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Open AccessArticle

Ternary Fingerprints with Reference Odor for Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing

1
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2117, USA
2
School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519000, China
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3128, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
On sabbatical leave from School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519000, Guangdong, China.
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080093
Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 1 August 2020 / Accepted: 5 August 2020 / Published: 9 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
An improved method for fluctuation-enhanced sensing (FES) is introduced. We enhanced the old binary fingerprinting method, where the fingerprint bit values were ±1, by introducing ternary fingerprint bits utilizing a reference odor. In the ternary method, the fingerprint bit values are −1, 0, and +1, where the 0 value stands for the situation where the slope of the spectrum is identical to that of the reference odor. The application of the reference odor spectrum makes the fingerprint relative to the reference. The ternary nature and the reference feature increase the information entropy of the fingerprints. The method is briefly illustrated by sensing bacterial odor in cow manure isolates. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluctuation enhanced sensing; cow manure bacteria; odor sensing, trinary fingerprints fluctuation enhanced sensing; cow manure bacteria; odor sensing, trinary fingerprints
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, X.; Kish, L.B.; Seguin, J.-L.; King, M.D. Ternary Fingerprints with Reference Odor for Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing. Biosensors 2020, 10, 93.

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