Special Issue "Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Antioxidant Enzyme Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Gloria Borgstahl
Website
Guest Editor
The Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, United States
Interests: X-ray and Neutron Crystallography; Cancer; Biochemistry; DNA Metabolism; Modulated Crystals; Microgravity Crystal Growth; Molecular Biophysics
Dr. Rebecca Oberley-Deegan
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA
Interests: SOD mimetics; cell stress; cancer; epigenetics; cell cycle

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from toxic oxygen metabolites by converting superoxide into molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide via cyclic reduction and oxidation of an active site metal. SODs are highly conserved and ubiquitous amongst aerobic organisms and have been shown to be involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis by playing a role in cell cycle progression, maintaining normal cell metabolism and altering cell signaling. SOD activity levels are reduced in many human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disease, lung disease, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Recently, SOD mimetics, have shown promise in enhancing the levels of SOD activity and protecting from or inhibiting the progression of these diseases.

We invite you to submit your latest research findings or a review article to this Special Issue, which will bring together current research concerning SOD and the role that SOD mimetics can play in boosting superoxide scavenging in both normal processes as well as diseased states. This research can include both in vitro and in vivo studies relating to any of the following topics: structure/function of SOD; regulation of SOD; post-translational modifications of SOD; and the role of SOD/SOD mimetics in signaling, cell metabolism, cell cycle, epigenetic regulation, cellular stress, and disease.

We look forward to your contribution.

Dr. Gloria Borgstahl
Dr. Rebecca Oberley-Deegan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • Superoxide dismutase
  • SOD mimetics
  • Structural biology
  • Cell Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Disease

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Superoxide Dismutases (SODs) and SOD Mimetics
Antioxidants 2018, 7(11), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7110156 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the only known enzyme to directly scavenge a free radical. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
PCB11 Metabolite, 3,3’-Dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol, Exposure Alters the Expression of Genes Governing Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Absence of Functional Sirtuin 3: Examining the Contribution of MnSOD
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090121 - 15 Sep 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Although the production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is prohibited, the inadvertent production of certain lower-chlorinated PCB congeners still threatens human health. We and others have identified 3,3’-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11) and its metabolite, 3,3’-dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4OH-PCB11), in human blood, and there is a correlation between exposure [...] Read more.
Although the production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is prohibited, the inadvertent production of certain lower-chlorinated PCB congeners still threatens human health. We and others have identified 3,3’-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11) and its metabolite, 3,3’-dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4OH-PCB11), in human blood, and there is a correlation between exposure to this metabolite and mitochondrial oxidative stress in mammalian cells. Here, we evaluated the downstream effects of 4OH-PCB11 on mitochondrial metabolism and function in the presence and absence of functional Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial fidelity protein that protects redox homeostasis. A 24 h exposure to 3 μM 4OH-PCB11 significantly decreased the cellular growth and mitochondrial membrane potential of SIRT3-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Only wild-type cells demonstrated an increase in Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in response to 4OH-PCB11–induced oxidative injury. This suggests the presence of a SIRT3-mediated post-translational modification to MnSOD, which was impaired in SIRT3-knockout MEFs, which counters the PCB insult. We found that 4OH-PCB11 increased mitochondrial respiration and endogenous fatty-acid oxidation-associated oxygen consumption in SIRT3-knockout MEFs; this appeared to occur because the cells exhausted their reserve respiratory capacity. To determine whether these changes in mitochondrial respiration were accompanied by similar changes in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism, we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after a 24 h treatment with 4OH-PCB11. In SIRT3-knockout MEFs, 4OH-PCB11 significantly increased the expression of ten genes controlling fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism, and transport. When we overexpressed MnSOD in these cells, the expression of six of these genes returned to the baseline level, suggesting that the protective role of SIRT3 against 4OH-PCB11 is partially governed by MnSOD activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle
Redistribution of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Causes Neonatal Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling and PH but Protects Against Experimental Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
Antioxidants 2018, 7(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7030042 - 14 Mar 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Background: A naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), (R213G), in extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3), decreases SOD3 matrix binding affinity. Humans and mature mice expressing the R213G SNP exhibit increased cardiovascular disease but decreased lung disease. The impact of this [...] Read more.
Background: A naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), (R213G), in extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3), decreases SOD3 matrix binding affinity. Humans and mature mice expressing the R213G SNP exhibit increased cardiovascular disease but decreased lung disease. The impact of this SNP on the neonatal lung at baseline or with injury is unknown. Methods: Wild type and homozygous R213G mice were injected with intraperitoneal bleomycin or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) three times weekly for three weeks and tissue harvested at 22 days of life. Vascular and alveolar development were evaluated by morphometric analysis and immunostaining of lung sections. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was assessed by right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). Lung protein expression for superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms, catalase, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 (GTPCH-1) was evaluated by western blot. SOD activity and SOD3 expression were measured in serum. Results: In R213G mice, SOD3 lung protein expression decreased, serum SOD3 protein expression and SOD serum activity increased compared to wild type (WT) mice. Under control conditions, R213G mice developed pulmonary vascular remodeling (decreased vessel density and increased medial wall thickness) and PH; alveolar development was similar between strains. After bleomycin injury, in contrast to WT, R213G mice were protected from impaired alveolar development and their vascular abnormalities and PH did not worsen. Bleomycin decreased VEGFR2 and GTPCH-1 only in WT mice. Conclusion: R213G neonatal mice demonstrate impaired vascular development and PH at baseline without alveolar simplification, yet are protected from bleomycin induced lung injury and worsening of pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH. These results show that vessel bound SOD3 is essential in normal pulmonary vascular development, and increased serum SOD3 expression and SOD activity prevent lung injury in experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and PH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle
Post-Irradiation Treatment with a Superoxide Dismutase Mimic, MnTnHex-2-PyP5+, Mitigates Radiation Injury in the Lungs of Non-Human Primates after Whole-Thorax Exposure to Ionizing Radiation
Antioxidants 2018, 7(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7030040 - 07 Mar 2018
Cited by 16
Abstract
Radiation injury to the lung is the result of acute and chronic free radical formation, and there are currently few effective means of mitigating such injury. Studies in rodents indicate that superoxide dismutase mimetics may be effective in this regard; however, studies in [...] Read more.
Radiation injury to the lung is the result of acute and chronic free radical formation, and there are currently few effective means of mitigating such injury. Studies in rodents indicate that superoxide dismutase mimetics may be effective in this regard; however, studies in humans or large animals are lacking. We hypothesized that post-exposure treatment with the lipophilic mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ (hexyl), would reduce radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis in the lungs of nonhuman primates. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received 10 Gy whole thorax irradiation, 10 Gy + hexyl treatment, sham irradiation, or sham irradiation + hexyl. Hexyl was given twice daily, subcutaneously, at 0.05 mg/kg, for 2 months. Animals were monitored daily, and respiratory rates, pulse oximetry, hematology and serum chemistry panels were performed weekly. Computed tomography scans were performed at 0, 2, and 4 months after irradiation. Supportive fluid therapy, corticosteroids, analgesics, and antibiotics were given as needed. All animals were humanely euthanized 4.5 months after irradiation, and pathologic assessments were made. Multifocal, progressive lung lesions were seen at 2 and 4 months in both irradiated groups. Hexyl treatment delayed the onset of radiation-induced lung lesions, reduced elevations of respiratory rate, and reduced pathologic increases in lung weight. No adverse effects of hexyl treatment were found. These results demonstrate (1) development of a nonhuman primate model of radiation-induced lung injury, (2) a significant mitigating effect of hexyl treatment on lung pathology in this model, and (3) no evidence for toxicity of hexyl at the dose studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle
The Addition of Manganese Porphyrins during Radiation Inhibits Prostate Cancer Growth and Simultaneously Protects Normal Prostate Tissue from Radiation Damage
Antioxidants 2018, 7(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7010021 - 25 Jan 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
Radiation therapy is commonly used for prostate cancer treatment; however, normal tissues can be damaged from the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by radiation. In separate reports, we and others have shown that manganese porphyrins (MnPs), ROS scavengers, protect normal cells from radiation-induced [...] Read more.
Radiation therapy is commonly used for prostate cancer treatment; however, normal tissues can be damaged from the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by radiation. In separate reports, we and others have shown that manganese porphyrins (MnPs), ROS scavengers, protect normal cells from radiation-induced damage but inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. However, there have been no studies demonstrating that MnPs protect normal tissues, while inhibiting tumor growth in the same model. LNCaP or PC3 cells were orthotopically implanted into athymic mice and treated with radiation (2 Gy, for 5 consecutive days) in the presence or absence of MnPs. With radiation, MnPs enhanced overall life expectancy and significantly decreased the average tumor volume, as compared to the radiated alone group. MnPs enhanced lipid oxidation in tumor cells but reduced oxidative damage to normal prostate tissue adjacent to the prostate tumor in combination with radiation. Mechanistically, MnPs behave as pro-oxidants or antioxidants depending on the level of oxidative stress inside the treated cell. We found that MnPs act as pro-oxidants in prostate cancer cells, while in normal cells and tissues the MnPs act as antioxidants. For the first time, in the same in vivo model, this study reveals that MnPs enhance the tumoricidal effect of radiation and reduce oxidative damage to normal prostate tissue adjacent to the prostate tumor in the presence of radiation. This study suggests that MnPs are effective radio-protectors for radiation-mediated prostate cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle
Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic GC4419 Enhances the Oxidation of Pharmacological Ascorbate and Its Anticancer Effects in an H2O2-Dependent Manner
Antioxidants 2018, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7010018 - 19 Jan 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
Lung cancer, together with head and neck cancer, accounts for more than one-fourth of cancer deaths worldwide. New, non-toxic therapeutic approaches are needed. High-dose IV vitamin C (aka, pharmacological ascorbate; P-AscH) represents a promising adjuvant to radiochemotherapy that exerts its anti-cancer [...] Read more.
Lung cancer, together with head and neck cancer, accounts for more than one-fourth of cancer deaths worldwide. New, non-toxic therapeutic approaches are needed. High-dose IV vitamin C (aka, pharmacological ascorbate; P-AscH) represents a promising adjuvant to radiochemotherapy that exerts its anti-cancer effects via metal-catalyzed oxidation to form H2O2. Mn(III)-porphyrins possessing superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity have been shown to increase the rate of oxidation of AscH, enhancing the anti-tumor effects of AscH in several cancer types. The current study demonstrates that the Mn(II)-containing pentaazamacrocyclic selective SOD mimetic GC4419 may serve as an AscH/O2•− oxidoreductase as evidenced by the increased rate of oxygen consumption, steady-state concentrations of ascorbate radical, and H2O2 production in complete cell culture media. GC4419, but not CuZnSOD, was shown to significantly enhance the toxicity of AscH in H1299, SCC25, SQ20B, and Cal27 cancer cell lines. This enhanced cancer cell killing was dependent upon the catalytic activity of the SOD mimetic and the generation of H2O2, as determined using conditional overexpression of catalase in H1299T cells. GC4419 combined with AscH was also capable of enhancing radiation-induced cancer cell killing. Currently, AscH and GC4419 are each being tested separately in clinical trials in combination with radiation therapy. Data presented here support the hypothesis that the combination of GC4419 and AscH may provide an effective means by which to further enhance radiation therapy responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Effects of Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics after Mechanical Overload of Articular Cartilage
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040098 - 30 Nov 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Post-traumatic osteoarthritis can develop as a result of the initial mechanical impact causing the injury and also as a result of chronic changes in mechanical loading of the joint. Aberrant mechanical loading initiates excessive production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and stress [...] Read more.
Post-traumatic osteoarthritis can develop as a result of the initial mechanical impact causing the injury and also as a result of chronic changes in mechanical loading of the joint. Aberrant mechanical loading initiates excessive production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and stress that appears to damage mitochondria in the surviving chondrocytes. To probe the benefits of increasing superoxide removal with small molecular weight superoxide dismutase mimetics under severe loads, we applied both impact and overload injury scenarios to bovine osteochondral explants using characterized mechanical platforms with and without GC4403, MnTE-2-PyP, and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP. In impact scenarios, each of these mimetics provides some dose-dependent protection from cell death and loss of mitochondrial content while in repeated overloading scenarios only MnTnBuOE-2-PyP provided a clear benefit to chondrocytes. These results support the hypothesis that superoxide is generated in excess after impact injuries and suggest that superoxide production within the lipid compartment may be a critical mediator of responses to chronic overload. This is an important nuance distinguishing roles of superoxide, and thus superoxide dismutases, in mediating damage to cellular machinery in hyper-acute impact scenarios compared to chronic scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle
MnSOD and Cyclin B1 Coordinate a Mito-Checkpoint during Cell Cycle Response to Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040092 - 17 Nov 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Communication between the nucleus and mitochondrion could coordinate many cellular processes. While the mechanisms regulating this communication are not completely understood, we hypothesize that cell cycle checkpoint proteins coordinate the cross-talk between nuclear and mitochondrial functions following oxidative stress. Human normal skin fibroblasts, [...] Read more.
Communication between the nucleus and mitochondrion could coordinate many cellular processes. While the mechanisms regulating this communication are not completely understood, we hypothesize that cell cycle checkpoint proteins coordinate the cross-talk between nuclear and mitochondrial functions following oxidative stress. Human normal skin fibroblasts, representative of the G2-phase, were irradiated with 6 Gy of ionizing radiation and assayed for cyclin B1 translocation, mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and cytotoxicity. In un-irradiated controls, cyclin B1 was found primarily in the nucleus of G2-cells. However, following irradiation, cyclin B1 was excluded from the nucleus and translocated to the cytoplasm and mitochondria. These observations were confirmed further by performing transmission electron microscopy and cell fractionation assays. Cyclin B1 was absent in mitochondria isolated from un-irradiated G2-cells and present in irradiated G2-cells. Radiation-induced translocation of cyclin B1 from the nucleus to the mitochondrion preceded changes in the activities of mitochondrial proteins, that included decreases in the activities of aconitase and the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and increases in complex II activity. Changes in the activities of mito-proteins were followed by an increase in dihydroethidium (DHE) oxidation (indicative of increased superoxide levels) and loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, events that preceded the restart of the stalled cell cycle and subsequently the loss in cell viability. Comparable results were also observed in un-irradiated control cells overexpressing mitochondria-targeted cyclin B1. These results indicate that MnSOD and cyclin B1 coordinate a cross-talk between nuclear and mitochondrial functions, to regulate a mito-checkpoint during the cell cycle response to oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle
The SOD Mimic, MnTE-2-PyP, Protects from Chronic Fibrosis and Inflammation in Irradiated Normal Pelvic Tissues
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040087 - 06 Nov 2017
Cited by 14
Abstract
Pelvic radiation for cancer therapy can damage a variety of normal tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that radiation causes acute changes to pelvic fibroblasts such as the transformation to myofibroblasts and the induction of senescence, which persist months after radiation. The addition [...] Read more.
Pelvic radiation for cancer therapy can damage a variety of normal tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that radiation causes acute changes to pelvic fibroblasts such as the transformation to myofibroblasts and the induction of senescence, which persist months after radiation. The addition of the manganese porphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP, resulted in protection of these acute changes in fibroblasts and this protection persisted months following radiation exposure. Specifically, at two months post-radiation, MnTE-2-PyP inhibited the number of α-smooth muscle actin positive fibroblasts induced by radiation and at six months post-radiation, MnTE-2-PyP significantly reduced collagen deposition (fibrosis) in the skin and bladder tissues of irradiated mice. Radiation also resulted in changes to T cells. At two months post-radiation, there was a reduction of Th1-producing splenocytes, which resulted in reduced Th1:Th2 ratios. MnTE-2-PyP maintained Th1:Th2 ratios similar to unirradiated mice. At six months post-radiation, increased T cells were observed in the adipose tissues. MnTE-2-PyP treatment inhibited this increase. Thus, MnTE-2-PyP treatment maintains normal fibroblast function and T cell immunity months after radiation exposure. We believe that one of the reasons MnTE-2-PyP is a potent radioprotector is due to its protection of multiple cell types from radiation damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle
Treatment with a Catalytic Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Mimetic Improves Liver Steatosis, Insulin Sensitivity, and Inflammation in Obesity-Induced Type 2 Diabetes
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040085 - 01 Nov 2017
Cited by 17
Abstract
Oxidative stress and persistent inflammation are exaggerated through chronic over-nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle, resulting in insulin resistance. In type 2 diabetes (T2D), impaired insulin signaling leads to hyperglycemia and long-term complications, including metabolic liver dysfunction, resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress and persistent inflammation are exaggerated through chronic over-nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle, resulting in insulin resistance. In type 2 diabetes (T2D), impaired insulin signaling leads to hyperglycemia and long-term complications, including metabolic liver dysfunction, resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The manganese metalloporphyrin superoxide dismustase (SOD) mimetic, manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnP), is an oxidoreductase known to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine production, by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation. We hypothesized that targeting oxidative stress-induced inflammation with MnP would assuage liver complications and enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model of T2D. During 12 weeks of feeding, we saw significant improvements in weight, hepatic steatosis, and biomarkers of liver dysfunction with redox modulation by MnP treatment in HFD-fed mice. Additionally, MnP treatment improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, while reducing serum insulin and leptin levels. We attribute these effects to redox modulation and inhibition of hepatic NF-κB activation, resulting in diminished ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. This study highlights the importance of controlling oxidative stress and secondary inflammation in obesity-mediated insulin resistance and T2D. Our data confirm the role of NF-κB-mediated inflammation in the development of T2D, and demonstrate the efficacy of MnP in preventing the progression to disease by specifically improving liver pathology and hepatic insulin resistance in obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Pre-/Post-Treatment with 8th Day SOD-Like Supreme (a Free Radical Scavenging Health Product) Protects against Oxidant-Induced Injury in Cultured Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes In Vitro as Well as in Mouse Myocardium and Liver In Vivo
Antioxidants 2017, 6(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6020028 - 10 Apr 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
8th Day superoxide dismutase (SOD)-Like Supreme (SOD-Like Supreme, a free radical scavenging health product) is an antioxidant-enriched fermentation preparation with free radical scavenging properties. In the present study, the cellular/tissue protective actions of SOD-Like Supreme against menadione toxicity in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and [...] Read more.
8th Day superoxide dismutase (SOD)-Like Supreme (SOD-Like Supreme, a free radical scavenging health product) is an antioxidant-enriched fermentation preparation with free radical scavenging properties. In the present study, the cellular/tissue protective actions of SOD-Like Supreme against menadione toxicity in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in AML12 hepatocytes as well as oxidant-induced injury in the mouse myocardium and liver were investigated. SOD-Like Supreme was found to possess potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro as assessed by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Incubation with SOD-Like Supreme (0.5–3% (v/v)) was shown to protect against menadione-induced toxicity in H9c2 and AML12 cells, as evidenced by increases in cell viability. The ability of SOD-Like Supreme to protect against menadione cytotoxicity was associated with an elevation in the cellular reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio in menadione-challenged cells. Consistent with the cell-based studies, pre-/post-treatment with SOD-Like Supreme (0.69 and 2.06 mL/kg, three intermittent doses per day for two consecutive days) was found to protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice. The cardio/hepatoprotection afforded by SOD-Like Supreme was also paralleled by increases in myocardial/hepatic mitochondrial GSH/GSSG ratios in the SOD-Like Supreme-treated/oxidant-challenged mice. In conclusion, incubation/treatment with SOD-Like Supreme was found to protect against oxidant-induced injury in vitro and in vivo, presumably by virtue of its free radical scavenging activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview
A Review of the Catalytic Mechanism of Human Manganese Superoxide Dismutase
Antioxidants 2018, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7020025 - 30 Jan 2018
Cited by 47
Abstract
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are necessary antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Decreased levels of SODs or mutations that affect their catalytic activity have serious phenotypic consequences. SODs perform their bio-protective role by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide [...] Read more.
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are necessary antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Decreased levels of SODs or mutations that affect their catalytic activity have serious phenotypic consequences. SODs perform their bio-protective role by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide by cyclic oxidation and reduction reactions with the active site metal. Mutations of SODs can cause cancer of the lung, colon, and lymphatic system, as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. While SODs have proven to be of significant biological importance since their discovery in 1968, the mechanistic nature of their catalytic function remains elusive. Extensive investigations with a multitude of approaches have tried to unveil the catalytic workings of SODs, but experimental limitations have impeded direct observations of the mechanism. Here, we focus on human MnSOD, the most significant enzyme in protecting against ROS in the human body. Human MnSOD resides in the mitochondrial matrix, the location of up to 90% of cellular ROS generation. We review the current knowledge of the MnSOD enzymatic mechanism and ongoing studies into solving the remaining mysteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessReview
Insights into the Dichotomous Regulation of SOD2 in Cancer
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040086 - 03 Nov 2017
Cited by 39
Abstract
While loss of antioxidant expression and the resultant oxidant-dependent damage to cellular macromolecules is key to tumorigenesis, it has become evident that effective oxidant scavenging is conversely necessary for successful metastatic spread. This dichotomous role of antioxidant enzymes in cancer highlights their context-dependent [...] Read more.
While loss of antioxidant expression and the resultant oxidant-dependent damage to cellular macromolecules is key to tumorigenesis, it has become evident that effective oxidant scavenging is conversely necessary for successful metastatic spread. This dichotomous role of antioxidant enzymes in cancer highlights their context-dependent regulation during different stages of tumor development. A prominent example of an antioxidant enzyme with such a dichotomous role and regulation is the mitochondria-localized manganese superoxide dismutase SOD2 (MnSOD). SOD2 has both tumor suppressive and promoting functions, which are primarily related to its role as a mitochondrial superoxide scavenger and H2O2 regulator. However, unlike true tumor suppressor- or onco-genes, the SOD2 gene is not frequently lost, or rarely mutated or amplified in cancer. This allows SOD2 to be either repressed or activated contingent on context-dependent stimuli, leading to its dichotomous function in cancer. Here, we describe some of the mechanisms that underlie SOD2 regulation in tumor cells. While much is known about the transcriptional regulation of the SOD2 gene, including downregulation by epigenetics and activation by stress response transcription factors, further research is required to understand the post-translational modifications that regulate SOD2 activity in cancer cells. Moreover, future work examining the spatio-temporal nature of SOD2 regulation in the context of changing tumor microenvironments is necessary to allows us to better design oxidant- or antioxidant-based therapeutic strategies that target the adaptable antioxidant repertoire of tumor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessReview
On the Origin of Superoxide Dismutase: An Evolutionary Perspective of Superoxide-Mediated Redox Signaling
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040082 - 30 Oct 2017
Cited by 36
Abstract
The field of free radical biology originated with the discovery of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in 1969. Over the last 5 decades, a plethora of research has been performed in species ranging from bacteria to mammals that has elucidated the molecular reaction, subcellular location, [...] Read more.
The field of free radical biology originated with the discovery of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in 1969. Over the last 5 decades, a plethora of research has been performed in species ranging from bacteria to mammals that has elucidated the molecular reaction, subcellular location, and specific isoforms of SOD. However, while humans have only begun to study this class of enzymes over the past 50 years, it has been estimated that these enzymes have existed for billions of years, and may be some of the original enzymes found in primitive life. As life evolved over this expanse of time, these enzymes have taken on new and different functional roles potentially in contrast to how they were originally derived. Herein, examination of the evolutionary history of these enzymes provides both an explanation and further inquiries into the modern-day role of SOD in physiology and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
Open AccessReview
Chemotherapy-Induced Tissue Injury: An Insight into the Role of Extracellular Vesicles-Mediated Oxidative Stress Responses
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040075 - 28 Sep 2017
Cited by 15
Abstract
The short- and long-term side effects of chemotherapy limit the maximum therapeutic dose and impair quality of life of survivors. Injury to normal tissues, especially chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy, is an unintended outcome that presents devastating health impacts. Approximately half of the drugs approved by [...] Read more.
The short- and long-term side effects of chemotherapy limit the maximum therapeutic dose and impair quality of life of survivors. Injury to normal tissues, especially chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy, is an unintended outcome that presents devastating health impacts. Approximately half of the drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for cancer treatment are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species, and Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of them. Dox undergoes redox cycling by involving its quinone structure in the production of superoxide free radicals, which are thought to be instrumental to the role it plays in cardiomyopathy. Dox-induced protein oxidation changes protein function, translocation, and aggregation that are toxic to cells. To maintain cellular homeostasis, oxidized proteins can be degraded intracellularly by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway or by autophagy, depending on the redox status of the cell. Alternatively, the cell can remove oxidized proteins by releasing extracellular vesicles (EVs), which can be transferred to neighboring or distant cells, thereby instigating an intercellular oxidative stress response. In this article, we discuss the role of EVs in oxidative stress response, the potential of EVs as sensitive biomarkers of oxidative stress, and the role of superoxide dismutase in attenuating EV-associated oxidative stress response resulting from chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Open AccessReview
Superoxide Dismutases in Pancreatic Cancer
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030066 - 19 Aug 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
The incidence of pancreatic cancer is increasing as the population ages but treatment advancements continue to lag far behind. The majority of pancreatic cancer patients have a K-ras oncogene mutation causing a shift in the redox state of the cell, favoring malignant [...] Read more.
The incidence of pancreatic cancer is increasing as the population ages but treatment advancements continue to lag far behind. The majority of pancreatic cancer patients have a K-ras oncogene mutation causing a shift in the redox state of the cell, favoring malignant proliferation. This mutation is believed to lead to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation and superoxide overproduction, generating tumorigenic behavior. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) have been studied for their ability to manage the oxidative state of the cell by dismuting superoxide and inhibiting signals for pancreatic cancer growth. In particular, manganese superoxide dismutase has clearly shown importance in cell cycle regulation and has been found to be abnormally low in pancreatic cancer cells as well as the surrounding stromal tissue. Likewise, extracellular superoxide dismutase expression seems to favor suppression of pancreatic cancer growth. With an increased understanding of the redox behavior of pancreatic cancer and key regulators, new treatments are being developed with specific targets in mind. This review summarizes what is known about superoxide dismutases in pancreatic cancer and the most current treatment strategies to be advanced from this knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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