Special Issue "Bioelectric Sensors"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Spyridon Kintzios
Website
Guest Editor
Agricultural University of Athens (Geoponiko Panepistimion Athinon), Biotechnology and Development, Athens, Greece
Interests: biosensors; biotechnology; cell culture; cell technology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioelectric sensors are unique diagnostic principles and technologies. Although they share many traits with electrochemical sensors, especially regarding the common features of instrumentation, they are focused on the measurement of the electric properties of biorecognition elements as a reflection of cellular, biological, and biomolecular functions in a rapid, very sensitive, and often non-invasive manner. Bioelectric sensors offer a plethora of options in terms both of assay targets (molecules, cells, organs, and organisms) and methodological approaches (e.g., potentiometry, impedance spectrometry, and patch-clamp electrophysiology). Irrespective of the method of choice, “bioelectric profiling” is being rapidly established as a superior concept for a number of applications, including in vitro toxicity, signal transduction, real-time medical diagnostics, environmental risk assessment, and drug development. This Special Issue is the first that is exclusively dedicated to the advanced and emerging concepts and technologies of bioelectric sensors. Topics include, but are not restricted to, bioelectric sensors for single cell analysis, electrophysiological olfactory and volatile organic compounds sensors, impedimetric biosensors, microbial fuel cell biosensors, and implantable autonomous bioelectric micro- and nano-sensors. Also of interest are the innovative approaches offering a high throughput analytical capacity, point-of-care/portable and wireless instrumentation, and intelligent bioelectric sensing platforms. Research papers, short communications, and reviews are all welcome. If the author is interested in submitting a review, it would be helpful to discuss this with the guest-editor before submission.

Prof. Dr. Spyridon Kintzios
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bioelectric
  • Bioelectric profiling
  • Biosensor
  • Electrophysiology
  • Impedimetric
  • Impedance spectrometry
  • Implantable
  • Medical diagnostics
  • Microbial fuel cell
  • Microsensors
  • Nanosensors
  • Olfactory
  • Patch-Clamp
  • Potentiometry
  • Signal transduction
  • Single cell analysis
  • Vocs
  • Toxicology

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Bioelectric Sensors: On the Road for the 4.0 Diagnostics and Biomedtech Revolution
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080096 - 11 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Bioelectric sensors lie, by definition, on the interface between biological elements and electronic circuits, irrespective of scale, manufacturing method, and working principle [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectric Sensors) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Attack Graph Modeling for Implantable Pacemaker
Biosensors 2020, 10(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10020014 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2239
Abstract
Remote health monitoring systems are used to audit implantable medical devices or patients’ health in a non-clinical setting. These systems are prone to cyberattacks exploiting their critical vulnerabilities. Thus, threatening patients’ health and confidentiality. In this paper, a pacemaker automatic remote monitoring system [...] Read more.
Remote health monitoring systems are used to audit implantable medical devices or patients’ health in a non-clinical setting. These systems are prone to cyberattacks exploiting their critical vulnerabilities. Thus, threatening patients’ health and confidentiality. In this paper, a pacemaker automatic remote monitoring system (PARMS) is modeled using architecture analysis and design language (AADL), formally characterized, and checked using the JKind model checker tool. The generated attack graph is visualized using the Graphviz tool, and classifies security breaches through the violation of the security features of significance. The developed attack graph showed the essentiality of setting up appropriate security measures in PARMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectric Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for Label-Free Protein Detection
Biosensors 2019, 9(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9040144 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
There is a growing need for biosensors that are capable of efficiently and rapidly quantifying protein biomarkers, both in the biological research and clinical setting. While accurate methods for protein quantification exist, the current assays involve sophisticated techniques, take long to administer and [...] Read more.
There is a growing need for biosensors that are capable of efficiently and rapidly quantifying protein biomarkers, both in the biological research and clinical setting. While accurate methods for protein quantification exist, the current assays involve sophisticated techniques, take long to administer and often require highly trained personnel for execution and analysis. Herein, we explore the development of a label-free biosensor for the detection and quantification of a standard protein. The developed biosensors comprise carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a specific antibody and cellulose filtration paper. The change in electrical resistance of the CNT-based biosensor system was used to sense a standard protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a proof-of-concept. The developed biosensors were found to have a limit of detection of 2.89 ng/mL, which is comparable to the performance of the typical ELISA method for BSA quantification. Additionally, the newly developed method takes no longer than 10 min to perform, greatly reducing the time of analysis compared to the traditional ELISA technique. Overall, we present a versatile, affordable, simplified and rapid biosensor device capable of providing great benefit to both biological research and clinical diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectric Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Bioelectrical Analysis of Various Cancer Cell Types Immobilized in 3D Matrix and Cultured in 3D-Printed Well
Biosensors 2019, 9(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9040136 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2543
Abstract
Cancer cell lines are important tools for anticancer drug research and assessment. Impedance measurements can provide valuable information about cell viability in real time. This work presents the proof-of-concept development of a bioelectrical, impedance-based analysis technique applied to four adherent mammalian cancer cells [...] Read more.
Cancer cell lines are important tools for anticancer drug research and assessment. Impedance measurements can provide valuable information about cell viability in real time. This work presents the proof-of-concept development of a bioelectrical, impedance-based analysis technique applied to four adherent mammalian cancer cells lines immobilized in a three-dimensional (3D) calcium alginate hydrogel matrix, thus mimicking in vivo tissue conditions. Cells were treated with cytostatic agent5-fluoruracil (5-FU). The cell lines used in this study were SK-N-SH, HEK293, HeLa, and MCF-7. For each cell culture, three cell population densities were chosen (50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cells/100 μL). The aim of this study was the extraction of mean impedance values at various frequencies for the assessment of the different behavior of various cancer cells when 5-FU was applied. For comparison purposes, impedance measurements were implemented on untreated immobilized cell lines. The results demonstrated not only the dependence of each cell line impedance value on the frequency, but also the relation of the impedance level to the cell population density for every individual cell line. By establishing a cell line-specific bioelectrical behavior, it is possible to obtain a unique fingerprint for each cancer cell line reaction to a selected anticancer agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectric Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Detection of Superoxide Alterations Induced by 5-Fluorouracil on HeLa Cells with a Cell-Based Biosensor
Biosensors 2019, 9(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9040126 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2657
Abstract
Background: In vitro cell culture monitoring can be used as an indicator of cellular oxidative stress for the assessment of different chemotherapy agents. Methods: A cell-based bioelectric biosensor was used to detect alterations in superoxide levels in the culture medium of HeLa cervical [...] Read more.
Background: In vitro cell culture monitoring can be used as an indicator of cellular oxidative stress for the assessment of different chemotherapy agents. Methods: A cell-based bioelectric biosensor was used to detect alterations in superoxide levels in the culture medium of HeLa cervical cancer cells after treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil on HeLa cells were assessed by the MTT proliferation assay, whereas oxidative damage and induction of apoptosis were measured fluorometrically by the mitochondria-targeted MitoSOX™ Red and caspase-3 activation assays, respectively. Results: The results of this study indicate that 5-FU differentially affects superoxide production and caspase-3 activation when applied in cytotoxic concentrations against HeLa cells, while superoxide accumulation is in accordance with mitochondrial superoxide levels. Our findings suggest that changes in superoxide concentration could be detected with the biosensor in a non-invasive and rapid manner, thus allowing a reliable estimation of oxidative damage due to cell apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings may be useful for facilitating future high throughput screening of different chemotherapeutic drugs with a cytotoxic principle based on free radical production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectric Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
P-N Junction-Based Si Biochips with Ring Electrodes for Novel Biosensing Applications
Biosensors 2019, 9(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9040120 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2688
Abstract
In this work, we report on the impedance of p-n junction-based Si biochips with gold ring top electrodes and unstructured platinum bottom electrodes which allows for counting target biomaterial in a liquid-filled ring top electrode region. The systematic experiments on p-n junction-based Si [...] Read more.
In this work, we report on the impedance of p-n junction-based Si biochips with gold ring top electrodes and unstructured platinum bottom electrodes which allows for counting target biomaterial in a liquid-filled ring top electrode region. The systematic experiments on p-n junction-based Si biochips fabricated by two different sets of implantation parameters (i.e. biochips PS5 and BS5) are studied, and the comparable significant change of impedance characteristics in the biochips in dependence on the number of bacteria suspension, i.e., Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12, in Deionized water with an optical density at 600 nm from OD600 = 4–16 in the electrode ring region is demonstrated. Furthermore, with the help of the newly developed two-phase electrode structure, the modeled capacitance and resistance parameters of the electrical equivalent circuit describing the p-n junction-based biochips depend linearly on the number of bacteria in the ring top electrode region, which successfully proves the potential performance of p-n junction-based Si biochips in observing the bacterial suspension. The proposed p-n junction-based biochips reveal perspective applications in medicine and biology for diagnosis, monitoring, management, and treatment of diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectric Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Wireless Direct Microampere Current in Wound Healing: Clinical and Immunohistological Data from Two Single Case Reports
Biosensors 2019, 9(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9030107 - 05 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2994
Abstract
Chronic pressure ulcers are hard-to-heal wounds that decrease the patient’s quality of life. Wireless Micro Current Stimulation (WMCS) is an innovative, non-invasive, similar to electrode-based electrostimulation (ES) technology, that generates and transfers ions that are negatively-charged to the injured tissue, using accessible air [...] Read more.
Chronic pressure ulcers are hard-to-heal wounds that decrease the patient’s quality of life. Wireless Micro Current Stimulation (WMCS) is an innovative, non-invasive, similar to electrode-based electrostimulation (ES) technology, that generates and transfers ions that are negatively-charged to the injured tissue, using accessible air gases as a transfer medium. WMCS is capable of generating similar tissue potentials, as electrode-based ES, for injured tissue. Here, through immunohistochemistry, we intended to characterize the induced tissue healing biological mechanisms that occur during WMCS therapy. Two single cases of bedridden due to serious stroke white men with chronic non-healing pressure ulcers have been treated with WMCS technology. WMCS suppresses inflammatory responses by decreasing the aggregation of granulocytes, followed by stimulating myofibroblastic activity and a new formation of collagen fibers, as depicted by immunohistochemistry. As a result, WMCS provides a special adjunct or stand-alone therapy choice for chronic and non-healing injuries, similar to electrode-based ES, but with added (i.e., contactless) benefits towards its establishment as a routine clinical wound healing regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectric Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Reflectance-Based Organic Pulse Meter Sensor for Wireless Monitoring of Photoplethysmogram Signal
Biosensors 2019, 9(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9030087 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3293
Abstract
This paper compares the structural design of two organic biosensors that minimize power consumption in wireless photoplethysmogram (PPG) waveform monitoring. Both devices were fabricated on the same substrate with a red organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and an organic photodiode (OPD). Both were designed [...] Read more.
This paper compares the structural design of two organic biosensors that minimize power consumption in wireless photoplethysmogram (PPG) waveform monitoring. Both devices were fabricated on the same substrate with a red organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and an organic photodiode (OPD). Both were designed with a circular OLED at the center of the device surrounded by OPD. One device had an OLED area of 0.06 cm2, while the other device had half the area. The gap distance between the OLED and OPD was 1.65 mm for the first device and 2 mm for the second. Both devices had an OPD area of 0.16 cm2. We compared the power consumption and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of both devices and evaluated the PPG signal, which was successfully collected from a fingertip. The reflectance-based organic pulse meter operated successfully and at a low power consumption of 8 µW at 18 dB SNR. The device sent the PPG waveforms, via Bluetooth low energy (BLE), to a PC host at a maximum rate of 256 kbps data throughput. In the end, the proposed reflectance-based organic pulse meter reduced power consumption and improved long-term PPG wireless monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectric Sensors) Printed Edition available
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