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Antioxidants, Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Reactive oxygen species and other oxidants produced during homeostasis or oxidative stress cause [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidative 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives Modulate Oxidative Stress and Growth of Human Osteoblast-Like Cells In Vitro
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090123
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathophysiology of different human stress- and age-associated disorders, including osteoporosis for which antioxidants could be considered as therapeutic remedies as was suggested recently. The 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) derivatives are known for their pleiotropic activity, with some also acting
[...] Read more.
Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathophysiology of different human stress- and age-associated disorders, including osteoporosis for which antioxidants could be considered as therapeutic remedies as was suggested recently. The 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) derivatives are known for their pleiotropic activity, with some also acting as antioxidants. To find compounds with potential antioxidative activity, a group of 27 structurally diverse DHPs, as well as one pyridine compound, were studied. A group of 11 DHPs with 10-fold higher antioxidative potential than of uric acid, were further tested in cell model of human osteoblast-like cells. Short-term combined effects of DHPs and 50 µM H2O2 (1-h each), revealed better antioxidative potential of DHPs if administered before a stressor. Indirect 24-h effect of DHPs was evaluated in cells further exposed to mild oxidative stress conditions induced either by H2O2 or tert-butyl hydroperoxide (both 50 µM). Cell growth (viability and proliferation), generation of ROS and intracellular glutathione concentration were evaluated. The promotion of cell growth was highly dependent on the concentrations of DHPs used, type of stressor applied and treatment set-up. Thiocarbatone III-1, E2-134-1 III-4, Carbatone II-1, AV-153 IV-1, and Diethone I could be considered as therapeutic agents for osteoporosis although further research is needed to elucidate their bioactivity mechanisms, in particular in respect to signaling pathways involving 4-hydroxynoneal and related second messengers of free radicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals)
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Open AccessReview The Functions of the Mammalian Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase System and Related Diseases
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090122
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
This review article describes and discusses the current knowledge on the general role of the methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) system and the particular role of MSR type A (MSRA) in mammals. A powerful tool to investigate the contribution of MSRA to molecular processes
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This review article describes and discusses the current knowledge on the general role of the methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) system and the particular role of MSR type A (MSRA) in mammals. A powerful tool to investigate the contribution of MSRA to molecular processes within a mammalian system/organism is the MSRA knockout. The deficiency of MSRA in this mouse model provides hints and evidence for this enzyme function in health and disease. Accordingly, the potential involvement of MSRA in the processes leading to neurodegenerative diseases, neurological disorders, cystic fibrosis, cancer, and hearing loss will be deliberated and evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases and Oxidative Damage)
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Open AccessArticle PCB11 Metabolite, 3,3’-Dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol, Exposure Alters the Expression of Genes Governing Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Absence of Functional Sirtuin 3: Examining the Contribution of MnSOD
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090121
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
Although the production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is prohibited, the inadvertent production of certain lower-chlorinated PCB congeners still threatens human health. We and others have identified 3,3’-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11) and its metabolite, 3,3’-dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4OH-PCB11), in human blood, and there is a correlation between exposure
[...] Read more.
Although the production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is prohibited, the inadvertent production of certain lower-chlorinated PCB congeners still threatens human health. We and others have identified 3,3’-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11) and its metabolite, 3,3’-dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4OH-PCB11), in human blood, and there is a correlation between exposure to this metabolite and mitochondrial oxidative stress in mammalian cells. Here, we evaluated the downstream effects of 4OH-PCB11 on mitochondrial metabolism and function in the presence and absence of functional Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial fidelity protein that protects redox homeostasis. A 24 h exposure to 3 μM 4OH-PCB11 significantly decreased the cellular growth and mitochondrial membrane potential of SIRT3-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Only wild-type cells demonstrated an increase in Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in response to 4OH-PCB11–induced oxidative injury. This suggests the presence of a SIRT3-mediated post-translational modification to MnSOD, which was impaired in SIRT3-knockout MEFs, which counters the PCB insult. We found that 4OH-PCB11 increased mitochondrial respiration and endogenous fatty-acid oxidation-associated oxygen consumption in SIRT3-knockout MEFs; this appeared to occur because the cells exhausted their reserve respiratory capacity. To determine whether these changes in mitochondrial respiration were accompanied by similar changes in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism, we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after a 24 h treatment with 4OH-PCB11. In SIRT3-knockout MEFs, 4OH-PCB11 significantly increased the expression of ten genes controlling fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism, and transport. When we overexpressed MnSOD in these cells, the expression of six of these genes returned to the baseline level, suggesting that the protective role of SIRT3 against 4OH-PCB11 is partially governed by MnSOD activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle Bark of Passiflora edulis Treatment Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity, and Reduces Dyslipidemia and Body Fat in db/db Mice
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090120
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
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Abstract
Obesity is considered an important risk factor for several disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis, which are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress as a trigger factor. Passiflora edulis contains important bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, vitamin
[...] Read more.
Obesity is considered an important risk factor for several disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis, which are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress as a trigger factor. Passiflora edulis contains important bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, vitamin C, and polyamines in pulp, leaves, seeds, and bark. Aim: To evaluate the effect of bark of Passiflora edulis (BPe) on body composition, and metabolic and oxidative stress parameters in genetically obese mice. Methods: Obese male db/db mice (n = 14 animals) received normal feeds and water ad libitum for 8 weeks. Then, animals were randomly divided to continue either receiving standard chow (obese, n = 7 (OB)) or feed with standard chow plus bark Passiflora edulis (BPe) (obese + BPe, n = 7 (OB + BPe)) for 8 more weeks, totaling 16 weeks. BPe was added to chow (7 g of BPe/kg of chow corresponding to 1.5 g/kg of body weight). The parameters evaluated in animals included food and caloric intake, body weight, body fat, plasma glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Malondialdehyde and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in plasma and organs. Groups were compared by Student t-test, with p < 0.05. Results: BPe reduced visceral and subcutaneous fat deposit and adiposity index, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, ameliorated the antioxidant capacity, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Conclusion: the bark of Passiflora edulis was effective in improving body composition, and metabolic and antioxidant parameters in obese mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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Open AccessReview Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and the Effects of Antioxidant Intake from a Physiological Viewpoint
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090119
Received: 18 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
It is well established that the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals production during exercise has both positive and negative physiological effects. Among them, the present review focuses on oxidative stress caused by acute exercise, mainly on evidence in healthy
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It is well established that the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals production during exercise has both positive and negative physiological effects. Among them, the present review focuses on oxidative stress caused by acute exercise, mainly on evidence in healthy individuals. This review also summarizes findings on the determinants of exercise-induced oxidative stress and sources of free radical production. Moreover, we outline the effects of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress, which have been studied extensively. Finally, the following review briefly summarizes future tasks in the field of redox biology of exercise. In principle, this review covers findings for the whole body, and describes human trials and animal experiments separately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Open AccessReview 4-Hydroxynonenal in Redox Homeostasis of Gastrointestinal Mucosa: Implications for the Stomach in Health and Diseases
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090118
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract
Maintenance of integrity and function of the gastric mucosa (GM) requires a high regeneration rate of epithelial cells during the whole life span. The health of the gastric epithelium highly depends on redox homeostasis, antioxidant defense, and activity of detoxifying systems within the
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Maintenance of integrity and function of the gastric mucosa (GM) requires a high regeneration rate of epithelial cells during the whole life span. The health of the gastric epithelium highly depends on redox homeostasis, antioxidant defense, and activity of detoxifying systems within the cells, as well as robustness of blood supply. Bioactive products of lipid peroxidation, in particular, second messengers of free radicals, the bellwether of which is 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), are important mediators in physiological adaptive reactions and signaling, but they are also thought to be implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous gastric diseases. Molecular mechanisms and consequences of increased production of HNE, and its protein adducts, in response to stressors during acute and chronic gastric injury, are well studied. However, several important issues related to the role of HNE in gastric carcinogenesis, tumor growth and progression, the condition of GM after eradication of Helicobacter pylori, or the relevance of antioxidants for HNE-related redox homeostasis in GM, still need more studies and new comprehensive approaches. In this regard, preclinical studies and clinical intervention trials are required, which should also include the use of state-of-the-art analytical techniques, such as HNE determination by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as well as modern mass-spectroscopy methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Polyphenols, Carotenoids and Antioxidant Activities of Selected Edible Leaves
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090117
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying) on polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of six edible leaves. The total antioxidant capacity of the fresh and cooked leaves was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and singlet
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying) on polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of six edible leaves. The total antioxidant capacity of the fresh and cooked leaves was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and singlet oxygen scavenging assays. The results revealed that frying caused a reduction in major bioactives and antioxidant activities in all leafy vegetables tested. However, steamed and boiled leaves of C. auriculata and C. asiatica have shown greater levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity compared with fresh leaves. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents of boiled S. grandiflora and G. lactiferum were higher than that of their fresh form. Boiled and steamed O. zeylanica and S. grandiflora have shown higher carotenoids. Boiled and steamed leaves of P. edulis have shown higher antioxidant activity. The impact of cooking on the changes in bioactive concentrations and antioxidant capacities are dependent on the species and the method of cooking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle Unbiased Identification of Proteins Covalently Modified by Complex Mixtures of Peroxidized Lipids Using a Combination of Electrophoretic Mobility Band Shift with Mass Spectrometry
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090116
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
Covalent modification of functionally important cell proteins by lipid oxidation products (LOPs) is a known mechanism initiating pathological consequences of oxidative stress. Identification of new proteins covalently modified by electrophilic lipids can be performed by a combination of chemical, immunological, and mass spectrometry-based
[...] Read more.
Covalent modification of functionally important cell proteins by lipid oxidation products (LOPs) is a known mechanism initiating pathological consequences of oxidative stress. Identification of new proteins covalently modified by electrophilic lipids can be performed by a combination of chemical, immunological, and mass spectrometry-based methods, but requires prior knowledge either on the exact molecular structure of LOPs (e.g., 4-hydroxynonenal) or candidate protein targets. However, under the conditions of oxidative stress in vivo, a complex mixture of proteins (e.g., cytosolic proteome) reacts with a complex mixture of LOPs. Here we describe a method for detection of lipid-modified proteins that does not require an a priori knowledge on the chemical structure of LOPs or identity of target proteins. The method is based on the change of electrophoretic mobility of lipid-modified proteins, which is induced by conformational changes and cross-linking with other proteins. Abnormally migrating proteins are detected by mass spectrometry-based protein peptide sequencing. We applied this method to study effects of oxidized palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine (OxPAPC) on endothelial cells. Several known, but also many new, OxPAPC-binding proteins were identified. We expect that this technically relatively simple method can be widely applied for label-free analysis of lipid-protein interactions in complex protein samples treated with different LOPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals)
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Open AccessCase Report The Use of Intravenous Vitamin C as a Supportive Therapy for a Patient with Glioblastoma Multiforme
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090115
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme is a high grade malignant brain tumour with a poor prognosis. Here we report the case of a woman with glioblastoma who lived for over four years from diagnosis (median survival 12 months and 2% survival for three years), experiencing good
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Glioblastoma multiforme is a high grade malignant brain tumour with a poor prognosis. Here we report the case of a woman with glioblastoma who lived for over four years from diagnosis (median survival 12 months and 2% survival for three years), experiencing good quality of life for most of that time. She underwent initial debulking craniotomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as having intravenous vitamin C infusions 2–3 times weekly over the four years from diagnosis. Her progress was monitored by blood tests, regular computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, clinical reviews and European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaires (EORTC QLQ C30). Our case report highlights the benefits of intravenous vitamin C as a supportive therapy for patients with glioblastoma. Full article
Open AccessReview Physiological Roles of Plant Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Redox Homeostasis and Signaling
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090114
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 26 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
Oxidation of methionine (Met) leads to the formation of two S- and R-diastereoisomers of Met sulfoxide (MetO) that are reduced back to Met by methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs), A and B, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge about the physiological
[...] Read more.
Oxidation of methionine (Met) leads to the formation of two S- and R-diastereoisomers of Met sulfoxide (MetO) that are reduced back to Met by methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs), A and B, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge about the physiological functions of plant MSRs in relation with subcellular and tissue distribution, expression patterns, mutant phenotypes, and possible targets. The data gained from modified lines of plant models and crop species indicate that MSRs play protective roles upon abiotic and biotic environmental constraints. They also participate in the control of the ageing process, as shown in seeds subjected to adverse conditions. Significant advances were achieved towards understanding how MSRs could fulfil these functions via the identification of partners among Met-rich or MetO-containing proteins, notably by using redox proteomic approaches. In addition to a global protective role against oxidative damage in proteins, plant MSRs could specifically preserve the activity of stress responsive effectors such as glutathione-S-transferases and chaperones. Moreover, several lines of evidence indicate that MSRs fulfil key signaling roles via interplays with Ca2+- and phosphorylation-dependent cascades, thus transmitting ROS-related information in transduction pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation into the Thermal Response and Pharmacological Activity of Substituted Schiff Bases on α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090113
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
The emphasis of previous studies has targeted the development of insulin mimic with little attention given to the development of metabolic enzyme inhibitors. Our focus is to synthesise nine o-hydroxy and p-nitro-azomethine analogues, investigate their digestive enzyme inhibitory capacity, as well
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The emphasis of previous studies has targeted the development of insulin mimic with little attention given to the development of metabolic enzyme inhibitors. Our focus is to synthesise nine o-hydroxy and p-nitro-azomethine analogues, investigate their digestive enzyme inhibitory capacity, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The substituted Schiff bases were analysed using thermal gravimetric analyser (TGA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), elemental analyser, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Determination of synthetic yield revealed that the o-hydroxy analogues produced the highest yield of ≥77.1% compared to p-nitro and unsubstituted analogues. Spectra study showed the presence of azomethine stretching vibration at 1698–1613 cm−1, proton signals at δ 8.46–9.81, and carbon signals at δ 145.95–159.53 ppm. Investigation into the thermal property indicated an elevated melting point for the o-hydroxy analogue, compared to the p-nitro derivative which showed high stability to heat. There are similarities in crystalline structure with few unique patterns suggesting different substituent group. The antioxidant activities of the substituted analogues registered low half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), with exception to the ferric reducing power; indicating that the Schiff bases are weak siderophores. All nine Schiff bases were bacteriostatic or fungistatic at the screened concentrations; however, the nitro-substituted analogues have an enhanced activity with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 0.03–2.54 µM. Both o-hydroxy and p-nitro-substitution does not improve the antifungal activity of the compounds against A. niger. The o-hydroxyl and p-nitro Schiff base derivatives showed enhanced activity towards the inhibition of α -amylase and α-glucosidase by hydroxylation and glycosylation, respectively. Although, hydroxy derivatives of sulphonic acid derived Schiff base slightly decreased the activities on α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Our findings suggest that p-nitro substitution enhances the in vitro nonenzymatic activity while the o-hydroxy derivatives are good hydrolase inhibitors. Therefore, substituent modification can be used as an enhancement technique in designing novel pharmacophore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Antioxidants: Health Benefits, Hazards and Alternatives)
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Open AccessEditorial Astrocyte Antioxidant Systems
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090112
Received: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astrocyte Antioxidant Systems)
Open AccessReview Role of Presenilin in Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090111
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are poised to become a global health crisis, and therefore understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis is critical for the development of therapeutic strategies. Mutations in genes encoding presenilin (PSEN) occur in most familial Alzheimer’s disease but
[...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are poised to become a global health crisis, and therefore understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis is critical for the development of therapeutic strategies. Mutations in genes encoding presenilin (PSEN) occur in most familial Alzheimer’s disease but the role of PSEN in AD is not fully understood. In this review, the potential modes of pathogenesis of AD are discussed, focusing on calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function. Moreover, research using Caenorhabditis elegans to explore the effects of calcium dysregulation due to presenilin mutations on mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration is explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Function in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seed Oil on UV-Induced Changes in Lipid Metabolism of Human Skin Cells
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090110
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
Lipids and proteins of skin cells are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation contained in sunlight. There is a growing need for natural compounds that will protect these sensitive molecules from damage, without harmful side effects. The aim of this study
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Lipids and proteins of skin cells are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation contained in sunlight. There is a growing need for natural compounds that will protect these sensitive molecules from damage, without harmful side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sea buckthorn seed oil on the redox balance and lipid metabolism in UV irradiated cells formed different skin layers to examine whether it had a protective effect. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were subjected to UVA (ultraviolet type A; 30 J/cm2 and 20 J/cm2) or UVB (ultraviolet type B; 60 mJ/cm2 and 200 mJ/cm2, respectively) radiation and treated with sea buckthorn seed oil (500 ng/mL), and the redox activity was estimated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidants activity/level (using electron spin resonance (ESR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and spectrophotometry). Lipid metabolism was measured by the level of fatty acids, lipid peroxidation products, endocannabinoids and phospholipase A2 activity (GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), LC/MS (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry), and spectrophotometry). Also, transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear erythroid 2-related factor) and its activators/inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and cannabinoid receptor levels were measured (Western blot). Sea buckthorn oil partially prevents UV-induced ROS generation and enhances the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx) and vitamins E and A. Moreover, it stimulates the activity of Nrf2 leading to enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity. As a result, decreases in lipid peroxidation products (4-hydroxynonenal, 8-isoprostaglandin) and increases in the endocannabinoid receptor levels were observed. Moreover, sea buckthorn oil treatment enhanced the level of phospholipid and free fatty acids, while simultaneously decreasing the cannabinoid receptor expression in UV irradiated keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The main differences in sea buckthorn oil on various skin cell types was observed in the case of PPARs—in keratinocytes following UV radiation PPAR expression was decreased by sea buckthorn oil treatment, while in fibroblasts the reverse effect was observed, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. With these results, sea buckthorn seed oil exhibited prevention of UV-induced disturbances in redox balance as well as lipid metabolism in skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, which indicates it is a promising natural compound in skin photo-protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals)
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