bacterial species. Then, gaseous OVO was used for the treatment of stainless steel, polypropylene, and glass surfaces contaminated with four bacterial pathogens at 6–7 log cfu coupon−1. No viable cells were found after OVO treatment on all food-contact surfaces contaminated with all pathogens, with the exception of Sta. aureus DSM 799 on the glass surface. The antimicrobial activity of OVO after the addition of beef extract as a soiling agent reduced the Sta. aureus DSM 799 viable cell count by more than 5 log cfu coupon−1 on polypropylene and glass, while no viable cells were found in the case of stainless steel. HS-GC-MS analysis of the headspace of the boxes used for the antibacterial assay revealed 14 different volatile compounds with α-Pinene (62–63%), and p-Cymene (21%) as the main terpenes. In conclusion, gaseous OVO could be used for the microbial decontamination of food-contact surfaces, although its efficacy needs to be evaluated since it depends on several parameters such as target microorganisms, food-contact material, temperature, time of contact, and relative humidity. Full article
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19 pages, 1691 KiB  
Systematic Review
Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Phenotypic and Genotypic Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Factors in Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Shrimp
by Varangkana Thaotumpitak, Justice Opare Odoi, Saran Anuntawirun and Saharuetai Jeamsripong
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040370 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 998
Abstract
This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, its virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and its resistance determinants in shrimp. This study was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, to identify and [...] Read more.
This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, its virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and its resistance determinants in shrimp. This study was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, to identify and select relevant peer-reviewed articles published between January 2020 and December 2022. The search strategy involved multiple online databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. The inclusion criteria focused on studies that examined V. parahaemolyticus prevalence, virulence factors, and AMR in shrimp from farms to retail outlets. A total of 32 studies were analyzed, revealing a pooled estimate prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp at 46.0%, with significant heterogeneity observed. Subgroup analysis highlighted varying prevalence rates across continents, emphasizing the need for further investigation. Virulence factor analysis identified thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and tdh-related hemolysin (trh) as the most common. Phenotypic AMR analysis indicated notable resistance to glycopeptides, nitrofurans, and beta-lactams. However, the correlation between antimicrobial usage in shrimp farming and observed resistance patterns was inconclusive. Funnel plots suggested potential publication bias, indicating a need for cautious interpretation of findings. This study underscores the urgency of coordinated efforts to address AMR in V. parahaemolyticus to safeguard public health and to ensure sustainable aquaculture practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics Resistance in Animals and the Environment)
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18 pages, 1036 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial, Probiotic, and Immunomodulatory Potential of Cannabis sativa Extract and Delivery Systems
by Anna Stasiłowicz-Krzemień, Daria Szymanowska, Piotr Szulc and Judyta Cielecka-Piontek
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040369 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
The compounds present in hemp show multidirectional biological activity. It is related to the presence of secondary metabolites, mainly cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, and the synergy of their biological activity. The aim of this study was to assess the activity of the Henola [...] Read more.
The compounds present in hemp show multidirectional biological activity. It is related to the presence of secondary metabolites, mainly cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, and the synergy of their biological activity. The aim of this study was to assess the activity of the Henola Cannabis sativae extract and its combinations with selected carriers (polyvinyl caprolactam–polyvinyl acetate–polyethylene glycol graft copolymer, magnesium aluminometasilicate, and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) in terms of antimicrobial, probiotic, and immunobiological effects. As a result of the conducted research, the antimicrobial activity of the extract was confirmed in relation to the following microorganisms: Clostridium difficile, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pyrogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aereuginosa, and Candida albicans (microorganism count was reduced from ~102 CFU mL−1 to <10 CFU mL−1 in most cases). Additionally, for the system with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, a significant probiotic potential against bacterial strains was established for strains Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Streptococcus thermophilus (microorganism count was increased from ~102 to 104–107). In terms of immunomodulatory properties, it was determined that the tested extract and the systems caused changes in IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. Full article
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15 pages, 1359 KiB  
Review
Medical-Grade Honey as a Potential New Therapy for Bacterial Vaginosis
by Céline M. J. G. Lardenoije, Senna J. J. M. van Riel, Linsey J. F. Peters, Martine M. L. H. Wassen and Niels A. J. Cremers
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040368 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women of reproductive age is 29%. BV arises from a vaginal imbalance marked by reduced levels of lactic acid-producing lactobacilli and an overgrowth of pathogenic anaerobes. The multifactorial nature of BV’s pathogenesis complicates its treatment. Current [...] Read more.
The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women of reproductive age is 29%. BV arises from a vaginal imbalance marked by reduced levels of lactic acid-producing lactobacilli and an overgrowth of pathogenic anaerobes. The multifactorial nature of BV’s pathogenesis complicates its treatment. Current antibiotic therapy exhibits a recurrence rate of about 60% within a year. Recurrence can be caused by antibiotic treatment failure (e.g., due to antimicrobial resistance), the persistence of residual infections (e.g., due to biofilm formation), and re-infection. Because of the high recurrence rates, alternative therapies are required. Medical-grade honey (MGH), known for its antimicrobial and wound healing properties in wound care, emerges as a potential novel therapy for BV. MGH exerts broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, employing multiple mechanisms to eliminate the risk of resistance. For example, the low pH of MGH and the production of hydrogen peroxide benefit the microbiota and helps restore the natural vaginal balance. This is supported by in vitro studies demonstrating that MGH has an antibacterial effect on several pathogenic bacteria involved in the pathophysiology of BV, while lactobacilli and the vaginal microenvironment can be positively affected. In contrast to antibiotics, MGH exerts anti-biofilm activity, affects the microbiome as pre- and probiotic, and modulates the vaginal microenvironment through its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, physicochemical, and immunomodulatory properties. More clinical research is required to confirm the positive effect of MGH on BV and to investigate the long-term cure rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey: Antimicrobial and Anti-infective Function)
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13 pages, 619 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 and Clostridioides difficile Coinfection Analysis in the Intensive Care Unit
by Mircea Stoian, Adina Andone, Alina Boeriu, Sergio Rareș Bândilă, Daniela Dobru, Sergiu Ștefan Laszlo, Dragoș Corău, Emil Marian Arbănași, Eliza Russu and Adina Stoian
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040367 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019, the global mortality attributable to COVID-19 has reached 6,972,152 deaths according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The association between coinfection with Clostridioides difficile (CDI) and SARS-CoV-2 has limited data in the literature. This retrospective [...] Read more.
Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019, the global mortality attributable to COVID-19 has reached 6,972,152 deaths according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The association between coinfection with Clostridioides difficile (CDI) and SARS-CoV-2 has limited data in the literature. This retrospective study, conducted at Mureș County Clinical Hospital in Romania, involved 3002 ICU patients. Following stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, 63 patients were enrolled, with a division into two subgroups—SARS-CoV-2 + CDI patients and CDI patients. Throughout their hospitalization, the patients were closely monitored. Analysis revealed no significant correlation between comorbidities and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). However, statistically significant associations were noted between renal and hepatic comorbidties (p = 0.009), death and CDI-SARS-CoV-2 coinfection (p = 0.09), flourochinolone treatment and CDI-SARS-CoV-2 infection (p = 0.03), and an association between diabetes mellitus and SARS-CoV-2-CDI infection (p = 0.04), as well as the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (p = 0.04). The patients with CDI treatment were significantly younger and received immuno-modulator or corticotherapy treatment, which was a risk factor for opportunistic agents. Antibiotic and PPI (proton pump inhibitor) treatment were significant risk factors for CDI coinfection, as well as for death, with PPI treatment in combination with antibiotic treatment being a more significant risk factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clostridioides difficile Infection, 2nd Edition)
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10 pages, 228 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Clinical Relevance of Routine Sonication for Periprosthetic Hip or Knee Joint Infection Diagnosis
by Anas Zouitni, Jakob van Oldenrijk, P. Koen Bos, Peter D. Croughs, Erlangga Yusuf and Ewout S. Veltman
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040366 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 730
Abstract
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication after joint arthroplasty. PJI screening and conventional cultures may be inconclusive. Sonication fluid culturing stands out as a valuable adjunct technique for PJI diagnosis. This study aims to determine the clinical relevance of routine sonication [...] Read more.
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication after joint arthroplasty. PJI screening and conventional cultures may be inconclusive. Sonication fluid culturing stands out as a valuable adjunct technique for PJI diagnosis. This study aims to determine the clinical relevance of routine sonication for all (a)septic revisions. All patients who underwent (partial) hip or knee revision arthroplasty between 2012 and 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. We formed three groups based on the European Bone and Joint Society PJI criteria: infection confirmed, likely, and unlikely. We analyzed clinical, laboratory, and radiological screening. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for synovial fluid (preoperative), tissue, and sonication fluid cultures. We determined the clinical relevance of sonication as the percentage of patients for whom sonication confirmed PJI; 429 patients who underwent (partial) revision of hip or knee arthroplasty were included. Sensitivity and specificity were 69% and 99% for synovial fluid cultures, 76% and 92% for tissue cultures, and 80% and 89% for sonication fluid cultures, respectively. Sonication fluid cultures improved tissue culture sensitivity and specificity to 83% and 99%, respectively. In 11% of PJIs, sonication fluid cultures were decisive for diagnosis. This is applicable to acute and chronic infections. Sonication fluid cultures enhanced the sensitivity and specificity of PJI diagnostics. In 11% of PJI cases, causative pathogens were confirmed by sonication fluid culture results. Sonication fluid culture should be performed in all revision arthroplasties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Therapy in Implant Related Orthopedic Infections)
14 pages, 654 KiB  
Review
Environmental and Nutritional Parameters Modulating Genetic Expression for Virulence Factors of Clostridioides difficile
by Zoe Masset, Sathursha Gunaratnam, Mathieu Millette, Lynne V. McFarland and Monique Lacroix
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040365 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 946
Abstract
Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs) continue to be a persistent healthcare concern despite newer antibiotic treatments, enhanced infection control practices, and preventive strategies focused on restoring the protective intestinal microbial barrier. Recent strides in gene sequencing research have identified many genes regulating diverse virulence [...] Read more.
Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs) continue to be a persistent healthcare concern despite newer antibiotic treatments, enhanced infection control practices, and preventive strategies focused on restoring the protective intestinal microbial barrier. Recent strides in gene sequencing research have identified many genes regulating diverse virulence factors for CDIs. These genes may be over- or under-expressed when triggered by various environmental and nutritional factors. The aims of this paper are to review the important genes involved in C. difficile pathogenesis and to identify modifiable environmental, nutritional, and other factors that may trigger the expression of these genes and thus offer new strategies to prevent CDIs. Full article
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29 pages, 17265 KiB  
Systematic Review
Echinacea Reduces Antibiotics by Preventing Respiratory Infections: A Meta-Analysis (ERA-PRIMA)
by Giuseppe Gancitano, Nicola Mucci, Rainer Stange, Mercedes Ogal, Selvarani Vimalanathan, Mahfuza Sreya, Anthony Booker, Bushra Hadj-Cherif, Werner C. Albrich, Karin Woelkart-Ardjomand, Samo Kreft, Wim Vanden Berghe, Godehard Hoexter, Andreas Schapowal and Sebastian L. Johnston
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040364 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1666
Abstract
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the leading cause of antibiotic prescriptions, primarily due to the risk for secondary bacterial infections. In this study, we examined whether Echinacea could reduce the need for antibiotics by preventing RTIs and their complications, and subsequently investigated its [...] Read more.
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the leading cause of antibiotic prescriptions, primarily due to the risk for secondary bacterial infections. In this study, we examined whether Echinacea could reduce the need for antibiotics by preventing RTIs and their complications, and subsequently investigated its safety profile. A comprehensive search of EMBASE, PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane DARE and clinicaltrials.gov identified 30 clinical trials (39 comparisons) studying Echinacea for the prevention or treatment of RTIs in 5652 subjects. Echinacea significantly reduced the monthly RTI occurrence, risk ratio (RR) 0.68 (95% CI 0.61–0.77) and number of patients with ≥1 RTI, RR = 0.75 [95% CI 0.69–0.81] corresponding to an odds ratio 0.53 [95% CI 0.42–0.67]. Echinacea reduced the risk of recurrent infections (RR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.46–0.80), RTI complications (RR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.36–0.54) and the need for antibiotic therapy (RR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.39–0.93), with total antibiotic therapy days reduced by 70% (IRR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.11–0.74). Alcoholic extracts from freshly harvested Echinacea purpurea were the strongest, with an 80% reduction of antibiotic treatment days, IRR 0.21 [95% CI 0.15–0.28]. An equal number of adverse events occurred with Echinacea and control treatment. Echinacea can safely prevent RTIs and associated complications, thereby decreasing the demand for antibiotics. Relevant differences exist between Echinacea preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Treatment of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections)
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18 pages, 2320 KiB  
Article
Genomic Epidemiology of C2/H30Rx and C1-M27 Subclades of Escherichia coli ST131 Isolates from Clinical Blood Samples in Hungary
by Kinga Tóth, Ivelina Damjanova, Levente Laczkó, Lilla Buzgó, Virág Lesinszki, Erika Ungvári, Laura Jánvári, Adrienn Hanczvikkel, Ákos Tóth and Dóra Szabó
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040363 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli ST131 has become widespread worldwide. This study aims to characterize the virulome, resistome, and population structure of E. coli ST131 isolates from clinical blood samples in Hungary. A total of 30 C2/H30Rx and 33 C1-M27 ST131 isolates were selected [...] Read more.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli ST131 has become widespread worldwide. This study aims to characterize the virulome, resistome, and population structure of E. coli ST131 isolates from clinical blood samples in Hungary. A total of 30 C2/H30Rx and 33 C1-M27 ST131 isolates were selected for Illumina MiSeq sequencing and 30 isolates for MinION sequencing, followed by hybrid de novo assembly. Five C2/H30Rx and one C1-M27 cluster were identified. C1-M27 isolates harbored the F1:A2:B20 plasmid in 93.9% of cases. Long-read sequencing revealed that blaCTX-M-27 was on plasmids. Among the C2/H30Rx isolates, only six isolates carried the C2-associated F2:A1:B- plasmid type. Of 19 hybrid-assembled C2/H30Rx genomes, the blaCTX-M-15 gene was located on plasmid only in one isolate, while in the other isolates, ISEcp1 or IS26-mediated chromosomal integration of blaCTX-M-15 was detected in unique variations. In one isolate a part of F2:A1:B- plasmid integrated into the chromosome. These results suggest that CTX-M-15-producing C2/H30Rx and CTX-M-27-producing C1-M27 subclades may have emerged and spread in different ways in Hungary. While blaCTX-M-27 was carried mainly on the C1/H30R-associated F1:A2:B20 plasmid, the IncF-like plasmids of C2/H30Rx or its composite transposons have been incorporated into the chromosome through convergent evolutionary processes. Full article
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22 pages, 1668 KiB  
Review
A Mini-Review of Anti-Listerial Compounds from Marine Actinobacteria (1990–2023)
by Siyanda S. Ngema and Evelyn Madoroba
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040362 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 960
Abstract
Among the foodborne illnesses, listeriosis has the third highest case mortality rate (20–30% or higher). Emerging drug-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes, a causative bacterium of listeriosis, exacerbate the seriousness of this public health concern. Novel anti-Listerial compounds are therefore needed to combat [...] Read more.
Among the foodborne illnesses, listeriosis has the third highest case mortality rate (20–30% or higher). Emerging drug-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes, a causative bacterium of listeriosis, exacerbate the seriousness of this public health concern. Novel anti-Listerial compounds are therefore needed to combat this challenge. In recent years, marine actinobacteria have come to be regarded as a promising source of novel antimicrobials. Hence, our aim was to provide a narrative of the available literature and discuss trends regarding bioprospecting marine actinobacteria for new anti-Listerial compounds. Four databases were searched for the review: Academic Search Ultimate, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and South African Thesis and Dissertations. The search was restricted to peer-reviewed full-text manuscripts that discussed marine actinobacteria as a source of antimicrobials and were written in English from 1990 to December 2023. In total, for the past three decades (1990–December 2023), only 23 compounds from marine actinobacteria have been tested for their anti-Listerial potential. Out of the 23 reported compounds, only 2-allyoxyphenol, adipostatins E–G, 4-bromophenol, and ansamycins (seco-geldanamycin B, 4.5-dihydro-17-O-demethylgeldanamycin, and seco-geldanamycin) have been found to possess anti-Listerial activity. Thus, our literature survey reveals the scarcity of published assays testing the anti-Listerial capacity of bioactive compounds sourced from marine actinobacteria during this period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Natural Products as a Source of Novel Antimicrobials)
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8 pages, 605 KiB  
Article
How Useful Is Preoperative Aspiration before Revision of Unicompartmental Knee Prostheses Because of Osteoarthritis in the Other Compartments?
by Benedikt Paul Blersch, Florian Hubert Sax and Bernd Fink
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040361 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Aim: Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) of unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (UKAs) can lead to secondary osteoarthritis of the other compartments. The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of PJIs in cases of UKA with progressed secondary osteoarthritis and the result of [...] Read more.
Aim: Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) of unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (UKAs) can lead to secondary osteoarthritis of the other compartments. The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of PJIs in cases of UKA with progressed secondary osteoarthritis and the result of septic one-stage revision in these cases to verify the value of preoperative aspiration in cases of secondary osteoarthritis of UKA. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 97 patients with a unicompartmental arthroplasty who underwent revision surgery to a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between January 2013 and March 2021 because of subsequent osteoarthritis. Preoperative aspiration and sample collection during the revision surgery were employed to identify potential periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). The post-revision period was monitored for septic complications over an average duration of 55.7 ± 25.2 months (24–113). Results: PJIs were identified in 5.2% of cases through preoperative aspiration. In all instances of PJIs, a one-stage septic revision was performed, and notably, none of these cases experienced septic complications during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Preoperative aspiration is essential in order to exclude the presence of a PJI before performing revision surgery of UKA due to secondary osteoarthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Antibiotic Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infection)
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19 pages, 978 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Impact of Streptococcal Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance on Human Health
by Raina Gergova, Vasil Boyanov, Adile Muhtarova and Alexandra Alexandrova
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040360 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) are bacteria that can cause a range of infections, some of them life-threatening. This review examines the spread of antibiotic resistance and its mechanisms against antibiotics for streptococcal infections. Data on high-level penicillin-resistant [...] Read more.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) are bacteria that can cause a range of infections, some of them life-threatening. This review examines the spread of antibiotic resistance and its mechanisms against antibiotics for streptococcal infections. Data on high-level penicillin-resistant invasive pneumococci have been found in Brazil (42.8%) and Japan (77%). The resistance is caused by mutations in genes that encode penicillin-binding proteins. Similarly, GAS and GBS strains reported from Asia, the USA, and Africa have undergone similar transformations in PBPs. Resistance to major alternatives of penicillins, macrolides, and lincosamides has become widespread among pneumococci and streptococci, especially in Asia (70–95%). The combination of several emm types with erm(B) is associated with the development of high-level macrolide resistance in GAS. Major mechanisms are ribosomal target modifications encoded by erm genes, ribosomal alterations, and active efflux pumps that regulate antibiotic entry due to mefA/E and msrD genes. Tetracycline resistance for streptococci in different countries varied from 22.4% in the USA to 83.7/100% in China, due to tet genes. Combined tetracycline/macrolide resistance is usually linked with the insertion of ermB into the transposon carrying tetM. New quinolone resistance is increasing by between 11.5 and 47.9% in Asia and Europe. The mechanism of quinolone resistance is based on mutations in gyrA/B, determinants for DNA gyrase, or parC/E encoding topoisomerase IV. The results for antibiotic resistance are alarming, and urgently call for increased monitoring of this problem and precautionary measures for control to prevent the spread of resistant mutant strains. Full article
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11 pages, 1221 KiB  
Review
Systemic Impact of Subgingival Infection Control in Periodontitis Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: A Narrative Review
by Carmen Silvia Caloian, Andreea Ciurea, Marius Negucioiu, Alexandra Roman, Iulia Cristina Micu, Andrei Picoș and Andrada Soancă
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040359 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Introduction: Periodontitis, an infectious inflammatory condition, is a key contributor to sustained systemic inflammation, intricately linked to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in developed nations. Treating periodontitis with subgingival mechanical instrumentation with or without adjunctive antimicrobials reduces the microbial [...] Read more.
Introduction: Periodontitis, an infectious inflammatory condition, is a key contributor to sustained systemic inflammation, intricately linked to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in developed nations. Treating periodontitis with subgingival mechanical instrumentation with or without adjunctive antimicrobials reduces the microbial burden and local inflammation, while also potentially bringing systemic benefits for patients with both periodontitis and CVD. This review examines systemic effects of subgingival instrumentation with or without antimicrobial products in individuals with periodontitis and CVD, and explores intricate pathogenetic interactions between periodontitis and CVD. Material and Methods: English-language databases (PubMed MEDLINE and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies assessing the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapies in periodontitis patients with or without CVD. Results: While the ability of periodontal therapy to reduce mortality- and morbidity-related outcomes in CVD patients with periodontitis remains uncertain, some studies indicate a decrease in inflammatory markers and blood cell counts. Subgingival mechanical instrumentation delivered over multiple short sessions carries lower risks of adverse effects, particularly systemic inflammation, compared to the full-mouth delivery, making it a preferable option for CVD patients. Conclusions: Subgingival mechanical instrumentation, ideally conducted in a quadrant-based therapeutic approach, to decontaminate periodontal pockets has the potential to reduce both local and systemic inflammation with minimal adverse effects in patients suffering from periodontitis and concurrent CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Therapy in Oral Diseases)
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13 pages, 1117 KiB  
Article
Polyphenolic Composition and Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antihyperglycemic Activity of Different Extracts of Teucrium montanum from Ozren Mountain
by Pero Sailović, Božana Odžaković, Darko Bodroža, Jelena Vulić, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Jelena Zvezdanović and Bojana Danilović
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040358 - 14 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Teucrium montanum has widespread use in folk medicine on the Balkan peninsula. In order to scientifically justify this use, the composition and biological activity of aqueous, ethanol, and acetone extract were investigated in this study. Moreover, acetone and ethanol extracts were obtained from [...] Read more.
Teucrium montanum has widespread use in folk medicine on the Balkan peninsula. In order to scientifically justify this use, the composition and biological activity of aqueous, ethanol, and acetone extract were investigated in this study. Moreover, acetone and ethanol extracts were obtained from the plant material previously exhausted by water extraction. A total of 27 compounds were detected in extracts by UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis, with all of them present in acetone and ethanol extracts. Consequentially, the acetone and ethanol extracts showed higher contents of total phenols of 23% and 18%, respectively, compared to the water extract. The results indicated high biological potential in the investigated extracts. Among all extracts, the aqueous extract showed slightly higher antimicrobial potential, especially against Gram-positive strains, probably due to the release of components soluble in water from the dry unexhausted plant material. On the other hand, the acetone and ethanol extracts had significantly higher antioxidative (by 20%), anti-inflammatory activity (up to 3 and 4 times higher, respectively), and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential (3 times higher) than the aqueous extract. The results of this investigation reveal the great potential of the use of T. montanum in various branches of food, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical industry. An important part of this research is a confirmation that, once exhausted by water extraction, for example by hydrodistillation, T. montanum plant material can be reused for obtaining valuable products with a wide range of biological activities. Full article
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18 pages, 910 KiB  
Review
Change in Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in the Treatment-Failure Era
by Rocco Spagnuolo, Giuseppe Guido Maria Scarlata, Maria Rosaria Paravati, Ludovico Abenavoli and Francesco Luzza
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040357 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1188
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a prevalent global health issue, associated with several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. The landscape of H. pylori treatment has evolved over the years, with increasing challenges due to antibiotic resistance [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a prevalent global health issue, associated with several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. The landscape of H. pylori treatment has evolved over the years, with increasing challenges due to antibiotic resistance and treatment failure. Traditional diagnostic methods, such as the urea breath test, stool antigen test, and endoscopy with biopsy, are commonly used in clinical practice. However, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has led to a decline in treatment efficacy, necessitating a re-evaluation of common diagnostic tools. This narrative review aims to explore the possible changes in the diagnostic approach of H. pylori infection in the era of treatment failure. Molecular techniques, including polymerase chain reaction and whole genome sequencing, which have high sensitivity and specificity, allow the detection of genes associated with antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, culture isolation and a phenotypic antibiogram could be used in the diagnostic routine, although H. pylori is a fastidious bacterium. However, new molecular approaches are promising tools for detecting the pathogen and its resistance genes. In this regard, more real-life studies are needed to reveal new diagnostic tools suitable for identifying multidrug-resistant H. pylori strains and for outlining proper treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment of H. pylori Infection)
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12 pages, 1518 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Stewardship in the Emergency Department Observation Unit: Definition of a New Indicator and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Use and Clinical Outcomes
by Ana Belén Guisado-Gil, Marta Mejías-Trueba, Germán Peñalva, Manuela Aguilar-Guisado, Jose Molina, Adelina Gimeno, Rocío Álvarez-Marín, Julia Praena, Claudio Bueno, José Antonio Lepe, María Victoria Gil-Navarro and José Miguel Cisneros
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040356 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1217
Abstract
We aimed to define a novel indicator for monitoring antimicrobial use specifically in the Emergency Department Observation Unit (EDOU) and to assess the long-term impact of an institutional education-based antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on the antimicrobial prescribing pattern and clinical outcomes in this [...] Read more.
We aimed to define a novel indicator for monitoring antimicrobial use specifically in the Emergency Department Observation Unit (EDOU) and to assess the long-term impact of an institutional education-based antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on the antimicrobial prescribing pattern and clinical outcomes in this setting. A quasi-experimental interrupted time-series study was performed from 2011 to 2022. An educational ASP was implemented at the EDOU in 2015. To estimate changes in antimicrobial use, we designed an indicator adjusted for patients at risk of antimicrobial prescribing: defined daily doses (DDDs) per 100 patients transferred from the Emergency Department to the Observation Unit (TOs) per quarter. The number of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and the crude all-cause 14-day mortality were assessed as clinical outcomes. Antimicrobial use showed a sustained reduction with a trend change of −1.17 DDD per 100 TO and a relative effect of −45.6% (CI95% −64.5 to −26.7), particularly relevant for meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam, with relative effects of −80.4% (−115.0 to −45.7) and −67.9% (−93.9 to −41.9), respectively. The incidence density of all BSIs increased significantly during the ASP period, with a relative effect of 123.2% (41.3 to 284.7). The mortality rate remained low and stable throughout the study period, with an absolute effect of −0.7% (−16.0 to 14.7). The regular monitoring of antimicrobial use in the EDOU by using this new quantitative indicator was useful to demonstrate that an institutional education-based ASP successfully achieved a long-term reduction in overall antimicrobial use, with a low and steady BSI mortality rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship and Use in Healthcare Setting)
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13 pages, 1379 KiB  
Article
Pharmacokinetics of Enrofloxacin in Plasma, Urine, and Feces of Donkey (Equus asinus) after a Single Intragastric Administration
by Bowen Yang, Shijie Liu, Jie Cheng, Honglei Qu, Yanxin Guo, Chuanliang Ji, Yantao Wang, Shancang Zhao, Shimeng Huang, Lihong Zhao and Qiugang Ma
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040355 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Enrofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, but the study of its pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PKs/PDs) in donkeys is rarely reported. The present study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin administered intragastrically, and to study the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in plasma, [...] Read more.
Enrofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, but the study of its pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PKs/PDs) in donkeys is rarely reported. The present study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin administered intragastrically, and to study the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in plasma, urine, and feces, and the PK/PD parameters were investigated to provide a rationale for enrofloxacin treatment in donkeys. A total of five healthy donkeys were selected for intragastric administration of 7.5 mg·kg−1 BW of enrofloxacin by gavage, and blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected. The results showed that the elimination half-life of plasma enrofloxacin was 11.40 ± 6.40 h, Tmax was 0.55 ± 0.12 h, Cmax was 2.46 ± 0.14 mg·L−1, AUC0–∞ was 10.30 ± 3.37 mg·L−1·h, and mean residence time (MRT) was 7.88 ± 1.26 h. The Tmax of plasma ciprofloxacin was 0.52 ± 0.08 h, Cmax was 0.14 ± 0.03 mg·L−1, and AUC0–∞ was 0.24 ± 0.16 mg·L−1·h. Urinary Cmax was 38.18 ± 8.56 mg·L−1 for enrofloxacin and 15.94 ± 4.15 mg·L−1 for ciprofloxacin. The total enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin recovered amount in urine was 7.09 ± 2.55% of the dose for 144 h after dosing. The total enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin recovered amount in feces was 25.73 ± 10.34% of the dose for 144 h after dosing. PK/PD parameters were also examined in this study, based on published MICs. In conclusion, 7.5 mg/kg BW of enrofloxacin administered intragastrically to donkeys was rapidly absorbed, widely distributed, and slowly eliminated in their bodies, and was predicted to be effective against bacteria with MICs < 0.25 mg·L−1. Full article
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15 pages, 3009 KiB  
Article
Pharmacokinetics and Nephrotoxicity of Polymyxin MRX-8 in Rats: A Novel Agent against Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria
by Xingyi Qu, Chenxue Guo, Shaojun Liu, Xin Li, Lin Xi, Xiaofen Liu and Jing Zhang
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040354 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 940
Abstract
MRX-8 is a novel polymyxin for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections that has been recently evaluated in Phase I clinical trials. Herein, its pharmacokinetics (PK) and nephrotoxicity in rats are reported for the first time. This study aimed at pre-clinical PK and safety assessments. An [...] Read more.
MRX-8 is a novel polymyxin for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections that has been recently evaluated in Phase I clinical trials. Herein, its pharmacokinetics (PK) and nephrotoxicity in rats are reported for the first time. This study aimed at pre-clinical PK and safety assessments. An LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine concentrations of MRX-8 and its major deacylation metabolite, MRX-8039, in rat plasma. Animals were administered a single dose of MRX-8 (2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/kg) or comparator polymyxin B (PMB) (4 and 8 mg/kg) to compare the kidney injury known for the polymyxin drug class. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated using serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) biomarkers, and renal histopathology. In rats, MRX-8 displayed linear PK within the range of 2–8 mg/kg, with approximately 4% of MRX-8 converted to MRX-8039. MRX-8 induced only mild increases in serum creatinine and BUN levels, with an apparent decrease in nephrotoxicity within 24 h, in contrast to PMB, which exhibited a significant and more persistent toxicity. Additional nephrotoxicity biomarkers (plasma NGAL and urinary NGAL, KIM-1, and TIMP-1) have confirmed attenuated MRX-8 kidney injury. Histopathology has revealed significantly greater cellular/tissue toxicity for PMB as compared to MRX-8 (variances of p = 0.008 and p = 0.048 vs. saline control, respectively). Thus, MRX-8 induces a mild and reversible kidney injury in rats compared to PMB. These data support a continued evaluation of the novel polymyxin in human trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Antimicrobial Agents)
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1 pages, 120 KiB  
Expression of Concern
Expression of Concern: Rahman et al. An Overview of Antimicrobial Stewardship Optimization: The Use of Antibiotics in Humans and Animals to Prevent Resistance. Antibiotics 2022, 11, 667
by Antibiotics Editorial Office
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040353 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 546
Abstract
With this notice, the Antibiotics Editorial Office states its awareness of concerns relating to the originality of the concepts and analysis published in this review [...] Full article
24 pages, 7251 KiB  
Article
Deciphering Microbiome, Transcriptome, and Metabolic Interactions in the Presence of Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus against Salmonella Typhimurium in a Murine Model
by Muhammad Junaid, Hongyu Lu, Ahmad Ud Din, Bin Yu, Yu Liu, Yixiang Li, Kefei Liu, Jianhua Yan and Zhongquan Qi
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040352 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a foodborne pathogen that poses significant public health risks to humans and animals, presents a formidable challenge due to its antibiotic resistance. This study explores the potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus 1.3251) probiotics [...] Read more.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a foodborne pathogen that poses significant public health risks to humans and animals, presents a formidable challenge due to its antibiotic resistance. This study explores the potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus 1.3251) probiotics as an alternative strategy to combat antibiotic resistance associated with S. Typhimurium infection. In this investigation, twenty-four BALB/c mice were assigned to four groups: a non-infected, non-treated group (CNG); an infected, non-treated group (CPG); a group fed with L. acidophilus but not infected (LAG); and a group fed with L. acidophilus and challenged with Salmonella (LAST). The results revealed a reduction in Salmonella levels in the feces of mice, along with restored weight and improved overall health in the LAST compared to the CPG. The feeding of L. acidophilus was found to downregulate pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA induced by Salmonella while upregulating anti-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, it influenced the expression of mRNA transcript, encoding tight junction protein, oxidative stress-induced enzymes, and apoptosis-related mRNA expression. Furthermore, the LEfSe analysis demonstrated a significant shift in the abundance of critical commensal genera in the LAST, essential for maintaining gut homeostasis, metabolic reactions, anti-inflammatory responses, and butyrate production. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 2173 upregulated and 506 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the LAST vs. the CPG. Functional analysis of these DEGs highlighted their involvement in immunity, metabolism, and cellular development. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated their role in tumor necrosis factor (TNF), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), chemokine, Forkhead box O (FOXO), and transforming growth factor (TGF-β) signaling pathway. Moreover, the fecal metabolomic analysis identified 929 differential metabolites, with enrichment observed in valine, leucine, isoleucine, taurine, glycine, and other metabolites. These findings suggest that supplementation with L. acidophilus promotes the growth of beneficial commensal genera while mitigating Salmonella-induced intestinal disruption by modulating immunity, gut homeostasis, gut barrier integrity, and metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance of Foodborne Bacteria and Food Safety)
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19 pages, 4293 KiB  
Review
Diagnostics in Late Periprosthetic Infections—Challenges and Solutions
by Florian Hubert Sax, Marius Hoyka, Benedikt Paul Blersch and Bernd Fink
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040351 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 738
Abstract
The rising number of arthroplasties is combined with a rising number of periprosthetic joint infections, which leads to life-concerning consequences for the patients, including extended antibiotic treatment, further surgery and increased mortality. The heterogeneity of the symptoms and inflammatory response of the patients [...] Read more.
The rising number of arthroplasties is combined with a rising number of periprosthetic joint infections, which leads to life-concerning consequences for the patients, including extended antibiotic treatment, further surgery and increased mortality. The heterogeneity of the symptoms and inflammatory response of the patients due to, e.g., age and comorbidities and the absence of a single diagnostic test with 100% accuracy make it very challenging to choose the right parameters to confirm or deny a periprosthetic joint infection and to establish a standardized definition. In recent years, additional diagnostic possibilities have emerged primarily through the increasing availability of new diagnostic methods, such as genetic techniques. The aim of the review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about the various tests, including the latest developments. The combination of different tests increases the accuracy of the diagnosis. Each physician or clinical department must select the tests from the available methods that can be best implemented for them in organizational and technical terms. Serological parameters and the cultivation of the samples from aspiration or biopsy should be combined with additional synovial tests to create an accurate figure for the failure of the prosthesis, while imaging procedures are used to obtain additional information for the planned therapeutic procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Orthopedic Infection Management and Antibiotic Treatment)
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22 pages, 6012 KiB  
Article
Repurposing Farnesol for Combating Drug-Resistant and Persistent Single and Polymicrobial Biofilms
by Li Tan, Rong Ma, Tony Reeves, Adam J. Katz and Nicole Levi
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040350 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Biofilm-associated infections caused by drug-resistant and persistent bacteria remain a significant clinical challenge. Here we report that farnesol, commercially available as a cosmetic and flavoring agent, shows significant anti-biofilm properties when dissolved in ethanol using a proprietary formulation emulsion technique. Farnesol in the [...] Read more.
Biofilm-associated infections caused by drug-resistant and persistent bacteria remain a significant clinical challenge. Here we report that farnesol, commercially available as a cosmetic and flavoring agent, shows significant anti-biofilm properties when dissolved in ethanol using a proprietary formulation emulsion technique. Farnesol in the new formulation inhibits biofilm formation and disrupts established biofilms for Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including their polymicrobial biofilms, and, moreover, kills S. aureus persister cells that have developed tolerance to antibiotics. No resistance to farnesol was observed for S. aureus after twenty continuous passages. Farnesol combats biofilms by direct killing, while also facilitating biofilm detachment. Furthermore, farnesol was safe and effective for preventing and treating biofilm-associated infections of both types of bacteria in an ex vivo burned human skin model. These data suggest that farnesol in the new formulation is an effective broad-spectrum anti-biofilm agent with promising clinical potential. Due to its established safety, low-cost, versatility, and excellent efficacy—including ability to reduce persistent and resistant microbial populations—farnesol in the proprietary formulation represents a compelling transformative, translational, and commercial platform for addressing many unsolved clinical challenges. Full article
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23 pages, 6380 KiB  
Article
Comparison of IncK-blaCMY-2 Plasmids in Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Poultry and Humans in Denmark, Finland, and Germany
by Meiyao Che, Ana Herrero Fresno, Cristina Calvo-Fernandez, Henrik Hasman, Paula E. Kurittu, Annamari Heikinheimo and Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040349 - 10 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Escherichia coli carrying IncK-blaCMY-2 plasmids mediating resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) has been frequently described in food-producing animals and in humans. This study aimed to characterize IncK-blaCMY-2-positive ESC-resistant E. coli isolates from poultry production systems in Denmark, Finland, [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli carrying IncK-blaCMY-2 plasmids mediating resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) has been frequently described in food-producing animals and in humans. This study aimed to characterize IncK-blaCMY-2-positive ESC-resistant E. coli isolates from poultry production systems in Denmark, Finland, and Germany, as well as from Danish human blood infections, and further compare their plasmids. Whole-genome sequencing (Illumina) of all isolates (n = 46) confirmed the presence of the blaCMY-2 gene. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing revealed a resistant phenotype to cefotaxime as well as resistance to ≥3 antibiotic classes. Conjugative transfer of the blaCMY-2 gene confirmed the resistance being on mobile plasmids. Pangenome analysis showed only one-third of the genes being in the core with the remainder being in the large accessory gene pool. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis on sequence type (ST) 429 and 1286 isolates showed between 0–60 and 13–90 SNP differences, respectively, indicating vertical transmission of closely related clones in the poultry production, including among Danish, Finnish, and German ST429 isolates. A comparison of 22 ST429 isolates from this study with 80 ST429 isolates in Enterobase revealed the widespread geographical occurrence of related isolates associated with poultry production. Long-read sequencing of a representative subset of isolates (n = 28) allowed further characterization and comparison of the IncK-blaCMY-2 plasmids with publicly available plasmid sequences. This analysis revealed the presence of highly similar plasmids in ESC-resistant E. coli from Denmark, Finland, and Germany pointing to the existence of common sources. Moreover, the analysis presented evidence of global plasmid transmission and evolution. Lastly, our results indicate that IncK-blaCMY-2 plasmids and their carriers had been circulating in the Danish production chain with an associated risk of spreading to humans, as exemplified by the similarity of the clinical ST429 isolate to poultry isolates. Its persistence may be driven by co-selection since most IncK-blaCMY-2 plasmids harbor resistance factors to drugs used in veterinary medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomic Analysis of Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Bacteria)
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