Special Issue "Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 26560

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alfredo de la Escosura-Muñiz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nanobioanalysis Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
Interests: nanobiosensors; lateral flow analysis; electrochemical biosensors; electrocatalysis; nanochannels
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Eden Morales-Narváez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Biophotonic Nanosensors Laboratory, Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica A.C., León 37150, Mexico
Interests: biophotonics; optically active nanomaterials; graphene and 2D materials; wearable devices; point of care devices; biosensors; nanocomposites; microarray technology; in vitro diagnostics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Erhan Zor
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Science Education, A. K. Education Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya 42090, Turkey
Interests: graphene; nanocellulose; biosensors; chiral sensors; optical sensors, electrochemical sensors, paper-based diagnostics; biomedical diagnostics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Hamed Golmohammadi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nanosensor Bioplatforms Laboratory, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, Tehran 14335-186, Iran
Interests: (nano)paper-based sensors; optical biosensing; Smartphone IoT-based sensors; wearable sensors; point-of-care devices; ingestible sensors; cellulose-based microfluidics; optical sensor array; nature-based (nano)materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

As the most abundant renewable biopolymer in nature, cellulose is a convenient family of materials to design low-cost devices. In addition, cellulose-based materials are flexible, biocompatible, biodegradable, and amenable to straightforward functionalization, as well as mass production. These unrivaled features of cellulosic substrates—including paper, textile/thread and nanocellulose—and their fascinating simplicity of fabrication and coupling with ubiquitous technologies such as smartphones make them tailor-made biosensing platforms. Furthermore, cellulose-based biosensing approaches can meet the World Health Organization’s ASSURED (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free, and deliverable to end-users) criteria for ideal diagnostic assays/devices. Hence, cellulose endows the biosensing community with exquisite materials to envisage innovative analytical devices. 

This Special Issue will be focused on cutting-edge approaches dealing with the design, fabrication, and advantageous analytical performance of cellulose-based biosensing platforms, including but not limited to paper, textile/thread, and nanocellulose-based biosensing technology. The applications portfolio may embrace medical/clinical diagnostics, health care, point-of-care-testing, environmental monitoring, food analysis or other biochemical and biological analysis.

Dr. Alfredo de la Escosura-Muñiz
Prof. Eden Morales-Narváez
Dr. Erhan Zor
Dr. Hamed Golmohammadi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomaterials
  • Bioplatforms
  • Biosensors
  • Cellulose-based microfluidics
  • Diagnostics
  • Electronic textiles
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Food analysis
  • Health care
  • Lateral flow immunoassay
  • Micro/nanocellulose fibrils
  • Multiplexed detection
  • Nano/composite materials
  • Nanocellulose
  • On-site detection
  • Paper cutting
  • Paper-based analytical devices
  • Photolithography
  • Point-of-care devices
  • Point-of-care Testing
  • Portable devices
  • Preventive health care
  • Smartphone and paper-based biosensors
  • Textile-based biosensors
  • Thread-based biosensors
  • Wax/inkjet/screen printing
  • Wearable sensors
  • (Nano)cellulose-based biosensors
  • 3D-printed paper-based microfluidics

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
On-Site Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Human Serum
Biosensors 2021, 11(10), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11100392 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Real-time connectivity and employment of sustainable materials empowers point-of-care diagnostics with the capability to send clinically relevant data to health care providers even in low-resource settings. In this study, we developed an advantageous kit for the on-site detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in [...] Read more.
Real-time connectivity and employment of sustainable materials empowers point-of-care diagnostics with the capability to send clinically relevant data to health care providers even in low-resource settings. In this study, we developed an advantageous kit for the on-site detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum. CEA sensing was performed using cellulose-based lateral flow strips, and colorimetric signals were read, processed, and measured using a smartphone-based system. The corresponding immunoreaction was reported by polydopamine-modified gold nanoparticles in order to boost the signal intensity and improve the surface blocking and signal-to-noise relationship, thereby enhancing detection sensitivity when compared with bare gold nanoparticles (up to 20-fold in terms of visual limit of detection). Such lateral flow strips showed a linear range from 0.05 to 50 ng/mL, with a visual limit of detection of 0.05 ng/mL and an assay time of 15 min. Twenty-six clinical samples were also tested using the proposed kit and compared with the gold standard of immunoassays (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), demonstrating an excellent correlation (R = 0.99). This approach can potentially be utilized for the monitoring of cancer treatment, particularly at locations far from centralized laboratory facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Article
Lipid–Polymer Hybrids Encapsulating Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles as a Label for Lateral Flow Immunoassays
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11070218 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1123
Abstract
The feasibility of using Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) encapsulated by lipid–polymer nanoparticles as labels in lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) was studied. First, nanoparticles were synthesized with average diameters between 4 and 7 (nm) through precipitation in W/O microemulsion and further encapsulated using [...] Read more.
The feasibility of using Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) encapsulated by lipid–polymer nanoparticles as labels in lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) was studied. First, nanoparticles were synthesized with average diameters between 4 and 7 (nm) through precipitation in W/O microemulsion and further encapsulated using lipid–polymer nanoparticles. Systems formulated were characterized in terms of size and shape by DLS (Nanozetasizer from Malvern) and TEM. After encapsulation, the average size was around (≈20 and 50 nm). These controlled size agglomerates were tested as labels with a model system based on the biotin–neutravidin interaction. For this purpose, the encapsulated nanoparticles were conjugated to neutravidin using the carbodiimide chemistry, and the LFIA was carried out with a biotin test line. The encapsulated SPIONs showed that they could be promising candidates as labels in LFIA test. They would be useful for immunomagnetic separations, that could improve the limits of detection by means of preconcentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Communication
A Cellulose Paper-Based Fluorescent Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Quantitative Detection of Cardiac Troponin I
Biosensors 2021, 11(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11020049 - 14 Feb 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
This paper presents a lateral flow assay (LFA) for the quantitative, fluorescence-based detection of the cardiac biomarker troponin I (cTnI) that features an analytical strip made of cellulose filter paper. The results show that the wicking and test time are comparable to those [...] Read more.
This paper presents a lateral flow assay (LFA) for the quantitative, fluorescence-based detection of the cardiac biomarker troponin I (cTnI) that features an analytical strip made of cellulose filter paper. The results show that the wicking and test time are comparable to those obtained with conventional nitrocellulose (NC)-based LFAs. Further, the cellulose paper provides an excellent background with no auto-fluorescence that is very adequate in detecting fluorescent lines. While fluorescence that was generated with cellulose strips was lower when compared to that generated in NC strips, signals could be improved by layering carbon nanofibers (CNF) on the cellulose. A nonlinear behavior of the concentration–response relationship was observed for the LFA architectures with NC, cellulose, and cellulose-CNF in the 0 to 200 ng/mL cTnI concentration range. The measurements were consistent and characterized by coefficients of variation lower than 2.5%. Detection and quantitation limits that were in the range 1.28–1.40 ng/mL and 2.10–2.75 ng/mL were obtained for LFA with cellulose and cellulose CNF strips that are equivalent to the limits obtained with the standard NC LFA. Overall, we showed that commercially available filter paper can be used in the analytical strip of LFA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Article
An All-in-One Solid State Thin-Layer Potentiometric Sensor and Biosensor Based on Three-Dimensional Origami Paper Microfluidics
Biosensors 2021, 11(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11020044 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
An origami three-dimensional design of a paper-based potentiometric sensor is described. In its simplest form, this electrochemical paper-based analytical device (ePAD) is made from three small parts of the paper. Paper layers are folded on each other for the integration of a solid [...] Read more.
An origami three-dimensional design of a paper-based potentiometric sensor is described. In its simplest form, this electrochemical paper-based analytical device (ePAD) is made from three small parts of the paper. Paper layers are folded on each other for the integration of a solid contact ion selective electrode (here a carbon-paste composite electrode) and a solid-state pseudo-reference electrode (here writing pencil 6B on the paper), which are in contact with a hydrophilic channel fabricated on the middle part (third part) of the paper. In this case, the pseudo-reference and working electrodes are connected to the two sides of the hydrophilic channel and hence the distance between them is as low as the width of paper. The unmodified carbon paste electrode (UCPE) and modification with the crown ether benzo15-crown-5 (B15C5) represented a very high sensitivity to Cu (II) and Cd2+ ions, respectively. The sensor responded to H2O2 using MnO2-doped carbon paste electrode (CPE). Furthermore, a biosensor was achieved by the addition of glucose oxidase to the MnO2-doped CPE and hence made it selective to glucose with ultra-sensitivity. In addition to very high sensitivity, our device benefits from consuming a very low volume of sample (10.0 µL) and automatic sampling without need for sampling devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Article
DNA–Gold Nanozyme-Modified Paper Device for Enhanced Colorimetric Detection of Mercury Ions
Biosensors 2020, 10(12), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10120211 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
In this work, a paper device consisted of a patterned paper chip, wicking pads, and a base was fabricated. On the paper chip, DNA–gold nanoparticles (DNA–AuNPs) were deposited and Hg2+ ions could be adsorbed by the DNA–AuNPs. The formed DNA–AuNP/Hg2+ nanozyme [...] Read more.
In this work, a paper device consisted of a patterned paper chip, wicking pads, and a base was fabricated. On the paper chip, DNA–gold nanoparticles (DNA–AuNPs) were deposited and Hg2+ ions could be adsorbed by the DNA–AuNPs. The formed DNA–AuNP/Hg2+ nanozyme could catalyze the tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)–H2O2 chromogenic reaction. Due to the wicking pads, a larger volume of Hg2+ sample could be applied to the paper device for Hg2+ detection and therefore the color response could be enhanced. The paper device achieved a cut-off value of 50 nM by the naked eye for Hg2+ under optimized conditions. Moreover, quantitative measurements could be implemented by using a desktop scanner and extracting grayscale values. A linear range of 50–2000 nM Hg2+ was obtained with a detection limit of 10 nM. In addition, the paper device could be applied in the detection of environmental water samples with high recoveries ranging from 85.7% to 105.6%. The paper-device-based colorimetric detection was low-cost, simple, and demonstrated high potential in real-sample applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Article
Carbon-Coated Superparamagnetic Nanoflowers for Biosensors Based on Lateral Flow Immunoassays
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080080 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2920
Abstract
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoflowers coated by a black carbon layer (Fe3O4@C) were studied as labels in lateral flow immunoassays. They were synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal route, and they were characterized (size, morphology, chemical composition, and magnetic properties). They [...] Read more.
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoflowers coated by a black carbon layer (Fe3O4@C) were studied as labels in lateral flow immunoassays. They were synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal route, and they were characterized (size, morphology, chemical composition, and magnetic properties). They consist of several superparamagnetic cores embedded in a carbon coating holding carboxylic groups adequate for bioconjugation. Their multi-core structure is especially efficient for magnetic separation while keeping suitable magnetic properties and appropriate size for immunoassay reporters. Their functionality was tested with a model system based on the biotin–neutravidin interaction. For this, the nanoparticles were conjugated to neutravidin using the carbodiimide chemistry, and the lateral flow immunoassay was carried out with a biotin test line. Quantification was achieved with both an inductive magnetic sensor and a reflectance reader. In order to further investigate the quantifying capacity of the Fe3O4@C nanoflowers, the magnetic lateral flow immunoassay was tested as a detection system for extracellular vesicles (EVs), a novel source of biomarkers with interest for liquid biopsy. A clear correlation between the extracellular vesicle concentration and the signal proved the potential of the nanoflowers as quantifying labels. The limit of detection in a rapid test for EVs was lower than the values reported before for other magnetic nanoparticle labels in the working range 0–3 × 107 EVs/μL. The method showed a reproducibility (RSD) of 3% (n = 3). The lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) rapid test developed in this work yielded to satisfactory results for EVs quantification by using a precipitation kit and also directly in plasma samples. Besides, these Fe3O4@C nanoparticles are easy to concentrate by means of a magnet, and this feature makes them promising candidates to further reduce the limit of detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Article
Detection of Cardiovascular CRP Protein Biomarker Using a Novel Nanofibrous Substrate
Biosensors 2020, 10(6), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10060072 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2857
Abstract
It is known that different diseases have characteristic biomarkers that are secreted very early on, even before the symptoms have developed. Before any kind of therapeutic approach can be used, it is necessary that such biomarkers be detected at a minimum concentration in [...] Read more.
It is known that different diseases have characteristic biomarkers that are secreted very early on, even before the symptoms have developed. Before any kind of therapeutic approach can be used, it is necessary that such biomarkers be detected at a minimum concentration in the bodily fluids. Here, we report the fabrication of an interdigitated sensing device integrated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers and carbon nanotubes (CNT) for the detection of an inflammatory biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP). The limit of detection (LOD) was achieved in a range of 100 ng mL−1 and 1 fg mL−1 in both phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (hs). Furthermore, a significant change in the electrochemical impedance from 45% to 70% (hs) and 38% to 60% (PBS) over the loading range of CRP was achieved. The finite element analysis indicates that a non-redox charge transduction at the solid/liquid interface on the electrode surface is responsible for the enhanced sensitivity. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor consists of a large electro-active surface area, along with better charge transfer characteristics that enabled improved specific binding with CRP. This was determined both experimentally and from the simulated electrochemical impedance of the PVA nanofiber patterned gold electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Communication
Smartphone and Paper-Based Fluorescence Reader: A Do It Yourself Approach
Biosensors 2020, 10(6), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10060060 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3391
Abstract
Given their photoluminescent character, portable quantum dot readers are often sophisticated and relatively expensive. In response, we engineered a “do it yourself” fluorescence reader employing paper materials and a mid-range smartphone camera. Black paperboard facilitated a versatile, lightweight and foldable case; whereas cellophane [...] Read more.
Given their photoluminescent character, portable quantum dot readers are often sophisticated and relatively expensive. In response, we engineered a “do it yourself” fluorescence reader employing paper materials and a mid-range smartphone camera. Black paperboard facilitated a versatile, lightweight and foldable case; whereas cellophane paper was observed to behave as a simple, yet effective, optical bandpass filter leading to an advantageous device for the quantitative interrogation of quantum dot nanocrystals concentrations (from 2.5 to 20 nM), which are suitable for optical point-of-care biosensing. The streptavidin-coated nanocrystals employed are commercially available and the developed reader was benchmarked with a standard portable quantum dot reader, thereby demonstrating advantages in terms of cost and linear analytical range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Review

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Review
Origami Paper-Based Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors: State of the Art and Perspective
Biosensors 2021, 11(9), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11090328 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
In the last 10 years, paper-based electrochemical biosensors have gathered attention from the scientific community for their unique advantages and sustainability vision. The use of papers in the design the electrochemical biosensors confers to these analytical tools several interesting features such as the [...] Read more.
In the last 10 years, paper-based electrochemical biosensors have gathered attention from the scientific community for their unique advantages and sustainability vision. The use of papers in the design the electrochemical biosensors confers to these analytical tools several interesting features such as the management of the solution flow without external equipment, the fabrication of reagent-free devices exploiting the porosity of the paper to store the reagents, and the unprecedented capability to detect the target analyte in gas phase without any sampling system. Furthermore, cost-effective fabrication using printing technologies, including wax and screen-printing, combined with the use of this eco-friendly substrate and the possibility of reducing waste management after measuring by the incineration of the sensor, designate these type of sensors as eco-designed analytical tools. Additionally, the foldability feature of the paper has been recently exploited to design and fabricate 3D multifarious biosensors, which are able to detect different target analytes by using enzymes, antibodies, DNA, molecularly imprinted polymers, and cells as biocomponents. Interestingly, the 3D structure has recently boosted the self-powered paper-based biosensors, opening new frontiers in origami devices. This review aims to give an overview of the current state origami paper-based biosensors, pointing out how the foldability of the paper allows for the development of sensitive, selective, and easy-to-use smart and sustainable analytical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Review
Disposable Paper-Based Biosensors for the Point-of-Care Detection of Hazardous Contaminations—A Review
Biosensors 2021, 11(9), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11090316 - 04 Sep 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
The fast detection of trace amounts of hazardous contaminations can prevent serious damage to the environment. Paper-based sensors offer a new perspective on the world of analytical methods, overcoming previous limitations by fabricating a simple device with valuable benefits such as flexibility, biocompatibility, [...] Read more.
The fast detection of trace amounts of hazardous contaminations can prevent serious damage to the environment. Paper-based sensors offer a new perspective on the world of analytical methods, overcoming previous limitations by fabricating a simple device with valuable benefits such as flexibility, biocompatibility, disposability, biodegradability, easy operation, large surface-to-volume ratio, and cost-effectiveness. Depending on the performance type, the device can be used to analyze the analyte in the liquid or vapor phase. For liquid samples, various structures (including a dipstick, as well as microfluidic and lateral flow) have been constructed. Paper-based 3D sensors are prepared by gluing and folding different layers of a piece of paper, being more user-friendly, due to the combination of several preparation methods, the integration of different sensor elements, and the connection between two methods of detection in a small set. Paper sensors can be used in chromatographic, electrochemical, and colorimetric processes, depending on the type of transducer. Additionally, in recent years, the applicability of these sensors has been investigated in various applications, such as food and water quality, environmental monitoring, disease diagnosis, and medical sciences. Here, we review the development (from 2010 to 2021) of paper methods in the field of the detection and determination of toxic substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Review
Hybrid Technologies Combining Solid-State Sensors and Paper/Fabric Fluidics for Wearable Analytical Devices
Biosensors 2021, 11(9), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11090303 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
The development of diagnostic tools for measuring a wide spectrum of target analytes, from biomarkers to other biochemical parameters in biological fluids, has experienced a significant growth in the last decades, with a good number of such tools entering the market. Recently, a [...] Read more.
The development of diagnostic tools for measuring a wide spectrum of target analytes, from biomarkers to other biochemical parameters in biological fluids, has experienced a significant growth in the last decades, with a good number of such tools entering the market. Recently, a clear focus has been put on miniaturized wearable devices, which offer powerful capabilities for real-time and continuous analysis of biofluids, mainly sweat, and can be used in athletics, consumer wellness, military, and healthcare applications. Sweat is an attractive biofluid in which different biomarkers could be noninvasively measured to provide rapid information about the physical state of an individual. Wearable devices reported so far often provide discrete (single) measurements of the target analytes, most of them in the form of a yes/no qualitative response. However, quantitative biomarker analysis over certain periods of time is highly demanded for many applications such as the practice of sports or the precise control of the patient status in hospital settings. For this, a feasible combination of fluidic elements and sensor architectures has been sought. In this regard, this paper shows a concise overview of analytical tools based on the use of capillary-driven fluidics taking place on paper or fabric devices integrated with solid-state sensors fabricated by thick film technologies. The main advantages and limitations of the current technologies are pointed out together with the progress towards the development of functional devices. Those approaches reported in the last decade are examined in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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Review
Nanobioengineered Sensing Technologies Based on Cellulose Matrices for Detection of Small Molecules, Macromolecules, and Cells
Biosensors 2021, 11(6), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11060168 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2562
Abstract
Recent advancement has been accomplished in the field of biosensors through the modification of cellulose as a nano-engineered matrix material. To date, various techniques have been reported to develop cellulose-based matrices for fabricating different types of biosensors. Trends of involving cellulosic materials in [...] Read more.
Recent advancement has been accomplished in the field of biosensors through the modification of cellulose as a nano-engineered matrix material. To date, various techniques have been reported to develop cellulose-based matrices for fabricating different types of biosensors. Trends of involving cellulosic materials in paper-based multiplexing devices and microfluidic analytical technologies have increased because of their disposable, portable, biodegradable properties and cost-effectiveness. Cellulose also has potential in the development of cytosensors because of its various unique properties including biocompatibility. Such cellulose-based sensing devices are also being commercialized for various biomedical diagnostics in recent years and have also been considered as a method of choice in clinical laboratories and personalized diagnosis. In this paper, we have discussed the engineering aspects of cellulose-based sensors that have been reported where such matrices have been used to develop various analytical modules for the detection of small molecules, metal ions, macromolecules, and cells present in a diverse range of samples. Additionally, the developed cellulose-based biosensors and related analytical devices have been comprehensively described in tables with details of the sensing molecule, readout system, sensor configuration, response time, real sample, and their analytical performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Biosensing Platforms)
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