Special Issue "Dedication to Professor Agustín Costa-García: Screen-Printed Electrodes-Based (Bio)sensors: Development and New Challenges of the 21st Century"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Elisa González-Romero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Interests: biosensors; nanostructures and nanobiotechnology; electroanalysis; electrochemistry at tailored interfaces based on the chemistry and electrochemistry of aromatic diazonium ions; catalysis on nanomaterial-based biosensors; new electroanalytical methodology applied to environmental, food, and health fields

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The main topic of this Special Issue is about Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE) transducers as miniaturized and disposable detection devices for specific chemical (or set of chemicals) and biomolecules analysis in different fields that serious concern worldwide (such as healthcare, food quality, food safety and pollution). For that, this Special Issue aims to gather original articles and reviews showing research advances, fabrication, innovative applications, new challenges and future perspectives of SPE-based (Bio)sensors in important areas as health, agri-food and environmental.

Screen-printing is one of the most promising performances towards “fast and cheap” production of (bio)sensors. Disposable (bio)sensors based on SPEs are leading to new possibilities in the selective detection and sensitive quantification of large number of chemicals and biomolecules. SPE-based sensors, including microelectrodes (metallic and no metallic) and modified electrodes (by chemical/electrochemical reactions or by nanomaterials integration) are in tune with the growing need for the development of portable devices and for performing rapid and accurate in-situ analyses.

A brief description about the (Bio)sensor configuration is illustrated below.

text

The comparison is as follow: the analyte, recognition element as bioreceptor (olfactory membrane), transducer as device that converts an observed change (physical or chemical) into a measurable signal (nerve cell), electronics as actuator which produces the display (nerve fiber) and measuring instruments (brain). Several questions to the audience: How are the new trends in the design of (Bio)sensor devices? Which are the key components? Where are the critical points in the fabrication of these devices? What kinds of ink are useful for the fabrication of SPEs? Which is the effect of material impurities on the analytical response? What is it that society demands? What can you tell us about your upcoming papers in this topic? You are invited to participate in this project. Any contribution in this sense is welcome to this Special Issue.

If you would be interested in submitting a contribution, or if you have any questions, please contact me.

Prof. Elisa González-Romero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Screen-printed electrodes
  • Nanomaterials
  • Biomolecules
  • Immobilization techniques
  • Functionalization of SPE surfaces
  • Electrografting techniques
  • Conductive polymers
  • Disposable (bio)sensors
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Healthcare monitoring
  • Food quality and safety

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Screen-Printed Sensor for Low-Cost Chloride Analysis in Sweat for Rapid Diagnosis and Monitoring of Cystic Fibrosis
Biosensors 2020, 10(9), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10090123 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Analysis of sweat chloride levels in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is essential not only for diagnosis but also for the monitoring of therapeutic responses to new drugs, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators and potentiators. Using iontophoresis as the gold [...] Read more.
Analysis of sweat chloride levels in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is essential not only for diagnosis but also for the monitoring of therapeutic responses to new drugs, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators and potentiators. Using iontophoresis as the gold standard can cause complications like burns, is uncomfortable, and requires repetitive hospital visits, which can be particularly problematic during a pandemic, where distancing and hygiene requirements are increased; therefore, it is necessary to develop fast and simple measures for the diagnosis and monitoring of CF. A screen-printed, low-cost chloride sensor was developed to remotely monitor CF patients. Using potentiometric measurements, the performance of the sensor was tested. It showed good sensitivity and a detection limit of 2.7 × 10−5 mol/L, which covered more than the complete concentration range of interest for CF diagnosis. Due to its fast response of 30 s, it competes well with standard sensor systems. It also offers significantly reduced costs and can be used as a portable device. The analysis of real sweat samples from healthy subjects, as well as CF patients, demonstrates a proper distinction using the screen-printed sensor. This approach presents an attractive remote measurement alternative for fast, simple, and low-cost CF diagnosis and monitoring Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploiting Laser-Ablation ICP-MS for the Characterization of Salt-Derived Bismuth Films on Screen-Printed Electrodes: A Preliminary Investigation
Biosensors 2020, 10(9), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10090119 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
The use of insoluble bismuth salts, typically BiPO4, is known to be a viable alternative to classical Bi3+ ion electrochemical reduction for the preparation of bismuth film electrodes (BiFE) on screen-printed electrodes. The freshly prepared electrodes are indefinitely stable, and [...] Read more.
The use of insoluble bismuth salts, typically BiPO4, is known to be a viable alternative to classical Bi3+ ion electrochemical reduction for the preparation of bismuth film electrodes (BiFE) on screen-printed electrodes. The freshly prepared electrodes are indefinitely stable, and the active bismuth film is simply formed by in situ reduction. Two aspects are still to be investigated, namely the bismuth distribution on the working electrode and the possible residual presence of the counteranion, namely phosphate. High-vacuum techniques such as electron microscopy or spectroscopy, which are commonly employed for this purpose, cannot be safely used: the bismuth surface is well-known to reconstruct and recrystallize under the electron beam in vacuum. Here, we demonstrate the suitability and the effectiveness of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS, a technique that vaporizes and analyzes the surface material under flowing helium at atmospheric pressure) for the characterization of BiFE. Fast and stable measurements of bismuth and phosphorous distribution are achieved with the advantage of a minimum alteration of the sample surface, avoiding possible interferences. This investigation evidenced how, upon reductive activation, the bismuth film is distributed with a radial symmetry and the phosphate counteranion is completely absent on the working electrode surface. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impedimetric Sensing of Factor V Leiden Mutation by Zip Nucleic Acid Probe and Electrochemical Array
Biosensors 2020, 10(9), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10090116 - 07 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1022
Abstract
A carbon nanofiber enriched 8-channel screen-printed electrochemical array was used for the impedimetric detection of SNP related to Factor V Leiden (FV Leiden) mutation, which is the most common inherited form of thrombophilia. FV Leiden mutation sensing was carried out in three steps: [...] Read more.
A carbon nanofiber enriched 8-channel screen-printed electrochemical array was used for the impedimetric detection of SNP related to Factor V Leiden (FV Leiden) mutation, which is the most common inherited form of thrombophilia. FV Leiden mutation sensing was carried out in three steps: solution-phase nucleic acid hybridization between zip nucleic acid probe (Z-probe) and mutant type DNA target, followed by the immobilization of the hybrid on the working electrode area of array, and measurement by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The selectivity of the assay was tested against mutation-free DNA sequences and synthetic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) samples. The developed biosensor was a trustful assay for FV Leiden mutation diagnosis, which can effectively discriminate wild type and mutant type even in PCR samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Specific Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Gold-Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes
Biosensors 2020, 10(8), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10080081 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
Visceral leishmaniasis is a reemerging neglected tropical disease with limitations for its diagnosis, including low concentration of antibodies in the serum of asymptomatic patients and cross-reactions. In this context, this work proposes an electrochemical immunosensor for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in a [...] Read more.
Visceral leishmaniasis is a reemerging neglected tropical disease with limitations for its diagnosis, including low concentration of antibodies in the serum of asymptomatic patients and cross-reactions. In this context, this work proposes an electrochemical immunosensor for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in a more sensitive way that is capable of avoiding cross-reaction with Chagas disease (CD). Crude Leishmania infantum antigens tested in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were methodologically standardized to best engage to the sensor. The antibodies anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-Leishmania sp. Present in serum from patients with diverse types of CD or leishmaniasis were chosen. A screen-printed carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles was the best platform to guarantee effective adsorption of all antigens so that the epitope of specific recognition for leishmaniasis occurred efficiently and without cross-reaction with the evaluated CD. The current peaks reduced linearly after the recognition, and still were able to notice the discrimination between different kinds of diseases (digestive, cardiac, undetermined Chagas/acute and visceral chronic leishmaniasis). Comparative analyses with ELISA were performed with the same groups, and a low specificity (44%) was verified due to cross-reactions (high number of false positives) on ELISA tests, while the proposed immunosensor presented high selectivity and specificity (100%) without any false positives or false negatives for the serum samples from isolated patients with different types of CD and visceral leishmaniasis. Furthermore, the biosensor was stable for 5 days and presented a detection limit of 200 ng mL−1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetic Bead-Based Electrochemical Immunoassays On-Drop and On-Chip for Procalcitonin Determination: Disposable Tools for Clinical Sepsis Diagnosis
Biosensors 2020, 10(6), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10060066 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a known protein biomarker clinically used for the early stages of sepsis diagnosis and therapy guidance. For its reliable determination, sandwich format magnetic bead-based immunoassays with two different electrochemical detection approaches are described: (i) disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPE-C, on-drop [...] Read more.
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a known protein biomarker clinically used for the early stages of sepsis diagnosis and therapy guidance. For its reliable determination, sandwich format magnetic bead-based immunoassays with two different electrochemical detection approaches are described: (i) disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPE-C, on-drop detection); (ii) electro-kinetically driven microfluidic chips with integrated Au electrodes (EMC-Au, on-chip detection). Both approaches exhibited enough sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 and 0.04 ng mL−1 for SPE-C and EMC-Au, respectively; cutoff 0.5 ng mL−1), an adequate working range for the clinically relevant concentrations (0.5–1000 and 0.1–20 ng mL−1 for SPE-C and EMC-Au, respectively), and good precision (RSD < 9%), using low sample volumes (25 µL) with total assay times less than 20 min. The suitability of both approaches was successfully demonstrated by the analysis of human serum and plasma samples, for which good recoveries were obtained (89–120%). Furthermore, the EMC-Au approach enabled the easy automation of the process, constituting a reliable alternative diagnostic tool for on-site/bed-site clinical analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Paper-Based Working Electrodes Coated with Mercury or Bismuth Films for Heavy Metals Determination
Biosensors 2020, 10(5), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10050052 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1968
Abstract
Paper-based carbon working electrodes were modified with mercury or bismuth films for the determination of trace metals in aqueous solutions. Both modification procedures were optimized in terms of selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of different heavy metals, aiming their simultaneous determination. Cd [...] Read more.
Paper-based carbon working electrodes were modified with mercury or bismuth films for the determination of trace metals in aqueous solutions. Both modification procedures were optimized in terms of selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of different heavy metals, aiming their simultaneous determination. Cd (II), Pb (II) and In (III) could be quantified with both films. However, Cu (II) could not be determined with bismuth films. The modification with mercury films led to the most sensitive method, with linear ranges between 0.1 and 10 µg/mL and limits of detection of 0.4, 0.1, 0.04 and 0.2 µg/mL for Cd (II), Pb (II), In (III) and Cu (II), respectively. Nevertheless, the bismuth film was a more sustainable alternative to mercury. Tap-water samples were analyzed for the determination of metals by standard addition methodology with good accuracy, by using a low-cost and easily disposable paper-based electrochemical platform. This system demonstrated its usefulness for monitoring heavy metals in water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Electrochemical Detection of Alpha-Fetoprotein Using Aptamers: DNA Isothermal Amplification Strategies to Improve the Performance of Weak Aptamers
Biosensors 2020, 10(5), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10050046 - 30 Apr 2020
Viewed by 2463
Abstract
Affinity characterization is essential to develop reliable aptamers for tumor biomarker detection. For alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a biomarker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), two DNA aptamers were described with very different affinity. In this work, we estimate the dissociation constant of both of them by [...] Read more.
Affinity characterization is essential to develop reliable aptamers for tumor biomarker detection. For alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a biomarker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), two DNA aptamers were described with very different affinity. In this work, we estimate the dissociation constant of both of them by means of a direct assay on magnetic beads modified with AFP and electrochemical detection on carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPCE). Unlike previous works, both aptamers showed similar dissociation constant (Kd) values, in the subµM range. In order to improve the performance of these aptamers, we proposed the isothermal amplification of the aptamers by both terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) and rolling circle amplification (RCA). Both DNA amplifications improved the sensitivity and also the apparent binding constants from 713 nM to 189 nM for the short aptamer and from 526 nM to 32 nM for the long aptamer. This improvement depends on the true affinity of the binding pair, which ultimately limits the analytical usefulness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Graphene Oxide Bulk-Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes Provide Beneficial Electroanalytical Sensing Capabilities
Biosensors 2020, 10(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10030027 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
We demonstrate a facile methodology for the mass production of graphene oxide (GO) bulk-modified screen-printed electrodes (GO-SPEs) that are economical, highly reproducible and provide analytically useful outputs. Through fabricating GO-SPEs with varying percentage mass incorporations (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) of GO, an [...] Read more.
We demonstrate a facile methodology for the mass production of graphene oxide (GO) bulk-modified screen-printed electrodes (GO-SPEs) that are economical, highly reproducible and provide analytically useful outputs. Through fabricating GO-SPEs with varying percentage mass incorporations (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) of GO, an electrocatalytic effect towards the chosen electroanalytical probes is observed, which increases with greater GO incorporated compared to bare/graphite SPEs. The optimum mass ratio of 10% GO to 90% carbon ink produces an electroanalytical signal towards dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) which is ca. ×10 greater in magnitude than that achievable at a bare/unmodified graphite SPE. Furthermore, 10% GO-SPEs exhibit a competitively low limit of detection (3σ) towards DA at ca. 81 nM, which is superior to that of a bare/unmodified graphite SPE at ca. 780 nM. The improved analytical response is attributed to the large number of oxygenated species inhabiting the edge and defect sites of the GO nanosheets, which are able to exhibit electrocatalytic responses towards inner-sphere electrochemical analytes. Our reported methodology is simple, scalable, and cost effective for the fabrication of GO-SPEs that display highly competitive LODs and are of significant interest for use in commercial and medicinal applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biochar from Brewers’ Spent Grain: A Green and Low-Cost Smart Material to Modify Screen-Printed Electrodes
Biosensors 2019, 9(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9040139 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2783
Abstract
In the present study, biochar from brewers’ spent grain was used, for the first time, to develop screen-printed electrodes. After having investigated the dispersion behaviour of biochar in different organic solvents, a biochar-based screen-printed electrode was prepared with the drop-casting technique. In order [...] Read more.
In the present study, biochar from brewers’ spent grain was used, for the first time, to develop screen-printed electrodes. After having investigated the dispersion behaviour of biochar in different organic solvents, a biochar-based screen-printed electrode was prepared with the drop-casting technique. In order to understand the electrochemical potentiality and performances of the biochar/sensor tool, different electroactive species, i.e., ferricyanide, benzoquinone, epinephrine, ascorbic, and uric acids, were used. The results were compared with those of the same electrodes that were modified with commercial graphene, confirming that the proposed electrode showed improved electrochemical behaviour in terms of resolution, peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and resistance to charge transfer. Furthermore, a tyrosinase biosensor was developed by direct immobilisation of this enzyme on the biochar/screen printed electrode, as an example of the potential of biochar for disposable biosensor development. The efficiently occurred immobilisation of the biochar on the screen printed electrode’s (SPE’s) surface was demonstrated by the observation of the working electrode with a scanning electron microscope. The detection was performed by measuring the current due to the reduction of the corresponding quinone at low potential, equal to −0.310 V for epinephrine. The experimental conditions for the tyrosinase immobilization and the analytical parameters, such as applied potential and pH of buffer, were studied and optimized. Under these conditions, the electrochemical biosensors were characterized. A linear working range of epinephrine was obtained from 0.05 up to 0.5 mM. The detection limit was 2 × 10−4 mM for the biosensor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diazonium-Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes for Immunosensing Growth Hormone in Blood Samples
Biosensors 2019, 9(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9030088 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3311
Abstract
Altered growth hormone (GH) levels represent a major global health challenge that would benefit from advances in screening methods that are rapid and low cost. Here, we present a miniaturized immunosensor using disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) for the detection of GH with [...] Read more.
Altered growth hormone (GH) levels represent a major global health challenge that would benefit from advances in screening methods that are rapid and low cost. Here, we present a miniaturized immunosensor using disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) for the detection of GH with high sensitivity. The diazonium-based linker layer was electrochemically deposited onto SPCE surfaces, and subsequently activated using covalent agents to immobilize monoclonal anti-GH antibodies as the sensing layer. The surface modifications were monitored using contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The dissociation constant, Kd, of the anti-GH antibodies was also determined as 1.44 (±0.15) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The immunosensor was able to detect GH in the picomolar range using a 20 µL sample volume in connection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The selectivity of the SPCE-based immunosensors was also challenged with whole blood and serum samples collected at various development stages of rats, demonstrating the potential applicability for detection in biological samples. Our results demonstrated that SPCEs provided the development of low-cost and single-use electrochemical immunosensors in comparison with glassy carbon electrode (GCE)-based ones. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Paper-Based Screen-Printed Electrodes: A New Generation of Low-Cost Electroanalytical Platforms
Biosensors 2021, 11(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11020051 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 637
Abstract
Screen-printed technology has helped considerably to the development of portable electrochemical sensors since it provides miniaturized but robust and user-friendly electrodes. Moreover, this technology allows to obtain very versatile transducers, not only regarding their design, but also their ease of modification. Therefore, in [...] Read more.
Screen-printed technology has helped considerably to the development of portable electrochemical sensors since it provides miniaturized but robust and user-friendly electrodes. Moreover, this technology allows to obtain very versatile transducers, not only regarding their design, but also their ease of modification. Therefore, in the last decades, the use of screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) has exponentially increased, with ceramic as the main substrate. However, with the growing interest in the use of cheap and widely available materials as the basis of analytical devices, paper or other low-cost flat materials have become common substrates for SPEs. Thus, in this revision, a comprehensive overview on paper-based SPEs used for analytical proposes is provided. A great variety of designs is reported, together with several examples to illustrate the main applications. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Screen-Printed Electrode-Based Sensors for Food Spoilage Control: Bacteria and Biogenic Amines Detection
Biosensors 2020, 10(10), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10100139 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Food spoilage is caused by the development of microorganisms, biogenic amines, and other harmful substances, which, when consumed, can lead to different health problems. Foodborne diseases can be avoided by assessing the safety and freshness of food along the production and supply chains. [...] Read more.
Food spoilage is caused by the development of microorganisms, biogenic amines, and other harmful substances, which, when consumed, can lead to different health problems. Foodborne diseases can be avoided by assessing the safety and freshness of food along the production and supply chains. The routine methods for food analysis usually involve long analysis times and complex instrumentation and are performed in centralized laboratories. In this context, sensors based on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) have gained increasing importance because of their advantageous characteristics, such as ease of use and portability, which allow fast analysis in point-of-need scenarios. This review provides a comprehensive overview of SPE-based sensors for the evaluation of food safety and freshness, focusing on the determination of bacteria and biogenic amines. After discussing the characteristics of SPEs as transducers, the main bacteria, and biogenic amines responsible for important and common foodborne diseases are described. Then, SPE-based sensors for the analysis of these bacteria and biogenic amines in food samples are discussed, comparing several parameters, such as limit of detection, analysis time, and sample type. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Electrochemiluminescence Biosensors Using Screen-Printed Electrodes
Biosensors 2020, 10(9), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10090118 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (also called electrochemiluminescence (ECL)) has become a great focus of attention in different fields of analysis, mainly as a consequence of the potential remarkably high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. In the particular case of sensing applications, ECL biosensor unites the [...] Read more.
Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (also called electrochemiluminescence (ECL)) has become a great focus of attention in different fields of analysis, mainly as a consequence of the potential remarkably high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. In the particular case of sensing applications, ECL biosensor unites the benefits of the high selectivity of biological recognition elements and the high sensitivity of ECL analysis methods. Hence, it is a powerful analytical device for sensitive detection of different analytes of interest in medical prognosis and diagnosis, food control and environment. These wide range of applications are increased by the introduction of screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). Disposable SPE-based biosensors cover the need to perform in-situ measurements with portable devices quickly and accurately. In this review, we sum up the latest biosensing applications and current progress on ECL bioanalysis combined with disposable SPEs in the field of bio affinity ECL sensors including immunosensors, DNA analysis and catalytic ECL sensors. Furthermore, the integration of nanomaterials with particular physical and chemical properties in the ECL biosensing systems has improved tremendously their sensitivity and overall performance, being one of the most appropriates research fields for the development of highly sensitive ECL biosensor devices. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Printed Electrodes in Microfluidic Arrays for Cancer Biomarker Protein Detection
Biosensors 2020, 10(9), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10090115 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Medical diagnostics is trending towards a more personalized future approach in which multiple tests can be digitized into patient records. In cancer diagnostics, patients can be tested for individual protein and genomic biomarkers that detect cancers at very early stages and also be [...] Read more.
Medical diagnostics is trending towards a more personalized future approach in which multiple tests can be digitized into patient records. In cancer diagnostics, patients can be tested for individual protein and genomic biomarkers that detect cancers at very early stages and also be used to monitor cancer progression or remission during therapy. These data can then be incorporated into patient records that could be easily accessed on a cell phone by a health care professional or the patients themselves on demand. Data on protein biomarkers have a large potential to be measured in point-of-care devices, particularly diagnostic panels that could provide a continually updated, personalized record of a disease like cancer. Electrochemical immunoassays have been popular among protein detection methods due to their inherent high sensitivity and ease of coupling with screen-printed and inkjet-printed electrodes. Integrated chips featuring these kinds of electrodes can be built at low cost and designed for ease of automation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) features are adopted in most of these ultrasensitive detection systems, with microfluidics allowing easy manipulation and good fluid dynamics to deliver reagents and detect the desired proteins. Several of these ultrasensitive systems have detected biomarker panels ranging from four to eight proteins, which in many cases when a specific cancer is suspected may be sufficient. However, a grand challenge lies in engineering microfluidic-printed electrode devices for the simultaneous detection of larger protein panels (e.g., 50–100) that could be used to test for many types of cancers, as well as other diseases for truly personalized care. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Screen-Printed Electrodes: Promising Paper and Wearable Transducers for (Bio)Sensing
Biosensors 2020, 10(7), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10070076 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2371
Abstract
Screen-printing technology has revolutionized many fields, including that of electrochemical biosensing. Due to their current relevance, this review, unlike other papers, discusses the relevant aspects of electrochemical biosensors manufactured using this technology in connection to both paper substrates and wearable formats. The main [...] Read more.
Screen-printing technology has revolutionized many fields, including that of electrochemical biosensing. Due to their current relevance, this review, unlike other papers, discusses the relevant aspects of electrochemical biosensors manufactured using this technology in connection to both paper substrates and wearable formats. The main trends, advances, and opportunities provided by these types of devices, with particular attention to the environmental and biomedical fields, are addressed along with illustrative fundamentals and applications of selected representative approaches from the recent literature. The main challenges and future directions to tackle in this research area are also pointed out. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors for Pesticides Detection Using Screen-Printed Electrodes
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040032 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3019
Abstract
Pesticides are among the most important contaminants in food, leading to important global health problems. While conventional techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) have traditionally been utilized for the detection of such food contaminants, they are relatively expensive, [...] Read more.
Pesticides are among the most important contaminants in food, leading to important global health problems. While conventional techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) have traditionally been utilized for the detection of such food contaminants, they are relatively expensive, time-consuming and labor intensive, limiting their use for point-of-care (POC) applications. Electrochemical (bio)sensors are emerging devices meeting such expectations, since they represent reliable, simple, cheap, portable, selective and easy to use analytical tools that can be used outside the laboratories by non-specialized personnel. Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) stand out from the variety of transducers used in electrochemical (bio)sensing because of their small size, high integration, low cost and ability to measure in few microliters of sample. In this context, in this review article, we summarize and discuss about the use of SPEs as analytical tools in the development of (bio)sensors for pesticides of interest for food control. Finally, aspects related to the analytical performance of the developed (bio)sensors together with prospects for future improvements are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Metal Nanoparticles for Small Molecule Sensing
Biosensors 2020, 10(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10020009 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3278
Abstract
Recent progress in the field of electroanalysis with metal nanoparticle (NP)-based screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is discussed, focusing on the methods employed to perform the electrode surface functionalization, and the final application achieved with different types of metallic NPs. The ink mixing approach, electrochemical [...] Read more.
Recent progress in the field of electroanalysis with metal nanoparticle (NP)-based screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is discussed, focusing on the methods employed to perform the electrode surface functionalization, and the final application achieved with different types of metallic NPs. The ink mixing approach, electrochemical deposition, and drop casting are the usual methodologies used for SPEs’ modification purposes to obtain nanoparticulated sensing phases with suitable tailor-made functionalities. Among these, applications on inorganic and organic molecule sensing with several NPs of transition metals, bimetallic alloys, and metal oxides should be highlighted. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Grafting of Diazonium Salts on Surfaces: Application to Biosensors
Biosensors 2020, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10010004 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3084
Abstract
This review is divided into two parts; the first one summarizes the main features of surface modification by diazonium salts with a focus on most recent advances, while the second part deals with diazonium-based biosensors including small molecules of biological interest, proteins, and [...] Read more.
This review is divided into two parts; the first one summarizes the main features of surface modification by diazonium salts with a focus on most recent advances, while the second part deals with diazonium-based biosensors including small molecules of biological interest, proteins, and nucleic acids. Full article
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