Special Issue "Fluorescence Biosensors 2020"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jong Il Rhee
Website
Guest Editor
School of Chemical Engineering, Research Center for Biophotonics, Chonnam National University, Yong Bong-Ro 77, 61186 GwangJu, Republic of Korea
Interests: Fluorescence biosensors; enzymatic biosensors; disposable biosensors; nanobiosensors; colorimetric biosensors; nanofiber-based biosensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fluorescent biosensors are becoming the most extensively studied analytical devices because easy, rapid, highly sensitive, and specific biosensors contribute to advances in medicine, for use in cancer and drug discovery. Fluorescent biosensors can also probe ions, metabolites, and protein biomarkers with great sensitivity. The development of fluorescent biosensors requires multidisciplinary research in chemistry, molecular biology, biomedicine, and engineering. Fluorescent biosensors can be classified according to the type of biorecognition elements, such as enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, receptors, and whole cells, and the mode of fluorescence detection, such as fluorescence intensity, fluorescence decay time, ratiometric fluorescence intensity. That is, the main building blocks of fluorescent biosensors are fluorescence emission of organic and inorganic fluorescence materials and immobilization methods of biological elements, where the main challenges are to serve wide fields with an enormous impact on healthcare, agriculture, food, and environmental monitoring.

This Special Issue aims to introduce recent progress in the research and application of fluorescent biosensors, promoting a synergy of several complementary competences in the research community.

Prof. Jong Il Rhee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Incorporation of Amplified Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence in a CMOS-Based Biosensor Increased the Detection Sensitivity of a DNA Marker of the Pathogenic Fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
Biosensors 2020, 10(12), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10120204 - 13 Dec 2020
Abstract
Half of the global agricultural fresh produce is lost, mainly because of rots that are caused by various pathogenic fungi. In this study, a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based biosensor was developed, which integrates specific DNA strands that allow the detection of enoyl-CoA-hydratase/isomerase, which is [...] Read more.
Half of the global agricultural fresh produce is lost, mainly because of rots that are caused by various pathogenic fungi. In this study, a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based biosensor was developed, which integrates specific DNA strands that allow the detection of enoyl-CoA-hydratase/isomerase, which is a quiescent marker of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides fungi. The developed biosensor mechanism is based on the metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) phenomenon, which is amplified by depositing silver onto a glass surface. A surface DNA strand is then immobilized on the surface, and in the presence of the target mRNA within the sample, the reporter DNA strand that is linked to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme will also bind to it. The light signal that is later produced from the HRP enzyme and its substrate is enhanced and detected by the coupled CMOS sensor. Several parameters that affect the silver-deposition procedure were examined, including silver solution temperature and volume, heating mode, and the tank material. Moreover, the effect of blocking treatment (skim milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA)) on the silver-layer stability and nonspecific DNA absorption was tested. Most importantly, the effect of the deposition reaction duration on the silver-layer formation and the MEF amplification was also investigated. In the study findings a preferred silver-deposition reaction duration was identified as 5–8 min, which increased the deposition of silver on the glass surface up to 13-times, and also resulted in the amplification of the MEF phenomenon with a maximum light signal of 50 relative light units (RLU). It was found that MEF can be amplified by a customized silver-deposition procedure that results in increased detection sensitivity. The implementation of the improved conditions increased the biosensor sensitivity to 3.3 nM (4500 RLU) with a higher detected light signal as compared to the initial protocol (400 RLU). Moreover, the light signal was amplified 18.75-, 11.11-, 5.5-, 11.25-, and 3.75-times in the improved protocol for all the tested concentrations of the target DNA strand of 1000, 100, 10, 3.3, and 2 nM, respectively. The developed biosensor system may allow the detection of the pathogenic fungus in postharvest produce and determine its pathogenicity state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescence Biosensors 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
LipiSensors: Exploiting Lipid Nanoemulsions to Fabricate Ionophore-Based Nanosensors
Biosensors 2020, 10(9), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10090120 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Ionophore-based nanosensors (IBNS) are tools that enable quantification of analytes in complex chemical and biological systems. IBNS methodology is adopted from that of bulk optodes where an ion exchange event is converted to a change in optical output. While valuable, an important aspect [...] Read more.
Ionophore-based nanosensors (IBNS) are tools that enable quantification of analytes in complex chemical and biological systems. IBNS methodology is adopted from that of bulk optodes where an ion exchange event is converted to a change in optical output. While valuable, an important aspect for application is the ability to intentionally tune their size with simple approaches, and ensure that they contain compounds safe for application. Lipidots are a platform of size tunable lipid nanoemulsions with a hydrophobic lipid core typically used for imaging and drug delivery. Here, we present LipiSensors as size tunable IBNS by exploiting the Lipidot model as a hydrophobic structural support for the sensing moieties that are traditionally encased in plasticized PVC nanoparticles. The LipiSensors we demonstrate here are sensitive and selective for calcium, reversible, and have a lifetime of approximately one week. By changing the calcium sensing components inside the hydrophobic core of the LipiSensors to those sensitive for oxygen, they are also able to be used as ratiometric O2 sensitive nanosensors via a quenching-based mechanism. LipiSensors provide a versatile, general platform nanosensing with the ability to directly tune the size of the sensors while including biocompatible materials as the structural support by merging sensing approaches with the Lipidot platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescence Biosensors 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Ratiometric Fluorescent Glucose Sensor Using an Oxygen-Sensing Membrane Immobilized with Glucose Oxidase for the Detection of Glucose in Tears
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080086 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Glucose concentration is an important parameter in biomedicine since glucose is involved in many metabolic pathways in organisms. Many methods for glucose detection have been developed for use in various applications, particularly in the field of healthcare in diabetics. In this study, ratiometric [...] Read more.
Glucose concentration is an important parameter in biomedicine since glucose is involved in many metabolic pathways in organisms. Many methods for glucose detection have been developed for use in various applications, particularly in the field of healthcare in diabetics. In this study, ratiometric fluorescent glucose-sensing membranes were fabricated based on the oxygen levels consumed in the glucose oxidation reaction under the catalysis of glucose oxidase (GOD). The oxygen concentration was measured through the fluorescence quenching effect of an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent dye like platinum meso-tetra (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtP) by oxygen molecules. Coumarin 6 (C6) was used as a reference dye in the ratiometric fluorescence measurements. The glucose-sensing membrane consisted of two layers: The first layer was the oxygen-sensing membrane containing polystyrene particles (PS) doped with PtP and C6 (e.g., [email protected]^PtP) in a sol–gel matrix of aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GA). The second layer was made by immobilizing GOD onto one of three supporting polymers over the first layer. These glucose-sensing membranes were characterized in terms of their response, reversibility, interferences, and stability. They showed a wide detection range to glucose concentration in the range of 0.1 to 10 mM, but high sensitivity with a linear detection range of 0.1 to 2 mM glucose. This stable and sensitive ratiometric fluorescent glucose biosensor provides a reliable way to determine low glucose concentrations in blood serum by measuring tear glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescence Biosensors 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Battery-Powered Portable Rotary Real-Time Fluorescent qPCR with Low Energy Consumption, Low Cost, and High Throughput
Biosensors 2020, 10(5), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10050049 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
The traditional qPCR instrument is bulky, expensive, and inconvenient to carry, so we report a portable rotary real-time fluorescent PCR (polymerase chain reaction) that completes the PCR amplification of DNA in the field, and the reaction can be observed in real-time. Through the [...] Read more.
The traditional qPCR instrument is bulky, expensive, and inconvenient to carry, so we report a portable rotary real-time fluorescent PCR (polymerase chain reaction) that completes the PCR amplification of DNA in the field, and the reaction can be observed in real-time. Through the analysis of a target gene, namely pGEM-3Zf (+), the gradient amplification and melting curves are compared to commercial devices. The results confirm the stability of our device. This is the first use of a mechanical rotary structure to achieve gradient amplification curves and melting curves comparable to commercial instruments. The average power consumption of our system is about 7.6 W, which is the lowest energy consumption for real-time fluorescence quantification in shunting PCR and enables the use of our device in the field thanks to its self-contained power supply based on a lithium battery. In addition, all of the equipment costs only about 710 dollars, which is far lower than the cost of a commercial PCR instrument because the control system through mechanical displacement replaces the traditional TEC (thermoelectric cooler) temperature control. Moreover, the equipment has a low technical barrier, which can suit the needs of non-professional settings, with strong repeatability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescence Biosensors 2020)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Detection Technologies for Reactive Oxygen Species: Fluorescence and Electrochemical Methods and Their Applications
Biosensors 2021, 11(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11020030 - 24 Jan 2021
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been found in plants, mammals, and natural environmental processes. The presence of ROS in mammals has been linked to the development of severe diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, tumors, and several neurodegenerative conditions. The most common ROS involved [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been found in plants, mammals, and natural environmental processes. The presence of ROS in mammals has been linked to the development of severe diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, tumors, and several neurodegenerative conditions. The most common ROS involved in human health are superoxide (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (•OH). Organic and inorganic molecules have been integrated with various methods to detect and monitor ROS for understanding the effect of their presence and concentration on diseases caused by oxidative stress. Among several techniques, fluorescence and electrochemical methods have been recently developed and employed for the detection of ROS. This literature review intends to critically discuss the development of these techniques to date, as well as their application for in vitro and in vivo ROS detection regarding free-radical-related diseases. Moreover, important insights into and further steps for using fluorescence and electrochemical methods in the detection of ROS are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescence Biosensors 2020)
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