Special Issue "Dedication to Professor Agustín Costa-García: Screen-Printed Electrodes-Based (Bio)sensors: Development and New Challenges of the 21st Century"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Elisa González-Romero
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Interests: biosensors; nanostructures and nanobiotechnology; electroanalysis; electrochemistry at tailored interfaces based on the chemistry and electrochemistry of aromatic diazonium ions; catalysis on nanomaterial-based biosensors; new electroanalytical methodology applied to environmental, food, and health fields

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The main topic of this Special Issue is about Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE) transducers as miniaturized and disposable detection devices for specific chemical (or set of chemicals) and biomolecules analysis in different fields that serious concern worldwide (such as healthcare, food quality, food safety and pollution). For that, this Special Issue aims to gather original articles and reviews showing research advances, fabrication, innovative applications, new challenges and future perspectives of SPE-based (Bio)sensors in important areas as health, agri-food and environmental.

Screen-printing is one of the most promising performances towards “fast and cheap” production of (bio)sensors. Disposable (bio)sensors based on SPEs are leading to new possibilities in the selective detection and sensitive quantification of large number of chemicals and biomolecules. SPE-based sensors, including microelectrodes (metallic and no metallic) and modified electrodes (by chemical/electrochemical reactions or by nanomaterials integration) are in tune with the growing need for the development of portable devices and for performing rapid and accurate in-situ analyses.

A brief description about the (Bio)sensor configuration is illustrated below.

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The comparison is as follow: the analyte, recognition element as bioreceptor (olfactory membrane), transducer as device that converts an observed change (physical or chemical) into a measurable signal (nerve cell), electronics as actuator which produces the display (nerve fiber) and measuring instruments (brain). Several questions to the audience: How are the new trends in the design of (Bio)sensor devices? Which are the key components? Where are the critical points in the fabrication of these devices? What kinds of ink are useful for the fabrication of SPEs? Which is the effect of material impurities on the analytical response? What is it that society demands? What can you tell us about your upcoming papers in this topic? You are invited to participate in this project. Any contribution in this sense is welcome to this Special Issue.

If you would be interested in submitting a contribution, or if you have any questions, please contact me.

Prof. Elisa González-Romero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Screen-printed electrodes
  • Nanomaterials
  • Biomolecules
  • Immobilization techniques
  • Functionalization of SPE surfaces
  • Electrografting techniques
  • Conductive polymers
  • Disposable (bio)sensors
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Healthcare monitoring
  • Food quality and safety

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Paper-Based Working Electrodes Coated with Mercury or Bismuth Films for Heavy Metals Determination
Biosensors 2020, 10(5), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10050052 - 13 May 2020
Abstract
Paper-based carbon working electrodes were modified with mercury or bismuth films for the determination of trace metals in aqueous solutions. Both modification procedures were optimized in terms of selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of different heavy metals, aiming their simultaneous determination. Cd [...] Read more.
Paper-based carbon working electrodes were modified with mercury or bismuth films for the determination of trace metals in aqueous solutions. Both modification procedures were optimized in terms of selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of different heavy metals, aiming their simultaneous determination. Cd (II), Pb (II) and In (III) could be quantified with both films. However, Cu (II) could not be determined with bismuth films. The modification with mercury films led to the most sensitive method, with linear ranges between 0.1 and 10 µg/mL and limits of detection of 0.4, 0.1, 0.04 and 0.2 µg/mL for Cd (II), Pb (II), In (III) and Cu (II), respectively. Nevertheless, the bismuth film was a more sustainable alternative to mercury. Tap-water samples were analyzed for the determination of metals by standard addition methodology with good accuracy, by using a low-cost and easily disposable paper-based electrochemical platform. This system demonstrated its usefulness for monitoring heavy metals in water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Electrochemical Detection of Alpha-Fetoprotein Using Aptamers: DNA Isothermal Amplification Strategies to Improve the Performance of Weak Aptamers
Biosensors 2020, 10(5), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10050046 - 30 Apr 2020
Abstract
Affinity characterization is essential to develop reliable aptamers for tumor biomarker detection. For alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a biomarker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), two DNA aptamers were described with very different affinity. In this work, we estimate the dissociation constant of both of them by [...] Read more.
Affinity characterization is essential to develop reliable aptamers for tumor biomarker detection. For alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a biomarker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), two DNA aptamers were described with very different affinity. In this work, we estimate the dissociation constant of both of them by means of a direct assay on magnetic beads modified with AFP and electrochemical detection on carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPCE). Unlike previous works, both aptamers showed similar dissociation constant (Kd) values, in the subµM range. In order to improve the performance of these aptamers, we proposed the isothermal amplification of the aptamers by both terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) and rolling circle amplification (RCA). Both DNA amplifications improved the sensitivity and also the apparent binding constants from 713 nM to 189 nM for the short aptamer and from 526 nM to 32 nM for the long aptamer. This improvement depends on the true affinity of the binding pair, which ultimately limits the analytical usefulness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Graphene Oxide Bulk-Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes Provide Beneficial Electroanalytical Sensing Capabilities
Biosensors 2020, 10(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10030027 - 19 Mar 2020
Abstract
We demonstrate a facile methodology for the mass production of graphene oxide (GO) bulk-modified screen-printed electrodes (GO-SPEs) that are economical, highly reproducible and provide analytically useful outputs. Through fabricating GO-SPEs with varying percentage mass incorporations (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) of GO, an [...] Read more.
We demonstrate a facile methodology for the mass production of graphene oxide (GO) bulk-modified screen-printed electrodes (GO-SPEs) that are economical, highly reproducible and provide analytically useful outputs. Through fabricating GO-SPEs with varying percentage mass incorporations (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) of GO, an electrocatalytic effect towards the chosen electroanalytical probes is observed, which increases with greater GO incorporated compared to bare/graphite SPEs. The optimum mass ratio of 10% GO to 90% carbon ink produces an electroanalytical signal towards dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) which is ca. ×10 greater in magnitude than that achievable at a bare/unmodified graphite SPE. Furthermore, 10% GO-SPEs exhibit a competitively low limit of detection (3σ) towards DA at ca. 81 nM, which is superior to that of a bare/unmodified graphite SPE at ca. 780 nM. The improved analytical response is attributed to the large number of oxygenated species inhabiting the edge and defect sites of the GO nanosheets, which are able to exhibit electrocatalytic responses towards inner-sphere electrochemical analytes. Our reported methodology is simple, scalable, and cost effective for the fabrication of GO-SPEs that display highly competitive LODs and are of significant interest for use in commercial and medicinal applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biochar from Brewers’ Spent Grain: A Green and Low-Cost Smart Material to Modify Screen-Printed Electrodes
Biosensors 2019, 9(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9040139 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the present study, biochar from brewers’ spent grain was used, for the first time, to develop screen-printed electrodes. After having investigated the dispersion behaviour of biochar in different organic solvents, a biochar-based screen-printed electrode was prepared with the drop-casting technique. In order [...] Read more.
In the present study, biochar from brewers’ spent grain was used, for the first time, to develop screen-printed electrodes. After having investigated the dispersion behaviour of biochar in different organic solvents, a biochar-based screen-printed electrode was prepared with the drop-casting technique. In order to understand the electrochemical potentiality and performances of the biochar/sensor tool, different electroactive species, i.e., ferricyanide, benzoquinone, epinephrine, ascorbic, and uric acids, were used. The results were compared with those of the same electrodes that were modified with commercial graphene, confirming that the proposed electrode showed improved electrochemical behaviour in terms of resolution, peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and resistance to charge transfer. Furthermore, a tyrosinase biosensor was developed by direct immobilisation of this enzyme on the biochar/screen printed electrode, as an example of the potential of biochar for disposable biosensor development. The efficiently occurred immobilisation of the biochar on the screen printed electrode’s (SPE’s) surface was demonstrated by the observation of the working electrode with a scanning electron microscope. The detection was performed by measuring the current due to the reduction of the corresponding quinone at low potential, equal to −0.310 V for epinephrine. The experimental conditions for the tyrosinase immobilization and the analytical parameters, such as applied potential and pH of buffer, were studied and optimized. Under these conditions, the electrochemical biosensors were characterized. A linear working range of epinephrine was obtained from 0.05 up to 0.5 mM. The detection limit was 2 × 10−4 mM for the biosensor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diazonium-Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes for Immunosensing Growth Hormone in Blood Samples
Biosensors 2019, 9(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9030088 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Altered growth hormone (GH) levels represent a major global health challenge that would benefit from advances in screening methods that are rapid and low cost. Here, we present a miniaturized immunosensor using disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) for the detection of GH with [...] Read more.
Altered growth hormone (GH) levels represent a major global health challenge that would benefit from advances in screening methods that are rapid and low cost. Here, we present a miniaturized immunosensor using disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) for the detection of GH with high sensitivity. The diazonium-based linker layer was electrochemically deposited onto SPCE surfaces, and subsequently activated using covalent agents to immobilize monoclonal anti-GH antibodies as the sensing layer. The surface modifications were monitored using contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The dissociation constant, Kd, of the anti-GH antibodies was also determined as 1.44 (±0.15) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The immunosensor was able to detect GH in the picomolar range using a 20 µL sample volume in connection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The selectivity of the SPCE-based immunosensors was also challenged with whole blood and serum samples collected at various development stages of rats, demonstrating the potential applicability for detection in biological samples. Our results demonstrated that SPCEs provided the development of low-cost and single-use electrochemical immunosensors in comparison with glassy carbon electrode (GCE)-based ones. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors for Pesticides Detection Using Screen-Printed Electrodes
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040032 - 02 Apr 2020
Abstract
Pesticides are among the most important contaminants in food, leading to important global health problems. While conventional techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) have traditionally been utilized for the detection of such food contaminants, they are relatively expensive, [...] Read more.
Pesticides are among the most important contaminants in food, leading to important global health problems. While conventional techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) have traditionally been utilized for the detection of such food contaminants, they are relatively expensive, time-consuming and labor intensive, limiting their use for point-of-care (POC) applications. Electrochemical (bio)sensors are emerging devices meeting such expectations, since they represent reliable, simple, cheap, portable, selective and easy to use analytical tools that can be used outside the laboratories by non-specialized personnel. Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) stand out from the variety of transducers used in electrochemical (bio)sensing because of their small size, high integration, low cost and ability to measure in few microliters of sample. In this context, in this review article, we summarize and discuss about the use of SPEs as analytical tools in the development of (bio)sensors for pesticides of interest for food control. Finally, aspects related to the analytical performance of the developed (bio)sensors together with prospects for future improvements are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Metal Nanoparticles for Small Molecule Sensing
Biosensors 2020, 10(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10020009 - 01 Feb 2020
Abstract
Recent progress in the field of electroanalysis with metal nanoparticle (NP)-based screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is discussed, focusing on the methods employed to perform the electrode surface functionalization, and the final application achieved with different types of metallic NPs. The ink mixing approach, electrochemical [...] Read more.
Recent progress in the field of electroanalysis with metal nanoparticle (NP)-based screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is discussed, focusing on the methods employed to perform the electrode surface functionalization, and the final application achieved with different types of metallic NPs. The ink mixing approach, electrochemical deposition, and drop casting are the usual methodologies used for SPEs’ modification purposes to obtain nanoparticulated sensing phases with suitable tailor-made functionalities. Among these, applications on inorganic and organic molecule sensing with several NPs of transition metals, bimetallic alloys, and metal oxides should be highlighted. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Grafting of Diazonium Salts on Surfaces: Application to Biosensors
Biosensors 2020, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10010004 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
This review is divided into two parts; the first one summarizes the main features of surface modification by diazonium salts with a focus on most recent advances, while the second part deals with diazonium-based biosensors including small molecules of biological interest, proteins, and [...] Read more.
This review is divided into two parts; the first one summarizes the main features of surface modification by diazonium salts with a focus on most recent advances, while the second part deals with diazonium-based biosensors including small molecules of biological interest, proteins, and nucleic acids. Full article
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