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Article

Development of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Specific Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Gold-Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes

1
Institute of Biological and Natural Sciences, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba-MG 38025-180, Brazil
2
Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba-MG 38025-180, Brazil
3
Institute of Technological and Exact Sciences, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba-MG 38025-180, Brazil
4
Institute of Physics, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio-AL 57072-970, Brazil
5
Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia-MG 38408-100, Brazil
6
Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Iturama-MG 38025-180, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080081
Received: 16 June 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 17 July 2020 / Published: 23 July 2020
Visceral leishmaniasis is a reemerging neglected tropical disease with limitations for its diagnosis, including low concentration of antibodies in the serum of asymptomatic patients and cross-reactions. In this context, this work proposes an electrochemical immunosensor for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in a more sensitive way that is capable of avoiding cross-reaction with Chagas disease (CD). Crude Leishmania infantum antigens tested in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were methodologically standardized to best engage to the sensor. The antibodies anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-Leishmania sp. Present in serum from patients with diverse types of CD or leishmaniasis were chosen. A screen-printed carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles was the best platform to guarantee effective adsorption of all antigens so that the epitope of specific recognition for leishmaniasis occurred efficiently and without cross-reaction with the evaluated CD. The current peaks reduced linearly after the recognition, and still were able to notice the discrimination between different kinds of diseases (digestive, cardiac, undetermined Chagas/acute and visceral chronic leishmaniasis). Comparative analyses with ELISA were performed with the same groups, and a low specificity (44%) was verified due to cross-reactions (high number of false positives) on ELISA tests, while the proposed immunosensor presented high selectivity and specificity (100%) without any false positives or false negatives for the serum samples from isolated patients with different types of CD and visceral leishmaniasis. Furthermore, the biosensor was stable for 5 days and presented a detection limit of 200 ng mL−1. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical biosensor; visceral leishmaniasis; Chagas disease; gold nanoparticles; point-of-care; portable analysis electrochemical biosensor; visceral leishmaniasis; Chagas disease; gold nanoparticles; point-of-care; portable analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martins, B.R.; Barbosa, Y.O.; Andrade, C.M.R.; Pereira, L.Q.; Simão, G.F.; de Oliveira, C.J.; Correia, D.; Oliveira, R.T.S., Jr.; da Silva, M.V.; Silva, A.C.A.; Dantas, N.O.; Rodrigues, V., Jr.; Muñoz, R.A.A.; Alves-Balvedi, R.P. Development of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Specific Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Gold-Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes. Biosensors 2020, 10, 81. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080081

AMA Style

Martins BR, Barbosa YO, Andrade CMR, Pereira LQ, Simão GF, de Oliveira CJ, Correia D, Oliveira RTS Jr., da Silva MV, Silva ACA, Dantas NO, Rodrigues V Jr., Muñoz RAA, Alves-Balvedi RP. Development of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Specific Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Gold-Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes. Biosensors. 2020; 10(8):81. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080081

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martins, Beatriz R., Yanne O. Barbosa, Cristhianne M.R. Andrade, Loren Q. Pereira, Guilherme F. Simão, Carlo J. de Oliveira, Dalmo Correia, Robson T.S. Oliveira Jr., Marcos V. da Silva, Anielle C.A. Silva, Noelio O. Dantas, Virmondes Rodrigues Jr., Rodrigo A.A. Muñoz, and Renata P. Alves-Balvedi 2020. "Development of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Specific Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Gold-Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes" Biosensors 10, no. 8: 81. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080081

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