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Biosensors, Volume 10, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 22 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoflowers were synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal route, and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical Detection of Neurotransmitters
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080101 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 581
Abstract
Neurotransmitters are important chemical messengers in the nervous system that play a crucial role in physiological and physical health. Abnormal levels of neurotransmitters have been correlated with physical, psychotic, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, dementia, addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. Although multiple [...] Read more.
Neurotransmitters are important chemical messengers in the nervous system that play a crucial role in physiological and physical health. Abnormal levels of neurotransmitters have been correlated with physical, psychotic, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, dementia, addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. Although multiple neurotechnological approaches have been reported in the literature, the detection and monitoring of neurotransmitters in the brain remains a challenge and continues to garner significant attention. Neurotechnology that provides high-throughput, as well as fast and specific quantification of target analytes in the brain, without negatively impacting the implanted region is highly desired for the monitoring of the complex intercommunication of neurotransmitters. Therefore, it is crucial to develop clinical assessment techniques that are sensitive and reliable to monitor and modulate these chemical messengers and screen diseases. This review focuses on summarizing the current electrochemical measurement techniques that are capable of sensing neurotransmitters with high temporal resolution in real time. Advanced neurotransmitter sensing platforms that integrate nanomaterials and biorecognition elements are explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Open AccessReview
Application of Chemometrics in Biosensing: A Brief Review
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080100 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 575
Abstract
The field of biosensing is rapidly developing, and the number of novel sensor architectures and different sensing elements is growing fast. One of the most important features of all biosensors is their very high selectivity stemming from the use of bioreceptor recognition elements. [...] Read more.
The field of biosensing is rapidly developing, and the number of novel sensor architectures and different sensing elements is growing fast. One of the most important features of all biosensors is their very high selectivity stemming from the use of bioreceptor recognition elements. The typical calibration of a biosensor requires simple univariate regression to relate a response value with an analyte concentration. Nevertheless, dealing with complex real-world sample matrices may sometimes lead to undesired interference effects from various components. This is where chemometric tools can do a good job in extracting relevant information, improving selectivity, circumventing a non-linearity in a response. This brief review aims to discuss the motivation for the application of chemometric tools in biosensing and provide some examples of such applications from the recent literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Fast Adhesion of Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) to a Surface Using Starch Hydrogels for Characterization of Biomolecules in Biosensor Applications
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080099 - 14 Aug 2020
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are the most thoroughly studied nanoparticles because of their remarkable optical properties. Color changes in assays that use AuNPs can be easily observed with the naked eye, resulting in sensitive colorimetric methods, useful for detecting a variety of biological molecules. [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are the most thoroughly studied nanoparticles because of their remarkable optical properties. Color changes in assays that use AuNPs can be easily observed with the naked eye, resulting in sensitive colorimetric methods, useful for detecting a variety of biological molecules. However, while AuNPs represent an excellent nano-platform for developing analytical methods for biosensing, there are still challenges that must be overcome before colloidal AuNPs formulation can be successfully translated into practical applications. One of those challenges is the ability to immobilize AuNPs in a solid support. There are many difficulties with controlling both the cluster size and the adhesion of the coatings formed. In addition, many of the techniques employed are expensive and time-consuming, or require special equipment. Thus, a simple and inexpensive method that only requires common lab equipment for immobilizing AuNPs on a surface using Starch Hydrogels has been developed. Starch hydrogels confer a 400% increase in stability to the nanoparticles when exposed to changes in the environment while also allowing for macromolecules to interact with the AuNPs surface. Several starch derivatives were tested, including, dextrin, beta-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin, being dextrin the one that conferred the highest stability. As a proof-of-concept, a SlipChip microfluidic sensor scheme was developed to measure the concentration of DNA in a sample. The detection limit of our biosensor was found to be 25 ng/mL and 75 ng/mL for instrument and naked eye detection, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Docking Simulation and Sandwich Assay for Aptamer-Based Botulinum Neurotoxin Type C Detection
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080098 - 12 Aug 2020
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Aptamers are biomaterials that bind to a target molecule through a unique structure, and have high applicability in the diagnostic and medical fields. To effectively utilize aptamers, it is important to analyze the structure of the aptamer binding to the target molecule; however, [...] Read more.
Aptamers are biomaterials that bind to a target molecule through a unique structure, and have high applicability in the diagnostic and medical fields. To effectively utilize aptamers, it is important to analyze the structure of the aptamer binding to the target molecule; however, there are difficulties in experimentally identifying this structure. In the modern pharmaceutical industry, computer-driven docking simulations that predict intermolecular binding models are used to select candidates that effectively bind target molecules. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is the most poisonous neurotoxin produced from the Clostridium botulinum bacteria, and BoNT/C, one of the eight serotypes, causes paralysis in livestock. In this study, the aptamers that bound to BoNT/C were screened via the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment, and the binding affinity analysis and binding model were evaluated to select optimal aptamers. Based on surface plasmon resonance analysis and molecular operating environment docking simulation, a pair of aptamers that had high binding affinity to BoNT/C and were bound to different BoNT/C sites were selected. A sandwich assay based on this aptamer pair detected the BoNT/C protein to a concentration as low as ~0.2 ng Ml−1. These results show that docking simulations are a useful strategy for screening aptamers that bind to specific targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Possibility for Fermentation Monitoring by Electrical Driven Sensing of Ultraviolet Light and Glucose
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080097 - 12 Aug 2020
Viewed by 654
Abstract
Industrial fermentation generates products through microbial growth associated with the consumption of substrates. The efficiency of industrial production of high commercial value microbial products such as ethanol from glucose (GLU) is dependent on bacterial contamination. Controlling the sugar conversion into products as well [...] Read more.
Industrial fermentation generates products through microbial growth associated with the consumption of substrates. The efficiency of industrial production of high commercial value microbial products such as ethanol from glucose (GLU) is dependent on bacterial contamination. Controlling the sugar conversion into products as well as the sterility of the fermentation process are objectives to be considered here by studying GLU and ultraviolet light (UV) sensors. In this work, we present two different approaches of SnO2 nanowires grown by the Vapor–Liquid–Solid (VLS) method. In the GLU sensor, we use SnO2 nanowires as active electrodes, while for the UV sensor, a nanowire film was built for detection. The results showed a wide range of GLU sensing and as well as a significant influence of UV in the electrical signal. The effect of a wide range of GLU concentrations on the responsiveness of the sensor through current–voltage based on SnO2 nanowire films under different concentration conditions ranging was verified from 1 to 1000 mmol. UV sensors show a typical amperometric response of SnO2 nanowires under the excitation of UV and GLU in ten cycles of 300 s with 1.0 V observing a stable and reliable amperometric response. GLU and UV sensors proved to have a promising potential for detection and to control the conversion of a substrate into a product by GLU control and decontamination by UV control in industrial fermentation systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Open AccessEditorial
Bioelectric Sensors: On the Road for the 4.0 Diagnostics and Biomedtech Revolution
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080096 - 11 Aug 2020
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Bioelectric sensors lie, by definition, on the interface between biological elements and electronic circuits, irrespective of scale, manufacturing method, and working principle [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectric Sensors) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Detection and Capillary Electrophoresis: Comparative Studies for Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Release from Living Cells
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080095 - 11 Aug 2020
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is one of the main biomarkers that is clinically detected in bone and liver disorders using optical assays. The electrochemical principle is important because point-of-care testing is increasing dramatically and absorbance techniques hardly compete with the medical revolution that is [...] Read more.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is one of the main biomarkers that is clinically detected in bone and liver disorders using optical assays. The electrochemical principle is important because point-of-care testing is increasing dramatically and absorbance techniques hardly compete with the medical revolution that is occurring. The detection of ALP using electrochemical detection is contributing to the integration systems field, and hence enhancing the detection of biological targets for pharmaceutical research and design systems. Moreover, in vitro electrochemical measurements use cost effective materials and simple techniques. Graphite screen-printed electrodes and linear sweep voltammetry were used to optimize the electrochemistry of the enzymatic product p-aminophenol using the enzyme kinetic assay. ALP release from embryonic and cancer cells was determined from adhesion cell culture. Additionally, capillary electrophoresis and colorimetric methods were applied for comparison assays. The resulting assays showed a dynamic range of ALP ranging from 1.5 to 1500 U/L, and limit of detection of 0.043 U/L. This was achieved by using 70 μL of the sample and an incubation time of 10 min at an optimal substrate concentration of 9.6 mM of p-aminophenol phosphate. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was measured between the absorbance assays. This paper demonstrates the advantages of the electrochemical assay for ALP release from cells, which is in line with recent trends in gene expression systems using microelectrode array technologies and devices for monitoring electrophysiological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Open AccessCommunication
Urinalysis Using a Diaper-Based Testing Device
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080094 - 10 Aug 2020
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Urinary tract infections (UTI), one of the most common bacterial infections, annually affect 150 million people worldwide. Infants and the elderly are likely to have missed or delayed diagnosis of UTI due to difficulty clearly describing their symptoms. A rapid screening method for [...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections (UTI), one of the most common bacterial infections, annually affect 150 million people worldwide. Infants and the elderly are likely to have missed or delayed diagnosis of UTI due to difficulty clearly describing their symptoms. A rapid screening method for UTI is a critical and urgent need for these populations. The aim of our study is to develop a diaper-based testing device to assay urine biomarkers including pH, leukocyte, and nitrite level. This all-in-one device assists in urine collection and testing using a colorimetric approach to provide easily read visual results on the outside surface of a test strip-integrated diaper. In this study, we tested samples from 46 patients using testing strips and examined the results from 7 patients recruited to validate the strip-integrated diaper. In conclusion, this new diaper-based testing device is easy to use, rapid, and inexpensive, all of which imbue it with tremendous potential for development into a commercially viable UTI screening system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Portable Technologies toward ASSURED Biosensing and Diagnostics)
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Open AccessArticle
Ternary Fingerprints with Reference Odor for Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080093 - 09 Aug 2020
Viewed by 582
Abstract
An improved method for fluctuation-enhanced sensing (FES) is introduced. We enhanced the old binary fingerprinting method, where the fingerprint bit values were ±1, by introducing ternary fingerprint bits utilizing a reference odor. In the ternary method, the fingerprint bit values are −1, 0, [...] Read more.
An improved method for fluctuation-enhanced sensing (FES) is introduced. We enhanced the old binary fingerprinting method, where the fingerprint bit values were ±1, by introducing ternary fingerprint bits utilizing a reference odor. In the ternary method, the fingerprint bit values are −1, 0, and +1, where the 0 value stands for the situation where the slope of the spectrum is identical to that of the reference odor. The application of the reference odor spectrum makes the fingerprint relative to the reference. The ternary nature and the reference feature increase the information entropy of the fingerprints. The method is briefly illustrated by sensing bacterial odor in cow manure isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Frequency Shift of a SH-SAW Biosensor with Glutaraldehyde and 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane Functionalized Films for Detection of Epidermal Growth Factor
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080092 - 05 Aug 2020
Viewed by 621
Abstract
The frequency shift of a shear-horizontal surface-acoustic-wave (SH-SAW) biosensor in which the concentration of biomolecule is determined by the amount of its adsorption on the sensing film was studied. Simulation results were compared with experimental results to investigate its sensitivity and to develop [...] Read more.
The frequency shift of a shear-horizontal surface-acoustic-wave (SH-SAW) biosensor in which the concentration of biomolecule is determined by the amount of its adsorption on the sensing film was studied. Simulation results were compared with experimental results to investigate its sensitivity and to develop a model to estimate the concentration of a cancer-related biomarker antigen epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the sample, with two types of sensing films, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde. With the concentration of the targeted biomarker varying from 0.2 to 5 ng/mL, a typical exponential relationship was found between the concentration and the frequency shift of the SH-SAW sensor. Measurement results showed a clear response of this immunosensor to the mass-loading effects of the antibody–antigen. The sensitivity of the glutaraldehyde film is greater than that of the APTES film owing to the chemisorption of the antibody. In the simulation, a shift of the SH-SAW resonant frequency due to added mass occurred on applying an incremental surface mass density on the sensing film, while in real applications, the concentration of the targeted biomarker to be absorbed in the sensing film is demanded. An empirical model was proposed to calculate the frequency shift in the simulation of the SH-SAW biosensor, corresponding to the concentration of specific biomolecules absorbed on a specific film. From the semi-empirical model, the sensitivity level is found to be 0.641 and 1.709 kHz/(ng/mL) for APTES and glutaraldehyde sensing films, respectively, at a biomarker concentration of less than 1 ng/mL. The developed method is useful for quickly estimating the frequency shift with respect to the concentration of the target molecules in the simulation for SH-SAW sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Microfluidic-Based Electrochemical Immunosensing of Ferritin
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080091 - 05 Aug 2020
Viewed by 873
Abstract
Ferritin is a clinically important biomarker which reflects the state of iron in the body and is directly involved with anemia. Current methods available for ferritin estimation are generally not portable or they do not provide a fast response. To combat these issues, [...] Read more.
Ferritin is a clinically important biomarker which reflects the state of iron in the body and is directly involved with anemia. Current methods available for ferritin estimation are generally not portable or they do not provide a fast response. To combat these issues, an attempt was made for lab-on-a-chip-based electrochemical detection of ferritin, developed with an integrated electrochemically active screen-printed electrode (SPE), combining nanotechnology, microfluidics, and electrochemistry. The SPE surface was modified with amine-functionalized graphene oxide to facilitate the binding of ferritin antibodies on the electrode surface. The functionalized SPE was embedded in the microfluidic flow cell with a simple magnetic clamping mechanism to allow continuous electrochemical detection of ferritin. Ferritin detection was accomplished via cyclic voltammetry with a dynamic linear range from 7.81 to 500 ng·mL−1 and an LOD of 0.413 ng·mL−1. The sensor performance was verified with spiked human serum samples. Furthermore, the sensor was validated by comparing its response with the response of the conventional ELISA method. The current method of microfluidic flow cell-based electrochemical ferritin detection demonstrated promising sensitivity and selectivity. This confirmed the plausibility of using the reported technique in point-of-care testing applications at a much faster rate than conventional techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics for Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanoelectrode Arrays Fabricated by Thermal Nanoimprint Lithography for Biosensing Application
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080090 - 05 Aug 2020
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Electrochemical sensors are devices capable of detecting molecules and biomolecules in solutions and determining the concentration through direct electrical measurements. These systems can be miniaturized to a size less than 1 µm through the creation of small-size arrays of nanoelectrodes (NEA), offering advantages [...] Read more.
Electrochemical sensors are devices capable of detecting molecules and biomolecules in solutions and determining the concentration through direct electrical measurements. These systems can be miniaturized to a size less than 1 µm through the creation of small-size arrays of nanoelectrodes (NEA), offering advantages in terms of increased sensitivity and compactness. In this work, we present the fabrication of an electrochemical platform based on an array of nanoelectrodes (NEA) and its possible use for the detection of antigens of interest. NEAs were fabricated by forming arrays of nanoholes on a thin film of polycarbonate (PC) deposited on boron-doped diamond (BDD) macroelectrodes by thermal nanoimprint lithography (TNIL), which demonstrated to be a highly reliable and reproducible process. As proof of principle, gliadin protein fragments were physisorbed on the polycarbonate surface of NEAs and detected by immuno-indirect assay using a secondary antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This method allows a successful detection of gliadin, in the range of concentration of 0.5–10 μg/mL, by cyclic voltammetry taking advantage from the properties of NEAs to strongly suppress the capacitive background signal. We demonstrate that the characteristics of the TNIL technology in the fabrication of high-resolution nanostructures together with their low-cost production, may allow to scale up the production of NEAs-based electrochemical sensing platform to monitor biochemical molecules for both food and biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Fast Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) at ppt Level by a Laser-Induced Immunofluorometric Biosensor
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080089 - 05 Aug 2020
Viewed by 753
Abstract
The illegal use of explosives by terrorists and other criminals is an increasing issue in public spaces, such as airports, railway stations, highways, sports venues, theaters, and other large buildings. Security in these environments can be achieved by different means, including the installation [...] Read more.
The illegal use of explosives by terrorists and other criminals is an increasing issue in public spaces, such as airports, railway stations, highways, sports venues, theaters, and other large buildings. Security in these environments can be achieved by different means, including the installation of scanners and other analytical devices to detect ultra-small traces of explosives in a very short time-frame to be able to take action as early as possible to prevent the detonation of such devices. Unfortunately, an ideal explosive detection system still does not exist, which means that a compromise is needed in practice. Most detection devices lack the extreme analytical sensitivity, which is nevertheless necessary due to the low vapor pressure of nearly all explosives. In addition, the rate of false positives needs to be virtually zero, which is also very difficult to achieve. Here we present an immunosensor system based on kinetic competition, which is known to be very fast and may even overcome affinity limitation, which impairs the performance of many traditional competitive assays. This immunosensor consists of a monolithic glass column with a vast excess of immobilized hapten, which traps the fluorescently labeled antibody as long as no explosive is present. In the case of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), some binding sites of the antibody will be blocked, which leads to an immediate breakthrough of the labeled protein, detectable by highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence with the help of a Peltier-cooled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera. Liquid handling is performed with high-precision syringe pumps and chip-based mixing-devices and flow-cells. The system achieved limits of detection of 1 pM (1 ppt) of the fluorescent label and around 100 pM (20 ppt) of TNT. The total assay time is less than 8 min. A cross-reactivity test with 5000 pM solutions showed no signal by pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). This immunosensor belongs to the most sensitive and fastest detectors for TNT with no significant cross-reactivity by non-related compounds. The consumption of the labeled antibody is surprisingly low: 1 mg of the reagent would be sufficient for more than one year of continuous biosensor operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Open AccessReview
The Current Trends of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080088 - 03 Aug 2020
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Biosensors constitute selective, sensitive, and rapid tools for disease diagnosis in tissue engineering applications. Compared to standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analytical technology, biosensors provide a strategy to real-time and on-site monitor micro biophysiological signals via a combination of biological, chemical, and physical [...] Read more.
Biosensors constitute selective, sensitive, and rapid tools for disease diagnosis in tissue engineering applications. Compared to standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analytical technology, biosensors provide a strategy to real-time and on-site monitor micro biophysiological signals via a combination of biological, chemical, and physical technologies. This review summarizes the recent and significant advances made in various biosensor technologies for different applications of biological and biomedical interest, especially on tissue engineering applications. Different fabrication techniques utilized for tissue engineering purposes, such as computer numeric control (CNC), photolithographic, casting, and 3D printing technologies are also discussed. Key developments in the cell/tissue-based biosensors, biomolecular sensing strategies, and the expansion of several biochip approaches such as organs-on-chips, paper based-biochips, and flexible biosensors are available. Cell polarity and cell behaviors such as proliferation, differentiation, stimulation response, and metabolism detection are included. Biosensors for diagnosing tissue disease modes such as brain, heart, lung, and liver systems and for bioimaging are discussed. Finally, we discuss the challenges faced by current biosensing techniques and highlight future prospects of biosensors for tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-on-a-Chip for Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle
Instrumentation-Free Semiquantitative Immunoanalysis Using a Specially Patterned Lateral Flow Assay Device
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080087 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 795
Abstract
In traditional colorimetric lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a probe, additional optical transducers are required to quantify the signal intensity of the test line because it presents as a single red-colored line. In order to eliminate external equipment, the [...] Read more.
In traditional colorimetric lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a probe, additional optical transducers are required to quantify the signal intensity of the test line because it presents as a single red-colored line. In order to eliminate external equipment, the LFI signal should be quantifiable by the naked eye without the involvement of optical instruments. Given this objective, the single line test zone of conventional LFI was converted to several spots that formed herringbone patterns. When the sandwich immunoassay was performed on a newly developed semi-quantitative (SQ)-LFI system using AuNPs as an optical probe, the spots were colorized and the number of colored spots increased proportionally with the analyte concentration. By counting the number of colored spots, the analyte concentration can be easily estimated with the naked eye. To demonstrate the applicability of the SQ-LFI system in practical immunoanalysis, microalbumin, which is a diagnostic marker for renal failure, was analyzed using microalbumin-spiked artificial urine samples. Using the SQ-LFI system, the calibration results for artificial urine-based microalbumin were studied, ranging from 0 to 500 μg/mL, covering the required clinical detection range, and the limit of detection (LOD) value was calculated to be 15.5 μg/mL. Thus, the SQ-LFI system provides an avenue for the realization of an efficient quantification diagnostic device in resource-limited conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Portable Technologies toward ASSURED Biosensing and Diagnostics)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Ratiometric Fluorescent Glucose Sensor Using an Oxygen-Sensing Membrane Immobilized with Glucose Oxidase for the Detection of Glucose in Tears
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080086 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Glucose concentration is an important parameter in biomedicine since glucose is involved in many metabolic pathways in organisms. Many methods for glucose detection have been developed for use in various applications, particularly in the field of healthcare in diabetics. In this study, ratiometric [...] Read more.
Glucose concentration is an important parameter in biomedicine since glucose is involved in many metabolic pathways in organisms. Many methods for glucose detection have been developed for use in various applications, particularly in the field of healthcare in diabetics. In this study, ratiometric fluorescent glucose-sensing membranes were fabricated based on the oxygen levels consumed in the glucose oxidation reaction under the catalysis of glucose oxidase (GOD). The oxygen concentration was measured through the fluorescence quenching effect of an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent dye like platinum meso-tetra (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtP) by oxygen molecules. Coumarin 6 (C6) was used as a reference dye in the ratiometric fluorescence measurements. The glucose-sensing membrane consisted of two layers: The first layer was the oxygen-sensing membrane containing polystyrene particles (PS) doped with PtP and C6 (e.g., [email protected]^PtP) in a sol–gel matrix of aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GA). The second layer was made by immobilizing GOD onto one of three supporting polymers over the first layer. These glucose-sensing membranes were characterized in terms of their response, reversibility, interferences, and stability. They showed a wide detection range to glucose concentration in the range of 0.1 to 10 mM, but high sensitivity with a linear detection range of 0.1 to 2 mM glucose. This stable and sensitive ratiometric fluorescent glucose biosensor provides a reliable way to determine low glucose concentrations in blood serum by measuring tear glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescence Biosensors 2020)
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Open AccessReview
EMG-Centered Multisensory Based Technologies for Pattern Recognition in Rehabilitation: State of the Art and Challenges
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080085 - 26 Jul 2020
Viewed by 791
Abstract
In the field of rehabilitation, the electromyography (EMG) signal plays an important role in interpreting patients’ intentions and physical conditions. Nevertheless, utilizing merely the EMG signal suffers from difficulty in recognizing slight body movements, and the detection accuracy is strongly influenced by environmental [...] Read more.
In the field of rehabilitation, the electromyography (EMG) signal plays an important role in interpreting patients’ intentions and physical conditions. Nevertheless, utilizing merely the EMG signal suffers from difficulty in recognizing slight body movements, and the detection accuracy is strongly influenced by environmental factors. To address the above issues, multisensory integration-based EMG pattern recognition (PR) techniques have been developed in recent years, and fruitful results have been demonstrated in diverse rehabilitation scenarios, such as achieving high locomotion detection and prosthesis control accuracy. Owing to the importance and rapid development of the EMG centered multisensory fusion technologies in rehabilitation, this paper reviews both theories and applications in this emerging field. The principle of EMG signal generation and the current pattern recognition process are explained in detail, including signal preprocessing, feature extraction, classification algorithms, etc. Mechanisms of collaborations between two important multisensory fusion strategies (kinetic and kinematics) and EMG information are thoroughly explained; corresponding applications are studied, and the pros and cons are discussed. Finally, the main challenges in EMG centered multisensory pattern recognition are discussed, and a future research direction of this area is prospected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensing and Imaging)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Electronic Nose as a Novel Method for Diagnosing Cancer: A Systematic Review
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080084 - 25 Jul 2020
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Cancer is fast becoming the most important cause of death worldwide, its mortality being mostly caused by late or wrong diagnosis. Novel strategies have been developed to identify early signs of cancer in a minimally obtrusive way, including the Electronic Nose (E-Nose) technology, [...] Read more.
Cancer is fast becoming the most important cause of death worldwide, its mortality being mostly caused by late or wrong diagnosis. Novel strategies have been developed to identify early signs of cancer in a minimally obtrusive way, including the Electronic Nose (E-Nose) technology, user-friendly, cost- and time-saving alternative to classical approaches. This systematic review, conducted under the PRISMA guidelines, identified 60 articles directly dealing with the E-Nose application in cancer research published up to 31 January 2020. Among these works, the vast majority reported successful E-Nose use for diagnosing Lung Cancer, showing promising results especially when employing the Aeonose tool, discriminating subjects with Lung Cancer from controls in more than 80% of individuals, in most studies. In order to tailor the main limitations of the proposed approach, including the application of the protocol to advanced stage of cancer, sample heterogeneity and massive confounders, future studies should be conducted on early stage patients, and on larger cohorts, as to better characterize the specific breathprint associated with the various subtypes of cancer. This would ultimately lead to a better and faster diagnosis and to earlier treatment, possibly reducing the burden associated to such conditions. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Sniffing Out Urinary Tract Infection—Diagnosis Based on Volatile Organic Compounds and Smell Profile
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080083 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Current available methods for the clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) rely on a urine dipstick test or culturing of pathogens. The dipstick test is rapid (available in 1–2 min), but has a low positive predictive value, while culturing is time-consuming and [...] Read more.
Current available methods for the clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) rely on a urine dipstick test or culturing of pathogens. The dipstick test is rapid (available in 1–2 min), but has a low positive predictive value, while culturing is time-consuming and delays diagnosis (24–72 h between sample collection and pathogen identification). Due to this delay, broad-spectrum antibiotics are often prescribed immediately. The over-prescription of antibiotics should be limited, in order to prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance. As a result, there is a growing need for alternative diagnostic tools. This paper reviews applications of chemical-analysis instruments, such as gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and electronic noses (eNoses) used for the diagnosis of UTI. These methods analyse volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that emanate from the headspace of collected urine samples to identify the bacterial pathogen and even determine the causative agent’s resistance to different antibiotics. There is great potential for these technologies to gain wide-spread and routine use in clinical settings, since the analysis can be automated, and test results can be available within minutes after sample collection. This could significantly reduce the necessity to prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics and allow the faster and more effective use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors and Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Bacteria Counting in DI Water of Several Microliters or Growing Suspension Using Impedance Biochips
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080082 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 777
Abstract
We counted bacterial cells of E. coli strain K12 in several-microliter DI water or in several-microliter PBS in the low optical density (OD) range (OD = 0.05–1.08) in contact with the surface of Si-based impedance biochips with ring electrodes by impedance measurements. The [...] Read more.
We counted bacterial cells of E. coli strain K12 in several-microliter DI water or in several-microliter PBS in the low optical density (OD) range (OD = 0.05–1.08) in contact with the surface of Si-based impedance biochips with ring electrodes by impedance measurements. The multiparameter fit of the impedance data allowed calibration of the impedance data with the concentration cb of the E. coli cells in the range of cb = 0.06 to 1.26 × 109 cells/mL. The results showed that for E. coli in DI water and in PBS, the modelled impedance parameters depend linearly on the concentration of cells in the range of cb = 0.06 to 1.26 × 109 cells/mL, whereas the OD, which was independently measured with a spectrophotometer, was only linearly dependent on the concentration of the E. coli cells in the range of cb = 0.06 to 0.50 × 109 cells/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Specific Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Gold-Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080081 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Visceral leishmaniasis is a reemerging neglected tropical disease with limitations for its diagnosis, including low concentration of antibodies in the serum of asymptomatic patients and cross-reactions. In this context, this work proposes an electrochemical immunosensor for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in a [...] Read more.
Visceral leishmaniasis is a reemerging neglected tropical disease with limitations for its diagnosis, including low concentration of antibodies in the serum of asymptomatic patients and cross-reactions. In this context, this work proposes an electrochemical immunosensor for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in a more sensitive way that is capable of avoiding cross-reaction with Chagas disease (CD). Crude Leishmania infantum antigens tested in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were methodologically standardized to best engage to the sensor. The antibodies anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-Leishmania sp. Present in serum from patients with diverse types of CD or leishmaniasis were chosen. A screen-printed carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles was the best platform to guarantee effective adsorption of all antigens so that the epitope of specific recognition for leishmaniasis occurred efficiently and without cross-reaction with the evaluated CD. The current peaks reduced linearly after the recognition, and still were able to notice the discrimination between different kinds of diseases (digestive, cardiac, undetermined Chagas/acute and visceral chronic leishmaniasis). Comparative analyses with ELISA were performed with the same groups, and a low specificity (44%) was verified due to cross-reactions (high number of false positives) on ELISA tests, while the proposed immunosensor presented high selectivity and specificity (100%) without any false positives or false negatives for the serum samples from isolated patients with different types of CD and visceral leishmaniasis. Furthermore, the biosensor was stable for 5 days and presented a detection limit of 200 ng mL−1. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Carbon-Coated Superparamagnetic Nanoflowers for Biosensors Based on Lateral Flow Immunoassays
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080080 - 22 Jul 2020
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoflowers coated by a black carbon layer (Fe3O4@C) were studied as labels in lateral flow immunoassays. They were synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal route, and they were characterized (size, morphology, chemical composition, and magnetic properties). They [...] Read more.
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoflowers coated by a black carbon layer (Fe3O4@C) were studied as labels in lateral flow immunoassays. They were synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal route, and they were characterized (size, morphology, chemical composition, and magnetic properties). They consist of several superparamagnetic cores embedded in a carbon coating holding carboxylic groups adequate for bioconjugation. Their multi-core structure is especially efficient for magnetic separation while keeping suitable magnetic properties and appropriate size for immunoassay reporters. Their functionality was tested with a model system based on the biotin–neutravidin interaction. For this, the nanoparticles were conjugated to neutravidin using the carbodiimide chemistry, and the lateral flow immunoassay was carried out with a biotin test line. Quantification was achieved with both an inductive magnetic sensor and a reflectance reader. In order to further investigate the quantifying capacity of the Fe3O4@C nanoflowers, the magnetic lateral flow immunoassay was tested as a detection system for extracellular vesicles (EVs), a novel source of biomarkers with interest for liquid biopsy. A clear correlation between the extracellular vesicle concentration and the signal proved the potential of the nanoflowers as quantifying labels. The limit of detection in a rapid test for EVs was lower than the values reported before for other magnetic nanoparticle labels in the working range 0–3 × 107 EVs/μL. The method showed a reproducibility (RSD) of 3% (n = 3). The lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) rapid test developed in this work yielded to satisfactory results for EVs quantification by using a precipitation kit and also directly in plasma samples. Besides, these Fe3O4@C nanoparticles are easy to concentrate by means of a magnet, and this feature makes them promising candidates to further reduce the limit of detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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